Vitamin D deficiency in school-age Iranian children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms: A critical comparison with healthy controls.
Abstract The associations between serum vitamin D levels and the severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms were assessed among Iranian hospitalized children (50 ADHD cases and 50 healthy (non-ADHD) controls) during 2014-2015. Levels of ADHD severity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were determined by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) test and an ELISA kit, respectively. The serum 25OHD concentrations of 30 ng/mL were respectively considered as deficient (severe deficiency), insufficient (mild deficiency), and sufficient levels of vitamin D. The association of nutrient bio...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - September 13, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Fasihpour B, Moayeri H, Shariat M, Keihanidoust Z, Effatpanah M, Khedmat L Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Long-term verbal memory deficit and associated hippocampal alterations in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
In conclusion, by investigating memory processes on longer delays than standardized memory tasks, we identified deficits in long-term memory consolidation leading to ALF in 22q11.2DS. Nevertheless, we showed that a subgroup of patients had larger memory consolidation deficit associated with lower intellectual functioning, higher rates of positive psychotic symptoms and hippocampal alterations. PMID: 31460828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Child Neuropsychology)
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 28, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Maeder J, Sandini C, Zöller D, Schneider M, Bostelmann M, Pouillard V, Caroni P, Kliegel M, Eliez S Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

"Cerebellar lesions after low-grade tumor resection can induce memory impairment in children, similar to that observed in patients with frontal lesions".
"Cerebellar lesions after low-grade tumor resection can induce memory impairment in children, similar to that observed in patients with frontal lesions". Child Neuropsychol. 2019 Aug 27;:1-21 Authors: Starowicz-Filip A, Chrobak AA, Kwiatkowski S, Milczarek O, Rajtar-Zembaty AM Abstract The aim of the present study was to specify if cerebellar lesions cause memory impairment in children. The study sample consisted of 44 children with low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma, who underwent surgical treatment and 30 healthy controls, matched with regard to age and sex. Memory was tested using the Rey A...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 27, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Starowicz-Filip A, Chrobak AA, Kwiatkowski S, Milczarek O, Rajtar-Zembaty AM Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Inhibitory control and temporal perception in cerebral palsy.
Abstract Prepotent response inhibition and temporal perception abilities were explored in a sample of individuals with cerebral palsy relative to typically developing peers. The extent to which inhibitory control difficulties might affect temporal processing was also investigated. For this purpose, two inhibitory control tasks and two duration estimation tasks were given to the groups of cerebral palsy and typically developing children. Results showed inhibition and temporal perception problems in the group with cerebral palsy. A relationship was found between inhibition and temporal estimation performances, which...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 26, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Cabezas M, Carriedo N Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Effect of READ1 on latent profiles of reading disorder and comorbid attention and language impairment subtypes.
Abstract Recent studies of co-occurring reading disorder (RD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and co-occurring RD and language impairment (LI), support a core disability plus co-occurrence model focused on language and attention. Genetic factors have been associated with poor reading performance. However, little is known about whether different genetic variants independently contribute to RD co-occurrence subtypes. We aimed to identify subgroups of struggling readers using a latent profile analysis (LPA) in a sample of 1,432 Hispanic American and African American youth. RD classes were then te...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 14, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Li M, Truong DT, DeMille M, Malins JG, Lovett MW, Bosson-Heenan J, Gruen JR, Frijters JC Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Identifying neuropsychological predictors of drawing skills in elementary school children.
Abstract Much evidence indicates that drawing is related to different neuropsychological abilities in children. However, a comprehensive cognitive model of drawing in children is still lacking. Here, we conducted a study on the neuropsychological predictors of drawing in a sample of 142 typically developing elementary school children (M age = 8.8 years; SD = 1.1). Based on a path analysis, we examined the contribution of visual perception (matching geometrical figures), complex spatial abilities (e.g., complex figures identification and mental rotation), visual attention, working memory, v...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 8, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Senese VP, Zappullo I, Baiano C, Zoccolotti P, Monaco M, Conson M Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Prenatal socioeconomic status and social support are associated with neonatal brain morphology, toddler language and psychiatric symptoms.
