Top 10 evidence-based recommendations from the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases for the Choosing Wisely Project.
Abstract The Choosing Wisely Initiative aims to collect statements from medical societies all over the world on medical interventions that result in no benefit to patients, with the potential to cause harm. In this article we present the views of the Diagnostic Laboratory Group at the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases (SBI). Ten experts from SBI were asked to list 10 diagnostic tests that were perceived as unnecessary in the field of infectious diseases. After voting for the more relevant topics, a questionnaire was sent to all SBI members, in order to select for the most important items. A total of 482 vot...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pasqualotto AC, Almeida CS, Kliemann DA, Barcellos GB, Filho FQ, Abdala E, Resende M, Batista FP, Vidal JE, Rocha J, Raboni SM, Cimerman S, Gales A Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Unusual oral findings of the toxic epidermal necrolysis in an HIV-infected patient: a case report.
Abstract Erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) have been reported as possible adverse effects of some classes of first-line antiretroviral drugs (ART) for HIV treatment. Herein we report an unusual presentation of TEN lesions associated with ART in an HIV-infected patient. The patient presented disseminated cutaneous eruption and oral lesions from the lips to the oropharynx region, causing odynophagia and dysphagia. In the tongue, circular, atypical erythematous lesions appeared, increasing in diameter over seven days and coalescing since then to complete remission...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: da Costa Vieira V, Almeida Sarmento V, Leite Ribeiro PM, Martins Netto E, Brites C, Lins-Kusterer L Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influenza in Yucatan in 2018: Chronology, characteristics and outcomes of ambulatory and hospitalized patients.
DISCUSSION: Onset of influenza season in Yucatan may reflect a need for rethinking timing of vaccination and of preventive campaigns, as most cases occurred before vaccination period. PMID: 31560880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mendez-Dominguez NI, Bobadilla-Rosado LO, Fajardo-Ruiz LS, Camara-Salazar A, Gomez-Carro S Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction in HIV-infected patients in Salvador, Brazil.
CONCLUSION: In a referral center in Salvador city, socio-economic problems were the main factors associated with ED. Psychological impact of poor social conditions should be routinely assessed in patients with ED to implement preventive measures for ED. PMID: 31545951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gomes TV, Brites C Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Colonization by Pneumocystis jirovecii in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: association with exacerbations and lung function status.
rbano JF, Cita-Pardo JE Abstract Exposure to Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) can lead to a wide variety of presenting features ranging from colonization in immunocompetent patients with lung disease, to invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts. Colonization by this fungus in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be associated with higher rates of exacerbations and impaired lung function in these patients. Our objective was to determine whether colonization by P. jirovecii in patients with COPD is associated with increased exacerbations and deterioration of lung function. This...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cañas-Arboleda A, Hernández-Flórez C, Garzón J, Parra-Giraldo CM, Burbano JF, Cita-Pardo JE Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Coexistence of low levels of HBsAg and high levels of anti-HBs may increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients with high HBV load.
This study was aimed to assess the association of this serological pattern with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with CHB. METHODS: In this cross-section study, 206 CHB patients with coexistence of HBsAg/anti-HBs and 206 CHB patients with HBsAg alone were included to evaluate the risk of HCC development by logistic regression analysis. In addition, a retrospective cohort of 260 patients with CHB was recruited to estimate the cumulative incidence of HCC by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: The serological pattern of coexistence of HBsAg/anti-HBs, with high levels of ("High") HBsAg/low levels of (...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jin ZZ, Jin FF, Liu X, Liu N, Wen F, Lou JL Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Emerging carbapenem-resistant Aeromonas spp. infections in Cali, Colombia.
