Histone tail cleavage as a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism for gene expression.
Abstract Chromatin is an intelligent building block that can express either external or internal needs through structural changes. To date, three methods to change chromatin structure and regulate gene expression have been well-documented: histone modification, histone exchange, and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. Recently, a growing body of literature has suggested that histone tail cleavage is related to various cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, osteoclast differentiation, granulocyte differentiation, mammary gland differentiation, viral infection, aging, and yeast sporulation. Although...
Source: BMB Reports - March 15, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yi SJ, Kim K Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Early Potential Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle Adaptation Involved in Exercise-induced Weight Loss in Obese Mice.
Abstract Exercise and resveratrol supplementation exhibit anti-obesity functions in the long term but have not been fully investigated yet in terms of their early potential effectiveness. Mice fed with high-fat diet were categorized into control (Cont), exercise (Ex), resveratrol supplementation (Res), and exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation (Ex + Res) groups. In the four-week period of weight loss, exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation exerted no additional effects on body weight loss but significantly improved whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis. The combined treatment significan...
Source: BMB Reports - March 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sun J, Zhang C, Kim M, Su Y, Qin L, Dong J, Zhou Y, Ding S Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Hippo signaling: Special issue of BMB Reports in 2018.
Abstract Since the first component of Hippo signaling, Wts in Drosophila, was identified in 1995, the progress of Hippo signaling studies has been very slow initially. However, after the findings suggesting that the core kinase pathway established in Drosophila was evolutionarily conserved in metazoans for the determination of organ size around 2008, the number of publications related to Hippo signaling has grown exponentially. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying Hippo signaling response to intrinsic cues, such as cell-cell contact and mechanotransduction, as well as extrinsic cues, such as nutrients...
Source: BMB Reports - March 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jho EH Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Role of estrogen and RAS signaling in repeated implantation failure.
Abstract In humans, hormonal regulation is crucial for the preparation of uterine environment leading to either successful implantation or menstrual cycle. Estrogen is a pivotal female steroid hormone that regulates the uterine dynamics along with progesterone in the estrous and menstrual cycles in humans. Estrogen signals act via nuclear estrogen receptor or membrane-bound receptor. The membrane-bound estrogen receptor plays a crucial role in the rapid response of estrogen in the uterine epithelium. Recently, RASD1 has received attention as a novel signal transducer of estrogen in various systems including female...
Source: BMB Reports - March 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hong K, Choi Y Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Investigation of function and regulation of the YB-1 cellular factor in HIV replication.
Abstract Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a member of the cold-shock domain (CSD) protein superfamily. It participates in a wide variety of cellular events, including transcription, RNA splicing, translation, DNA repair, drug resistance, and stress responses. We investigated putative functions of YB-1 in HIV-1 replication. Functional studies using overexpression or knockdown of YB-1 in conjunction with transfection of proviral DNA showed that YB-1 enhances virus production. We found YB-1 regulates HIV-1 production by stimulating viral transcription using HIV-1 LTR sequence U3RU5 with Luciferase assay. We identifi...
Source: BMB Reports - February 12, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jung YM, Yu KL, Park SH, Lee SD, Kim MJ, You JC Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells via ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.
In this study, we investigated the effect of HAMSCs on HASCs by a transwell co-culture system. HAMSCs promoted proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, angiogenic potential and adiponectin (APN) secretion of HASCs. Moreover, the positive effect of HAMSCs was significantly inhibited by U0126, a highly selective inhibitor of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. These observations suggested that HAMSCs induced bone regeneration in HASCs via ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID: 29429450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMB Reports)
Source: BMB Reports - February 12, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang Y, Chen X, Yin Y, Li S Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Emerging role of RUNX3 in the regulation of tumor microenvironment.
Abstract A number of genes have been therapeutically targeted to relieve cancer, but cancer relapse is still a growing issue. The concept that the surrounding tumor environment is critical for the progression of cancer may foster an answer to the issue of cancer malignancy. Runt domain transcription factors (RUNX1, 2, and 3) are evolutionarily conserved and have been intensively studied for their roles in normal development and pathological conditions. During tumor growth, a hypoxic microenvironment and infiltration of the tumor by immune cells are common phenomena. In this review, we briefly introduce the consequ...
Source: BMB Reports - February 12, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Manandhar S, Lee YM Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Sex as an important biological variable in biomedical research.
Abstract Experimental results obtained from research using only one sex are sometimes extrapolated to both sexes without thorough justification. However, this might cause enormous economic loss and unintended fatalities. Between years 1997 and 2000, the US Food and Drug Administration suspended ten prescription drugs producing severe adverse effects on the market. Eight of the ten drugs caused greater health risks in women. Serious male biases in basic, preclinical, and clinical research were the main reason for the problem. This mini-review will describe why and how funding organizations such as the European Comm...