Abstract Few studies have assessed the association of parental socioeconomic status (SES) with brain measures in neonates, at a time when exposure to the postnatal environment is minimal. Social support may buffer the adverse consequences of SES, and has been associated with better cognitive - emotional development in children. We studied the association of prenatal SES and social support with neonatal brain structure, and toddler cognition, and psychiatric symptoms. In a sample of 37 healthy neonates, we correlated a measure of SES and marital/partner status (an index of social support) with morphological feature...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Spann MN, Bansal R, Hao X, Rosen TS, Peterson BS Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

The unique contribution of working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and intelligence to reading comprehension and reading speed.
h J Abstract There are several studies showing that executive functions such as working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility are related to reading abilities. However, most of these studies did not simultaneously take different executive functions and intelligence into account. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate if working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and fluid intelligence uniquely contribute to reading. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that reading comprehension and reading speed are correlated but separable reading abilities with different relations to other cognitive...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 5, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Johann V, Könen T, Karbach J Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Does a computerized neuropsychological test predict prolonged recovery in concussed children presenting to the ED?
Abstract Computerized neuropsychological tests (CNTs) are widely used internationally in concussion management. Their prognostic value for predicting recovery post-concussion is poorly understood, particularly in pediatric populations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether cognitive functioning (measured by CogSport) has prognostic value for predicting rapid versus slow recovery. This is a prospective longitudinal observational cohort study conducted at a state-wide tertiary pediatric hospital. Data were collected at 1-4, 14, and 90 days post-injury. Eligible children were aged ≥5 and .05). Cognit...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 31, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Takagi M, Hearps SJC, Babl FE, Anderson N, Bressan S, Clarke C, Davis GA, Doyle M, Dunne K, Lanyon C, Rausa V, Thompson E, Anderson V Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Psychometric analyses of the Tower of London planning task reveal high reliability and feasibility in typically developing children and child patients with ASD and ADHD.
Abstract The Tower of London (TOL) is probably the most often used assessment tool for planning ability in healthy and clinical samples. Various versions, including our proposed standard problem set, have proven to be feasible and reliable in adults. In contrast, reliability information for typically developing (TD) children and neurodevelopmental disorders during childhood are largely missing. Also, it would be highly desirable to attain a problem set that can be used across the whole lifespan. Therefore, here we examine reliability of our proposed standard problem set using a computerized TOL version in 178 TD c...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Unterrainer JM, Rahm B, Loosli SV, Rauh R, Schumacher LV, Biscaldi M, Kaller CP Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Measuring visual matching and short-term recognition memory with the CANTAB ® Delayed Matching to Sample task in schoolchildren: Effects of demographic influences, multiple outcome measures and regression-based normative data.
Measuring visual matching and short-term recognition memory with the CANTAB® Delayed Matching to Sample task in schoolchildren: Effects of demographic influences, multiple outcome measures and regression-based normative data. Child Neuropsychol. 2019 Jul 22;:1-30 Authors: Toornstra A, Hurks PPM, Van der Elst W, Kok G, Curfs LMG Abstract The study aims to establish demographically corrected, pediatric norms for the computerized Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) test, a measure of "visual matching ability and short-term visual recognition memory, for non-verbalisable problems". The DMS was ...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 22, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Toornstra A, Hurks PPM, Van der Elst W, Kok G, Curfs LMG Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Executive dysfunction in children and adolescents with behavior disorders and traumatic brain injury.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to contribute to deficits in executive functioning (EF). Executive functioning abilities are disrupted in adolescents with either conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, collectively known as disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). There is little research on the relationship between executive dysfunction and DBDs in a group with a confirmed history of TBI. The current study endeavored to examine EF abilities, as measured by parent report on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), in four groups: (1) adolescents with a TBI history and co-...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 16, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Maloney KA, Schmidt AT, Hanten GR, Levin HS Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Neurocognitive processes underlying academic difficulties in very preterm born adolescents.
Abstract Very preterm birth is associated with academic difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these difficulties remain largely unclear. The present study aimed to assess the role of working memory (WM), attentional processes, and processing speed in academic difficulties of very preterm born adolescents at 13 years. Participants included 55 very preterm and 61 full-term adolescents. Academic performance, visuospatial WM, alerting, orienting, executive attention, sustained attention, and processing speed (simple and choice reaction time [RT]) were compared between groups. Mediation analyses...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Twilhaar ES, De Kieviet JF, Van Elburg RM, Oosterlaan J Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Aspects of attention and inhibitory control are associated with on-task classroom behaviour and behavioural assessments, by both teachers and parents, in children with high and low symptoms of ADHD.