CONCLUSION: Emerging phenotypic carbapenem-resistant infection has been seen in our hospital, most as HAI. High mortality was found, especially in immunocompromised patients and in those who failled empirical treatment with carbapenems. As the main carbapenemases tested were negative, carbapenem-resistant could be attributed to an intrinsic metallo-β-lactamase, CphA encoded by the cphA gene, possible hyperproduction of ampC β-lactamase and/or porins expression. PMID: 31541615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rosso F, Cedano JA, Parra-Lara LG, Sanz AM, Toala A, Velez JF, Hormaza MP, Moncada P, Correa A Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Design and evaluation of an AFLP molecular marker for the detection of Coccidioides spp. in biological samples.
uarte-Escalante E Abstract At present, there is no standardized marker that is routinely used in clinical laboratories to diagnose coccidioidomycosis. Thus, the goals of this study were to obtain a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for the identification of Coccidioides spp., evaluate its specificity and sensitivity in fungal DNA-spiked blood and sputum samples, and compare it with previously described molecular markers. Specific amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) amplicons for Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii were cloned into the vector pGEM® -T Easy vector and se...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Reyes-Montes MDR, Frías-De-León MG, Victoriano-Pastelín I, Acosta-Altamirano G, Duarte-Escalante E Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Validity and reliability of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire version 2 among people living with HIV in Brazil.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) is a widely used instrument for evaluating health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). The psychometric validation of the SF-36 version 2.0 (SF-36v2) in HIV-infected patients had not yet conducted in Brazil. AIM: To test data quality, reliability and validity of the SF-36v2 as a measure of HRQoL among Brazilian individuals living with HIV. METHODS: A cross-sectional study included 393 HIV-infected patients in whom HRQoL was assessed by using the SF-36v2 questionnaire. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status and clinical...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - September 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lins-Kusterer L, Valdelamar J, Aguiar CVN, Menezes MS, Netto EM, Brites C Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

HIV-infected youths transitioning from pediatric to adult outpatient care in a teaching tertiary care hospital in S ão Paulo city, Brazil.
This study aimed to (1) describe demographic and clinical characteristics at the first appointment at adult care service following pediatric care of a cohort of Brazilian youths living with HIV since childhood; and (2) retrospectively address adherence and clinical variables in the last two years of pediatric follow-up. METHODS: Descriptive study. RESULTS: 41 consecutive patients referred to adult outpatient care from a pediatric HIV unit were enrolled, median age 19 years, and median lifetime CD4+ nadir 117 cell/mm3; 89% reported previous AIDS-defining conditions. At first laboratory assessment in adult care, on...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Freitas AC, Avelino-Silva VI, Gutierrez EB, Marques HHS, Durigon GS, Segurado AC Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal mucormycosis post lung transplantation.
PMID: 31476279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Reis FPD, Campos SV, Aiello VD, Duarte MIS, Samano MN, Pego-Fernandes PM Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of emerging infectious disease and the importance of SINAN for epidemiological surveillance of Venezuelans immigrants in Brazil.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Following socio-economic turmoil in Venezuela, millions of the Venezuelan people are migrating to the neighboring Latin American countries including Brazil. Besides the social and economic burden of these migrants, Brazil must manage the health-related issues arising as consequence of these Venezuelan migrants. Poor health services in Venezuela along with unhygienic travelling conditions, lack of food (malnutrition) and potable water, unhealthy and overcrowded refugee camps or shelters, poor availability of medical services have made the migrant Venezuelan population susceptible to various dis...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Junior MML, Rodrigues GA, Lima MR Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Vulnerability to HIV among older men who have sex with men users of dating apps in Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: We highlight some important factors that structure the vulnerability of the MSM surveyed in relation to HIV infection. The findings should be used to customize care for this population, which could bring them in more for health care services. PMID: 31472125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Queiroz AAFLN, Sousa AFL, Fluminense SB, Araújo TME, Reis RK Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characteristic profile of antibody responses to PPD, ESAT-6, and CFP-10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis suspected cases in Surabaya, Indonesia.
Abstract Accurate and rapid diagnostic tools are important aspects of managing tuberculosis (TB) cases appropriately. However, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic kits based on immune response such as the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) are still debated. Thus, the exploration and assessment of specific biomarker-targeted antibodies are needed for the development of an accurate and rapid diagnostic tool. The present study was conducted in patients with a respiratory problem suspected to be TB at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Among 102 patients tested by G...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dewi DNSS, Mertaniasih NM, Soedarsono, Ozeki Y, Artama WT, Fihiruddin, Niki M, Tateishi Y, Ato M, Matsumoto S Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Analysis of drug resistance mutations in pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Southern coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India.