Abstract There is often weak association between performance on cognitive tasks and the behavioural symptoms of ADHD. One possible reason is the use of rating scales rather than direct observations of behaviours. This exploratory study used well established measures of attention and response inhibition with both direct observation and behavioural rating scales to examine these associations. Twenty-two children (mean age 9.6 years) identified by their teachers as displaying high levels of ADHD symptoms, and 22 matched controls (mean age 9.8 years), completed the Fixed and Random Sustained Attention to Res...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Johnson KA, White M, Wong PS, Murrihy C Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Developmental dyslexia: How taxonomic and thematic organization affect working memory recall.
Abstract Semantic long-term memory (LTM) representations can be distinguished in two main classes: taxonomic (i.e., abstract) and thematic (i.e., concrete, experiential). In typically developing children, taxonomies are usually acquired after thematic representations. In the current study, we investigated how LTM semantic representations modulate working memory (WM) recall in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). A sample of children with DD from primary and secondary school paired with a control group for age, gender, schooling, and IQ was administered a semantic WM (SWM) dual task. Here, children had to lis...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Artuso C, Bellelli F, Belacchi C Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Executive functions in homeless young people: Working memory impacts on short-term housing outcomes.
Abstract Most homeless young people have experienced multiple adversities, with potential implications for the development of Executive Functions (EFs), higher-order cognitive processes important for adaptation. EFs have been identified as putative contributors to the capacity to exit homelessness, however, little research has investigated EFs in homeless young people. To address gaps in current knowledge, this study compared executive function performance between homeless and housed young people. Relationships between EFs and short-term housing outcomes were also explored. Sixty-eight homeless young people (16-19...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - June 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Fry CE, Langley K, Shelton KH Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Reliable change in pediatric brain tumor: A preliminary investigation.
This study demonstrates that highly divergent results may be obtained with RCI and the importance of the source of reliability estimates. PMID: 31161873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Child Neuropsychology)
Source: Child Neuropsychology - June 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Duda TA, Ris MD, Yeates KO, Mahone EM, Haut JS, Raghubar KP Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Cognitive development in absence epilepsy during long-term follow-up.
This study aimed to assess cognitive development during long-term follow-up in children with AE. Thirty-one children with AE, who had undergone two neuropsychological assessments between 2010 and 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. Cognitive measurements were 1.7 ± 0.95 years apart. The difference in neurocognitive test scores was assessed on a group level and on an individual level using reliable change methodology. Results show that sustained attention was lower at the first measurement compared to the normative mean. Sustained attention improved during follow-up and 7 out of 14 children showed improvement after c...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - May 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Fonseca Wald ELA, Klinkenberg S, Voncken TPC, Ebus SCM, Aldenkamp AP, Vles JSH, Vermeulen RJ, Hendriksen JGM, Debeij-Van Hall MHJA Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Sensitivity of the Memory Validity Profile (MVP): Raising the bar.
In conclusion, adopting stricter cut-points for non-credible performance and applying these consistently across all age groups in a mTBI population increases the clinical utility of the MVP. PMID: 31145035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Child Neuropsychology)
Source: Child Neuropsychology - May 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Dodd JN, Murphy S, Bosworth C Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Toward a characterization of language development in children with congenital heart disease: A pilot study.
Abstract Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) represent one of the most common types of congenital abnormalities. More than 90% of children with critical heart defects achieve adulthood due to improvements in medical and surgical treatments. Nonetheless, survivors are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders that may lead also to language impairments. The current study analyzed the linguistic profiles of a group of school-aged children treated surgically for CHD. Fifteen Children with CHDs (7 girls and 8 boys; mean age = 9.31 with SD = 2.10), without intellectual disability (i.e., IQ>70), who underwent cardiac sur...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Sommariva G, Zilli T, Crescentini C, Marini A, Pilotto C, Venchiarutti M, Gortan AJ, Fabbro F, Cogo P Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Priming effect in children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Abstract Previous studies have evidenced cognitive difficulties across various domains in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) children, but the implicit memory system has not yet been systematically explored. Taking into account that the interplay between memory and perception may be modulated by the semantic category of the stimuli and their salience, we explored explicit and implicit memory using both object and food stimuli to verify whether for T1DM children there is a feebleness in performing the function of memory as a function of the stimuli used. Eighteen T1DM children and 47 healthy children performed an expl...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - May 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Giganti F, Gavazzi G, Righi S, Rossi A, Caprilli S, Giovannelli F, Toni S, Rebai M, Viggiano MP Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Parent versus teacher ratings on the BRIEF-preschool version in children with and without ADHD.
Abstract Caregiver rating scales represent an important component of comprehensive child neuropsychological assessments for conditions such as Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, low inter-rater reliability (parent vs. teacher) often complicates interpretation. It has been challenging to identify the factors contributing to inter-rater variability, particularly when parents and teachers complete slightly different versions of the same rating scale. The present study examined the associations between parent- and teacher-reported executive functions in 84 children, ages 4-5 years, with and with...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - May 16, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Schneider H, Ryan M, Mahone EM Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Neurocognitive predictors of length of stay within a children's psychiatric inpatient program.
This study investigated the neurocognitive predictors of length of stay (LOS) within a children's psychiatric inpatient program. A medical chart review was conducted for 96 children aged 6-14 years who received a neuropsychological evaluation during hospitalization. Correlation and linear regression analyses examined the influence of neurocognition (memory, construction, executive functioning [EF], and intelligence [IQ]) on subsequent LOS. Impairment/performance was calculated by the standard mean composite score and global deficit score (GDS) approaches for each domain and for overall neurocognition. Rates of impairment w...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - May 16, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Kavanaugh B, Studeny J, Cancilliere MK, Holler KA Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition in children with periventricular leukomalacia and bilateral cerebral palsy.
In this study, we investigated unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information and visuo-haptic information transfer in 30 children, from 4.0 to 10.11 years of age, with bilateral Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) and bilateral cerebral palsy. Results were matched with those of 116 controls. Participants were tested using a clinical protocol, adopted in the previous study, involving visual exploration of black-and-white photographs of common objects, haptic exploration of real objects and visuo-haptic transfer of these two types of information. Results show that in the PVL group as in controls, there is an a...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - April 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Purpura G, Perazza S, Cioni G, Tinelli F Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Brief report: Relationship between performance testing and parent report of attention and executive functioning profiles in children following perinatal arterial ischemic stroke.
Abstract Children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) have increased rates of attention and executive functioning (EF) weaknesses. Research in other pediatric disorders has documented poor consistency between parent report of these skills and performance-based measures. We compared these data sources in children with PAIS. Forty full-term (≥37 weeks) children ages 3-16 (median = 7.2 years; 58% male) with PAIS completed neuropsychological testing and composite scores were created for seven attention and EF domains (Processing Speed; Attention; Working Memory; Verbal Retrieval; Inhi...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - March 25, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Krivitzky L, Bosenbark DD, Ichord R, Jastrzab L, Billinghurst L Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Parenting and the dysregulation profile predict executive functioning in children with acquired brain injury.
CONCLUSION: Following ABI, children with profile C are at risk of mental health problems and present with more proximal stressors. The dysregulation profile may be useful as a proxy for risk for later mental health problems in children with ABI. PMID: 30890030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Child Neuropsychology)
Source: Child Neuropsychology - March 19, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Chavez-Arana C, Catroppa C, Yáñez-Téllez G, Prieto-Corona B, de León MA, García A, Gómez-Raygoza R, Hearps SJC, Anderson V Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Development of rule-based eye-hand-decoupling in children and adolescents.
Abstract In the present study, we characterize how the ability to decouple guiding visual information from a motor action emerges during childhood and adolescence. Sixty-two participants (age range 8-15 yrs.) completed two eye-hand coordination tasks. In a direct interaction task, vision and motor action were in alignment, and participants slid their finger along a vertical touch screen to move a cursor from a central target to one of four peripheral targets. In an eye-hand-decoupled task, eye and hand movements were made in different planes and cursor feedback was 180° reversed. We analyzed whether movem...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - February 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Dalecki M, Gorbet DJ, Sergio LE Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Social-environmental factors and cognitive and behavioral functioning in pediatric sickle cell disease.
Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited blood disorder that primarily affects individuals of African descent, is associated with serious medical complications as well as numerous social-environmental risk factors. These social-environmental factors are linked to long-standing social inequities, such as financial hardship and racial discrimination, both of which impact cognitive and behavioral functioning in youth. Previous research on the relationship between social-environmental risk and psychological functioning has primarily relied on non-modifiable, unidimensional measures of socioeconomic status (SES...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - February 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Bills SE, Schatz J, Hardy SJ, Reinman L Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Development of sensorimotor synchronization abilities: Motor and cognitive components.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to examine both the development of sensorimotor synchronization in children in the age range from 5 to 8 years and the involvement of motor and cognitive capacities. Children performed a spontaneous motor tempo task and a synchronization-continuation task using an external auditory stimulus presented at three different inter-stimulus intervals: 500, 700, and 900 ms. Their motor and cognitive abilities (short-term memory, working memory, and attention) were also assessed with various neuropsychological tests. The results showed some developmental changes in synchr...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - February 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Monier F, Droit-Volet S Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Predictors of early vocabulary growth in children born preterm and full term: A study of processing speed and medical complications.