CONCLUSION: The frequency of mutations in MTB in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India, is similar to that in retreatment cases from most settings, with close to 80% in rpoB codon 516, 526, and 531, and over 80% in codons katG 315 and/or inhA promoter. The increase in INH monoresistance underlines the need for greater enforcement of national TB control programs. PMID: 31421108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Prasad PG, Jasmine MS, Kanta KNM, Deepthi K, Allam US Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Low frequency of hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir in HIV infected patients in a referral center in Bahia, Brazil.
Abstract Abacavir can cause a multi-systemic hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) in 5-8% of the patients, which is related to HLA-B*57-01 allele. In Brazil, the HLA-B*57-01 screening test became available only in March 2018, several years after abacavir was in use. In this retrospective study we reviewed medical charts of all patients receiving an abacavir-containing regimen to evaluate the frequency of HSR in patients followed at a referral center in Salvador, Brazil. A total of 192 patients who received abacavir were identified, most male (67.1%), black or racially mixed (77.8%), and having diagnosis of a previous A...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barreto RG, Brites C Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Low tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among healthcare workers in a quaternary university hospital in S ão Paulo, Brazil: need for continuous surveillance and implementation of active strategies.
CONCLUSIONS: Tdap uptake among HCWs was low in our hospital. Providing vaccination at convenient places/times for HCW seems to be the most efficient strategy to increase vaccine uptake. PMID: 31351815 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Randi BA, Miyaji KT, Lara AN, Ibrahim KY, Infante V, Rodrigues CCM, Lopes MH, Sartori AMC Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Rhabdomyolysis following fish consumption: a contained outbreak of Haff Disease in S ão Paulo.
Rhabdomyolysis following fish consumption: a contained outbreak of Haff Disease in São Paulo. Braz J Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 24;: Authors: Almeida LKR, Gushken F, Abregu-Diaz DR, Muniz R, Degani-Costa LH PMID: 31351034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Almeida LKR, Gushken F, Abregu-Diaz DR, Muniz R, Degani-Costa LH Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Changes health-related quality of life in HIV-infected patients following initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study.
CONCLUSIONS: ART improved HRQoL after one year of use. The HAT-QoL and SF-36 correlated well and are good tools to evaluate HRQoL in HIV-infected patients on ART. PMID: 31344351 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dutra BS, Lédo AP, Lins L, Luz E, Prieto IR, Brites C Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Carriage prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis in the Americas in the 21st century: a systematic review.
lho C Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is a bacterium that colonizes the human nasopharynx and is transmitted by respiratory droplets from asymptomatic or symptomatic carriers. Occasionally, the pathogen invades the mucosa and enters the bloodstream, causing invasive meningococcal disease, a life-threatening infection. While meningococcal colonization is the first step in the development of invasive disease, the risk factors that predict progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic status are not well-known. The present report aimed to describe the prevalence of N. meningitidis carriers throughout the Americas, emp...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: José Francisco Santos N, Viviane Matos F, Caroline Alves F, Martha Silva MS, Leila Carvalho C Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Self-reported syphilis and associated factors among Brazilian young adults: findings from a nationwide survey.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported syphilis and associated factors in sexually active young adults (16-25 years old) in the Public Health System in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study with 8071 participants recruited from 119 primary care units. Of these, 224 (2.86%, 95% CI 2.29-3.43%) reported having the disease. Age, lower socio-economic class, being a smoker, not using a condom at first sexual intercourse, and ever had a same-sex sexual experience were associated with syphilis. The results reinforce the importance of implementing strategies focused on socio-economic class and earl...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kops NL, Bessel M, Hohenberger GF, Benzaken A, Wendland E Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Hepatitis C prevalence among men who have sex with men in Central Brazil.
s RMB Abstract To assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Central Brazil, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). All serum samples were tested for anti-HCV and also for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Anti-HCV positive samples and/or those with elevated ALT were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped. Of the 522 participants, four were found to be anti-HCV positive, and one was also HCV RNA positive (active HCV infection). Elevated ALT was found in 14 individuals. Of these, one showe...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Andrade AA, Silva ÁMDCE, Carneiro MADS, Teles SA, Martins RMB Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission in Brazil (1994-2016): a time series modeling.