Abstract Delays in expressive vocabulary may be harbingers of long-term language difficulties. In toddlers born full term (FT), individual differences in language processing speed are associated with variation in expressive vocabulary growth. Children born preterm (PT) are at increased risk for persistent language deficits. Here, we evaluate predictors of early vocabulary growth in PT toddlers in relation to two sources of variability: language processing speed and medical complications of prematurity. Vocabulary growth from 16 to 30 months (adjusted for degree of prematurity) was modeled longitudinally using...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - February 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Marchman VA, Ashland MD, Loi EC, Adams KA, Fernald A, Feldman HM Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Cross-modal working memory binding and learning of visual-phonological associations in children with reading difficulties.
Abstract Reading decoding requires the association of a visual input (the printed word) with a verbal output (the spoken word), and the learning of visual-phonological associations via repeated exposure occurs both explicitly (by instruction and training) and implicitly (by exposure to written material). However, a general ability to implicitly learn visual-phonological associations (or cross-modal bindings) in children with reading difficulties (RD) has not been deeply explored. The present paper examined this issue in two studies comparing groups of children with RD with matched groups of control children in a w...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - February 1, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Garcia RB, Tomaino A, Cornoldi C Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Are we documenting performance validity testing in pediatric neuropsychological assessments? A brief report.
Abstract A 2016 survey of pediatric neuropsychologists found that 92% of clinicians reported use of "at least one" performance validity test (PVT) in each assessment. The present investigation sought to verify documented PVT use among clinicians by review of actual reports. A convenience sample of pediatric neuropsychological reports of children ages 6-17 were reviewed over an 24-month period (January 2015-January 2017); reports were those seen as part of our routine practice, including reports on children we were reevaluating, cases that we consulted on, or cases evaluated elsewhere presenting to our ce...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - January 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: MacAllister WS, Vasserman M, Armstrong K Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

The WISC-V in children and adolescents with epilepsy.
Abstract Despite its popularity in the neuropsychological evaluation of children, the utility of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fifth Edition (WISC-V) has not yet been investigated in children with epilepsy. Eighty clinically referred children and adolescents with epilepsy were administered the WISC-V as part of a comprehensive assessment and scores were compared to matched controls from the WISC-V standardization sample. T tests compared WISC-V indices and subtests between patients and controls and Chi-square analyses compared the rates of low scores. Correlational analyses assessed the relationsh...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - January 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: MacAllister WS, Maiman M, Vasserman M, Fay-Mcclymont T, Brooks BL, Sherman EMS Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Factor structure of the CNS Vital Signs computerized cognitive battery in youth with neurological diagnoses.
Abstract Computerized cognitive batteries, such as CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS), can provide valuable information in clinical and research settings. However, psychometric properties, especially in children and adolescents, remain relatively understudied. The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of CNSVS in children and adolescents with neurological diagnoses. Participants with neurological diagnoses (N = 280) age 7-19 years were assessed as part of their clinical care at a tertiary hospital. All participants received the full CNSVS computerized cognitive battery, which contains seven subt...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - January 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Authors: Brooks BL, Plourde V, Fay-McClymont TB, MacAllister WS, Sherman EMS Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Which components of processing speed are affected in ADHD subtypes?
Abstract The term "processing speed" (PS) encompasses many components including perceptual, cognitive and output speed. Despite evidence for reduced PS in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), little is known about which component(s) is most impacted in ADHD, or how it may vary by subtypes. Participants included 151 children, ages 8-12 years, with ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type, ADHD Combined Type and typically developing controls using DSM-IV criteria. All children completed four measures of processing speed: Symbol Search, Coding, Decision Speed, and simple reaction time. We found ...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - December 18, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Kibby MY, Vadnais SA, Jagger-Rickels AC Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

The feasibility and acceptability of assessing inhibitory control and working memory among adolescents via an ecological momentary assessment approach.
This study adapts the (1) State Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, (2) physical activity/sedentary behavior recall items, (3) complex symmetry span working memory task, and (4) the child flanker inhibitory control task into an EMA tool delivered via iPhone using Inquisit Web. This tool was piloted with a sample of 32 seventh graders over a 72 h period. Participants' posttest survey responses indicated that they found these study activities to be enjoyable, non-burdensome, not overly difficult, and preferable to pencil-and-paper instruments. Baseline correlations between flanker task performance and both BRIEF inhibitor...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - December 18, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Warren CM, Pentz MA Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Multivariate base rates for the assessment of executive functioning among children and adolescents.
This study provides observed base rates of low executive functioning test scores among healthy children and adolescents, stratifies those base rates by narrow intellectual functioning and age groupings, and provides normative classification ranges to aid the interpretation of performances on the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) in clinical practice and research. Participants included 875 children and adolescents between 8 and 19 years old from the D-KEFS normative sample (48% male; 52% female). Among these participants, 838 had complete data and were included in the current study. The racial/ethnic comp...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - December 11, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Cook NE, Karr JE, Brooks BL, Garcia-Barrera MA, Holdnack JA, Iverson GL Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Socio-economic status and the developing brain in adolescence: A systematic review.
Abstract Socioeconomic status is associated with differences in social, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes for adolescents. Correspondingly, the period reflects continued dynamic, complex, and adaptive brain development. Research demonstrates associations between the developing adolescent brain and SES; however, such research has not been systematically integrated. We undertook a systematic search of studies and review 21 papers that examined both SES and brain development or functioning as measured during adolescence or young adulthood in nonclinical populations (13-25 years old). Few studies focused on architect...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - November 22, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Buckley L, Broadley M, Cascio CN Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Child Neuropsychology, Volume 24, 2018, List of Reviewers.
Authors: PMID: 30170001 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Child Neuropsychology)
Source: Child Neuropsychology - September 2, 2018 Category: Child Development Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Delay discounting of monetary gains and losses in adolescents with ADHD: Contribution of delay aversion to choice.
Abstract Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to have stronger preferences for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards in delay discounting tasks than their peers, which has been argued to reflect delay aversion. Here, participants performed a delay discounting task with gains and losses. In this latter condition, participants were asked whether they were willing to wait in order to lose less money. Following the core assumption of the delay aversion model that individuals with ADHD have a general aversion to delay, one would predict adolescents with ADHD to avoi...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 15, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Mies GW, de Water E, Wiersema JR, Scheres A Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Confirmatory factor analysis of the behavior rating inventory of executive function in a neuro-pediatric sample and its application to mental disorders.
sen M Abstract The construct validity of the 9-scale version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) parent form was examined in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 281). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor model separating the inhibitory behavioral control dimension from the emotional control and metacognitive problem-solving dimensions. The Metacognitive factor was also related to a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after controlling for age, gender, IQ, adaptive functio...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 15, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Halvorsen M, Mathiassen B, Amundsen T, Ellingsen J, Brøndbo PH, Sundby J, Steinsvik OO, Martinussen M Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Building capacity in neurodevelopment assessment of children in sub-Saharan Africa: A quality assurance model to implement standardized neurodevelopment testing.
team Abstract Compromised neurodevelopment (ND) among infants and children is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Standardized testing of ND is frequently prohibitive in these contexts, as tests require skilled staff for their application. In this paper, we present a quality assurance (QA) model (QualiND) for standardized ND testing, discussing findings and implications from our experience applying the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II). The QualiND model was implemented within IMPAACT P1104s study, a multisite, prospective study including 615 children affected by HIV. From 2014 to 2016...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 14, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Ruiseñor-Escudero H, Familiar I, Nyakato M, Kutessa A, Namukooli J, Ssesanga T, Joyce C, Laughton B, Grab J, Chernoff M, Vhembo T, Fairlie L, Kamthunzi P, Boivin M, IMPAACT P1104s team Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Effects of inter-character spacing on saccade programming in beginning readers and dyslexics.
Abstract The present study investigated the impact of inter-character spacing on saccade programming in beginning readers and dyslexic children. In two experiments, eye movements were recorded while dyslexic children, reading-age, and chronological-age controls, performed an oculomotor lateralized bisection task on words and strings of hashes presented either with default inter-character spacing or with extra spacing between the characters. The results of Experiment 1 showed that (1) only proficient readers had already developed highly automatized procedures for programming both left- and rightward saccades, depen...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - August 13, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Bellocchi S, Massendari D, Grainger J, Ducrot S Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Parent-reported executive functioning in young children treated for cancer.