A, Sergio C Abstract HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (HIV-1 MTCT), is an important cause of children mortality worldwide. Brazil has been traditionally praised by its HIV/Aids program, which provides free-of-charge care for people living with HIV-1. Using public epidemiology and demographic databases, we aimed at modeling HIV-1 MTCT prevalence in Brazil through the years (1994-2016) and elaborate a statistical model for forecasting, contributing to HIV-1 epidemiologic surveillance and healthcare decision-making. We downloaded sets of live births and mothers' data alongside HIV-1 cases notification in children o...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antonio Victor Campos C, Hemílio Fernandes Campos C, Luiz Cláudio A, Sergio C Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Quality of life, risk behaviors and depression among carriers of hepatitis C virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1: a comparative study.
Oliveira IR Abstract Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has low prevalence rates, but is endemic in some regions of the world. It is usually a chronic asymptomatic infection, but it can be associated with serious neurologic and urinary conditions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is broadly spread out worldwide. The majority of these infections have a chronic course that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: To compare sociodemographic and mental health (risk behaviors, depression, and suicide) aspects, and quality of life among patients with HCV or HTLV-1. METHODS: Obse...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Henrique-Araújo R, Quarantini LC, Caribé AC, Argolo FC, Jesus-Nunes AP, Morais-de-Jesus M, Dantas-Duarte A, Moreira TM, Oliveira IR Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical and economic impact of generic versus brand name meropenem use in an intensive care unit in Colombia.
Pallares C, Villegas MV Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that sustained use of generic antibiotics may be associated with clinical failure and emergence of antibacterial resistance. The present study was designed to determine the clinical outcome between the use of generic meropenem (GM) and brand-name meropenem (BNM). Additionally, this study evaluated the economic impact of GM and BNM to determine if the former represents a cost-effective alternative to the latter. METHODS: Patients treated between January 2011 and May 2014 received GM while patients treated between June 2014 and March 2017 recei...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ordóñez K, Feinstein MM, Reyes S, Hernández-Gómez C, Pallares C, Villegas MV Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Ciguatera fish poisoning in Brazilian traveler to Caribbean.
We describe a previously healthy 53-year-old Brazilian woman developed Ciguatera fish poisoning while traveling to Havana, Cuba. Physicians and health care professionals should advise travelers to avoid eating ciguatoxic fish species and potentially toxic fish species in the Caribbean islands. Despite the prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, early recognition of the identifying clinical features of ciguatera can result in improved patient care. PMID: 31301279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Neves CK, Goldani LZ Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Factors associated with mortality in HIV patients failing antiretroviral therapy, in Salvador, Brazil.
tes C Abstract Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved survival of people living with HIV/Aids (PLWHA). However, poor treatment adherence to HAART and other problems, still cause therapy failure and contribute to increased morbidity and mortality of PLWHA. In this retrospective cohort study (2013-2015), we sought to evaluate the factors associated with mortality of PLWHA failing HAART in 2013, who were receiving care at a reference center for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV/AIDS. A total of 165 individuals over 18 years of age who were failing antiretroviral therapy were...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haguihara T, Silva MOD, Rebouças MC, Netto EM, Brites C Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Preservation of cytotoxic granule production in response to mycobacterial antigens by T-lymphocytes from vertically HIV-infected Brazilian youth on effective combined antiretroviral therapy.
MTND Abstract BACKGROUND: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Arrym MP, Alves PCM, Castelhano MV, Mazzola TN, Lemos RMBP, Zaccariotto TR, Levy CE, Guimarães F, Silva MTND Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characteristics associated with anti-HCV serological markers in prisoners in the state of Paran á, Brazil: a case-control study.
The objective of this study was to identify features associated with hepatitis C infection among male prisoners in correctional institutions of Paraná state, Brazil. METHODS: This was a case-control study (27 cases and 54 controls) of men incarcerated in 11 penitentiaries in Paraná, Brazil. Information was obtained through a questionnaire in a cross-sectional epidemiological survey on HCV infection during the period from May 2015 to December 2016. Eligible men were recruited after testing positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Cases and controls were selected based on serological results of enzyme-linked immu...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - June 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Silva TMPM, Ferreto LED, Follador FAC, Vieira AP, Yamada RS, Lucio LC, Titton JP, Torres RH, Amaral GCD, Coelho HC Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genetic analysis of the first mcr-1 positive Escherichia coli isolate collected from an outpatient in Chile.
acute;lez-Rocha G Abstract Global dissemination of mcr-like genes represents a serious threat to public health since it jeopardizes the effectiveness of colistin, an antibiotic used as a last-resort treatment against highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In 2017, a mcr-1-positive isolate was found in Chile for the first time. Herein we report the genetic features of this strain (UCO-457) by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and conjugation experiments. The UCO-457 strain belonged to ST4204 and carried a 285 kb IncI2-type plasmid containing the mcr-1 gene. Moreover, this plasmid was transferred by conjugation to...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - June 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gutiérrez C, Zenis J, Legarraga P, Cabrera-Pardo J, García P, Bello-Toledo H, Opazo-Capurro A, González-Rocha G Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Daptomycin to bone and joint infections and prosthesis joint infections: a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Although a randomized clinical trial is needed, this systematic review tends to support daptomycin usage for bone and joint infections. PMID: 31207214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - June 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Telles JP, Cieslinski J, Tuon FF Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and real-time PCR in a combined protocol for diagnosis of bloodstream infections: a turnaround time approach.
Abstract Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Every hour delay in initiation of an effective antibiotic increases mortality due to sepsis by 7%. Turnaround time (TAT) for conventional blood cultures takes 48h, forcing physicians to streamline therapy by exposing patients to broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Our objective was (1) to evaluate the accuracy and TAT of an optimized workflow combining direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and in-house real-time PCR for bacterial identification...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - June 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Quiles MG, Boettger BC, Inoue FM, Monteiro J, Santos DW, Ponzio V, Carlesse F, Cappellano P, Carvalhaes CG, Pignatari ACC Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Brazil is so far free from Candida auris. Are you sure?
PMID: 31152687 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pasqualotto AC, Sukiennik TCT, Meis JF Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genomic features of clinical ESBL-producing and colistin-resistant hypermucoviscous highly virulent Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae from Brazil.
as RM PMID: 31150596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ferreira ML, Araújo BF, Cerdeira LT, Toshio C, Ribas RM Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Hepatitis C disease burden and strategies for elimination by 2030 in Brazil. A mathematical modeling approach.
CONCLUSION: Achieving the WHO targets is technically feasible in Brazil with a scale-up of treatment and diagnosis over time, beginning in 2018. However, elimination of hepatitis C requires policy changes to substantially scale-up prevention, screening and treatment of HCV, together with public health advocacy to raise awareness among affected populations and healthcare providers. PMID: 31145876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benzaken AS, Girade R, Catapan E, Pereira GFM, Almeida EC, Vivaldini S, Fernandes N, Razavi H, Schmelzer J, Ferraz ML, Ferreira PRA, Pessoa MG, Martinelli A, Souto FJD, Walsh N, Correa MCM Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Fusarium solani keratitis: role of antifungal susceptibility testing and identification to the species level for proper management.