Abstract It is well known that children treated for cancer are at risk for cognitive and functional impairments. Such research is largely based on studies of late effects in school-aged or older children. However, far less is known about executive function weaknesses in preschool-aged children treated for cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in a clinically referred sample of young oncology patients, and its association with broader domains of functioning. Data from 61 young children with cancer, who were referred for clinical cognitive evaluations, were abstracted and included ...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 26, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Harman JL, Molnar AE, Cox LE, Jurbergs N, Russell KM, Wise J, Willard VW Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Initiation of joint attention and related visual attention processes in infants with autism spectrum disorder: Literature review.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a group of neurodevelopmental disabilities that can be difficult to identify before the age of 2 or 3 years, the age when the full range of behavioral symptoms has emerged in most cases. Initiation of joint attention is an important developmental function in which impairments are already observable before the second birthday and can predict children's ASD symptomatology. In the first part of this review, we summarize results pertaining to retrospective studies of initiation of joint attention in children with ASD and prospective studies of infants at high risk for...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 25, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Franchini M, Armstrong VL, Schaer M, Smith IM Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Social information processing skills link executive functions to aggression in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability.
Abstract Executive Functions (EFs) have been associated with aggression in children and adolescents. EFs as higher-order cognitive abilities are assumed to affect cognitive functions such as Social Information Processing (SIP). We explored SIP skills as a mediating mechanism linking EFs to aggression in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID with IQ from 50-84), a high risk group for aggressive behaviors and EF impairments. A total of 153 adolescents (Mage = 15.24, SD = 1.35; 54% male) with MBID participated. Focused attention, behavioral inhibition, and working memor...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 16, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Van Rest MM, Matthys W, Van Nieuwenhuijzen M, De Moor MHM, Vriens A, Schuengel C Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Factors predictive of a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder diagnosis: Parent and teacher ratings.
Abstract Diagnostic assessment in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is informed by multidisciplinary assessment incorporating objective (i.e., test measures) and subjective means, such as parent and teacher behavior ratings. The purpose of this study was to extend our previous neuropsychological test findings by identifying parent and teacher ratings of academic achievement, attention, executive functioning, and adaptive functioning as predictors of an FASD diagnosis. The charts of 315 children and adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who underwent assessment for FASD were retrospectively reviewed...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - July 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Taylor NM, Enns LN Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Executive performance on the preschool executive task assessment in children with sickle cell anemia and matched controls.
Abstract Executive deficits are commonly reported in children with sickle cell anemia. Earlier identification of executive deficits would give more scope for intervention, but this cognitive domain has not been routinely investigated due to a lack of age-appropriate tasks normed for preschool children. In particular, information relating to patient performance on an executive task that reflects an everyday activity in the classroom could provide important insight and practical recommendations for the classroom teacher at this key developmental juncture as they enter the academic domain. The performance of 22 child...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - June 28, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Downes M, Kirkham FJ, Berg C, Telfer P, de Haan M Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Pitch direction ability predicts melodic perception in autism.
Abstract Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often present atypical auditory perception. Previous work has reported both enhanced low-level pitch discrimination and superior abilities to detect local pitch structure on higher-level melodic tasks in ASD. However, it is unclear how low and high levels of auditory perception are related in ASD or typical development (TD), or how this relationship might change across development and stimulus presentation rates. To these aims, in the present study, children with ASD and TD were tested on a low-level pitch direction discrimination task and a high-level mel...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - June 28, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Germain E, Foster NEV, Sharda M, Chowdhury R, Tryfon A, Doyle-Thomas KAR, Anagnostou E, Hyde KL Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research

Measuring executive function skills in young children in Kenya.
This study reports on an initial effort to develop a tablet-based battery of executive function tasks, which were designed and extensively studied in the United States, for use in Kenya. Participants were 193 children, aged 3-6 years old, who attended early childhood development and education centers. The rates of individual task completion were high (65-100%), and 85% of children completed three or more tasks. Assessors indicated that 90% of all task administrations were of acceptable quality. An executive function composite score was approximately normally distributed, despite higher-than-expected floor and ceiling ...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - June 17, 2018 Category: Child Development Authors: Willoughby MT, Piper B, Kwayumba D, McCune M Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research