Abstract A case report of fungal keratitis caused by a multiresistant Fusarium solani in a tertiary care hospital located in southern Brazil. A 55-year-old man with a history of ocular trauma presented with keratitis in left eye. The patient has a complicated clinical course and failed to respond to local and systemic antifungal treatment, and required eye enucleation. Despite multiple topical, intraocular and systemic antifungal treatments, hyphal infiltration persisted in the corneal transplant causing continuous recurrences. The cultures of corneal biopsy scrapings were positive for Fusarium spp. The organism w...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rosa PD, Sheid K, Locatelli C, Marinho D, Goldani L Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Concentrations of rifampicin in pre-dose samples in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
a JLF Abstract Rifampicin is used in both phases of treatment for tuberculosis. In chronic use, the short half-life and the self-induction of metabolism can decrease the levels of the drug below the minimal inhibitory concentration. The aim of the study was to investigate whether plasma concentrations of rifampicin are sustained above 0.5μg/mL in patients with tuberculosis using 600mg/day. Rifampicin was measured in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and a sputum smear microscopy was performed in all days of the study. A total of 44 male patients completed the study. On days 31, 61 and 91, the mea...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Uchoa BKB, Albério CAA, Pinto ACG, Medeiros SL, Vieira JLF Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiological aspects of the first human autochthonous visceral leishmaniosis cases in Porto Alegre, Brazil.
This article aims to portray the current epidemiological situation of the HVL arrival in Porto Alegre city, located in the southern region of Brazil. It is a descriptive study, a case series and a critical review. Six human cases with HVL were notified by the date of conclusion of the study, all HVL cases were diagnosed at late stage, leading to four deaths. PMID: 31125529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mahmud IC, Piassini LAS, Motta F, Behar PRP, Souza GD Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

T helper type cytokines in sepsis: time-shared variance and correlation with organ dysfunction and hospital mortality.
tas F, Salomão R Abstract OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the kinetics of cytokines belonging to the T helper1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 profiles in septic patients, and their correlations with organ dysfunction and hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in a cohort of septic patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU) of three Brazilian general hospitals. A total of 104 septic patients and 53 health volunteers (controls) were included. Plasma samples were collected within the first 48h of organ dysfunction or septic shock (0D), after seven (D7) and 14 days (D14) of follow-u...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Costa RT, Araújo OR, Brunialti MKC, Assunção MSC, Azevedo LCP, Freitas F, Salomão R Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

HLA-B*14 allele predicts HIV-1 mother-to-child-transmission, in Salvador, Brazil.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Class I human leukocyte antigens, especially the molecules encoded at the B locus (HLA-B), are associated with AIDS progression risk. Different groups of HLA-B alleles have been associated to a protective effect or increasing susceptibility to HIV infection and are expressed from the earliest stages of gestation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate which variants of HLA-B are associated with the risk of HIV vertical transmission in infected pregnant women and in their offspring, in a referral center in Salvador Bahia. METHODS: We performed HLA-B genotyping in 52 HIV-infe...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Angulo JMC, Cuesta TAC, Menezes EP, Pedroso C, Brites C Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Occurrence of hemoplasmas in free-ranging and captive wild felines.
This study contributes to the understanding of their epidemiology. PMID: 31108045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pitchenin LC, Maruyama FH, Morgado TO, Dutra V, Nakazato L Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospital and community environments in northeastern Brazil.
This study characterized 30 MRSA isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) environment and equipment surfaces and healthy children. The SCCmec types I, IVa and V were detected in HA-MRSA isolates while CA-MRSA showed the SCCmec type IVa and V. Most isolates were classified as agr group II. All isolates presented the sei gene, and only HA-MRSA were positive for etb e tst genes. Three genotypes were related to Pediatric (ST5/SCCmecIV) and Berlin (ST45/SCCmecIV) clones. The present study showed molecular similarity between CA- and HA-MRSA isolates in hospital and community settings in a Brazilian region. PMID: 31103436 [Pu...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Carvalho SP, de Almeida JB, Andrade YMFS, Silva LSCD, Chamon RC, Santos KRND, Marques LM Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Long term neurologic sequelae in a Mexican rocky mountain spotted fever case.
We present the case of a Mexican pediatric patient with neurologic sequelae 10 years after an acute infection by R. rickettsii. PMID: 31103437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dzul-Rosado KR, Lugo-Caballero C, Salcedo-Parra A, López-Soto RD, Faccini-Martínez ÁA Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Early switch/early discharge opportunities for hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections in Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: Only 2% of patients were switched from IV to oral antibiotics in our study while almost one-third were ES eligible. Additionally, one-third of hospitalized patients with MRSA cSSTI were ED eligible indicating opportunity for reducing IV therapy and days of hospital stay. These results provide insight into possible benefits of implementation of ES/ED protocols in Brazil. PMID: 31078574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Furtado GH, Rocha J, Hayden R, Solem C, Macahilig C, Tang WY, Chambers R, Figueiredo MLN, Johnson C, Stephens J, Haider S Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Revisiting Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) associated with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1): prevalence, clinical aspects and proviral load.
CONCLUSION: Burning and/or pain and itching and low corrected visual acuity were the most common alterations of HTLV-1/KCS. High PVL was found to be associated with the presence of KCS. It is strongly recommended that HTLV-1 patients undergo periodic ophthalmologic examination to promote the early diagnosis of KCS and prevent the consequences associated with Dry Eye Disease. PMID: 31059675 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rathsam-Pinheiro RH, Boa-Sorte N, Grassi MFR, Copello ÚC, Rios KTSG, Araújo T, Galvão-Castro B Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Urine as a promising sample for Leishmania DNA extraction in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis - a review.
Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious and debilitating infection with high fatality rate in tropical and subtropical countries. As clinical symptoms of VL are not so specific, confirmatory diagnostic methods with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. Noninvasive methods have been developed using urine as a clinical sample for VL diagnosis. In fact, there is a clear correlation between kidney impairment and Leishmania DNA in urine. However, it has been proved that Leishmania nucleic acid may also be isolated from patients without any sign of renal involvement. Even though urine has become a promi...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bezerra GSN, Barbosa WL, Silva EDD, Leal NC, Medeiros ZM Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Daptomycin and vancomycin non-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal lineages from bloodstream infection in a Brazilian teaching hospital.
CONCLUSIONS: Daptomycin and vancomycin non-susceptible MRSA clonal lineages were found in BSI over five years, highlighting the importance of continuous surveillance of multiresistant bacteria in hospitals. PMID: 31028723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - April 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Damasco AP, Costa TMD, Morgado PGM, Guimarães LC, Cavalcante FS, Nouér SA, Santos KRND Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

High prevalence of CTX-M-1 group in ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae infection in intensive care units in southern Chile.
Abstract Enterobacteria-producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) play an important role in healthcare infections, increasing hospitalization time, morbidity and mortality rates. Among several ESBLs that emerge from these pathogens, CTX-M-type enzymes had the most successful global spread in different epidemiological settings. Latin America presents high prevalence of CTX-M-2 in ESBL-producing enterobacterial infections with local emergence of the CTX-M-1 group. However, this high prevalence of the CTX-M-1 group has not yet been reported in Chile. The aim of this study was to identify ESBLs among entero...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - April 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pavez M, Troncoso C, Osses I, Salazar R, Illesca V, Reydet P, Rodriguez C, Chain C, Concha C, Barrientos L Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of herpes zoster in a tertiary care hospital in Brazil.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate a high burden of HZ disease in a Brazilian tertiary care hospital in the HZ vaccination era. Awareness of the incidence and comorbidity factors associated with HZ in Latin American countries such as Brazil contribute for adoption and implementation of strategies for immunization in this area. PMID: 30935817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - March 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antoniolli L, Rodrigues C, Borges R, Goldani LZ Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The first outbreak of measles virus caused by imported genotype D8 in Jiangsu province of China.
Abstract Here we reported the outbreak of measles cases caused by the genotype D8 measles virus (MeV) for the first time in Jiangsu province in China, which was possibly imported by a foreign student from Laos. Throat swab specimens were collected, and used to isolate virus. 634-bp fragment of the N gene and 1854-bp fragment of H gene were amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and sequenced, respectively. Phylogenetic results indicated that they belonged to genotype D8 MeV. Further epidemiology investigation showed that the adults with D8 MeV infection did not receive measles vaccine before having measles. In Chi...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - March 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Deng X, Hu Y, Lu P, Zhou MH, Guo H Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research