Source: BMB Reports - February 12, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lee SK Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
The role of Purkinje cell-derived VEGF in cerebellar astrogliosis in Niemann-Pick type C mice.
Abstract Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of NPC1 gene function, which leads to severe neuroinflammation such as astrogliosis. While reports demonstrating neuroinflammation are prevalent in NP-C, information about the onset and progression of cerebellar astrogliosis in this disorder is lacking. Using gene targeting, we generated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) conditional null mutant mice. Deletion of VEGF in cerebellar Purkinje neurons (PNs) led to a significant increase of astrogliosis in the brain of NP-C mice in addition to the loss of PN...
Source: BMB Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Park MH, Lee JY, Jeong MS, Jang HS, Endo S, Bae JS, Jin HK Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Drug resistance of bladder cancer cells through activation of ABCG2 by FOXM1.
Abstract Recurrence is a serious problem in patients with bladder cancer. The hypothesis for recurrence was that the proliferation of drug-resistant cells was reported, and this study focused on drug resistance due to drug efflux. Previous studies have identified FOXM1 as the key gene for recurrence. We found that FOXM1 inhibition decreased drug efflux activity and increased sensitivity to Doxorubicin. Therefore, we examined whether the expression of ABC transporter gene related to drug efflux is regulated by FOXM1. As a result, ABCG2, one of the genes involved in drug efflux, has been identified as a new target f...
Source: BMB Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Roh YG, Mun MH, Jeong MS, Kim WT, Lee SR, Chung JW, Kim SI, Kim TN, Nam JK, Leem SH Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Structure and function of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor system.
Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor (VEGF-VEGFR) system play a critical role in the regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in vertebrates. Each of the VEGF has specific receptors, which it activates by binding to the extracellular domain of the receptors, and, thus, regulates the angiogenic balance in the early embryonic and adult stages. However, de-regulation of the VEGF-VEGFR implicates directly in various diseases, particularly cancer. Moreover, tumor growth needs a dedicated blood supply to provide oxygen and other essential nutrients. Tumor metastasis requires blood vessels...
Source: BMB Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Park SA, Jeong MS, Ha KT, Jang SB Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
SF3B4 as an early-stage diagnostic marker and driver of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract An accurate diagnostic marker for detecting early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC) is clinically important, since early detection of HCC remarkably improves patient survival. From the integrative analysis of the transcriptome and clinicopathologic data of human multi-stage HCC tissues, we were able to identify barrier-to-autointegration factor 1 (BANF1), procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3 (PLOD3) and splicing factor 3b subunit 4 (SF3B4) as early HCC biomarkers which could be detected in precancerous lesions of HCC, with superior capabilities to diagnose eHCC compared to the currently ...
Source: BMB Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shen Q, Nam SW Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
The history and regulatory mechanism of the Hippo pathway.
Abstract How the organ size is adjusted to the proper size during development and how organs know that they reach the original size during regeneration remain long-standing questions. Based on studies using multiple model organisms and approaches for over 20 years, a consensus has been established that the Hippo pathway plays crucial roles in controlling organ size and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Given the significance of these processes, the dysregulation of the Hippo pathway has also implicated various diseases, such as tissue degeneration and cancer. By regulating the downstream transcriptional coactivators...
Source: BMB Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim W, Jho EH Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Upstream paths for Hippo signaling in Drosophila organ development.
Abstract Organ growth is fundamental to animal development. One of major mechanisms for growth control is mediated by the conserved Hippo signaling pathway initially identified in Drosophila. The core of this pathway in Drosophila consists of a cascade of protein kinases Hippo and Warts that negatively regulate transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki). Activation of Yki promotes cell survival and proliferation to induce organ growth. A key issue in Hippo signaling is to understand how core kinase cascade is activated. Activation of Hippo kinase cascade is regulated in the upstream by at least two transmembrane pro...
Source: BMB Reports - February 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Choi KW Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Oxygen Matters: Hypoxia as a Pathogenic Mechanism in Rhinosinusitis.
Abstract The airway epithelium is the first place, where a defense mechanism is initiated against environmental stimuli. Mucociliary transport (MCT), which is the defense mechanism of the airway and the role of airway epithelium as mechanical barriers are essential in innate immunity. To maintain normal physiologic function, normal oxygenation is critical for the production of energy for optimal cellular functions. Several pathologic conditions are associated with a decrease in oxygen tension in airway epithelium and chronic sinusitis is one of the airway diseases, which is associated with the hypoxic condition, a...
Source: BMB Reports - January 25, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cho HJ, Kim CH Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
DNA binding partners of YAP/TAZ.
Abstract Hippo signaling plays critical roles in regulation of tissue homeostasis, organ size, and tumorigenesis by inhibiting YES-associated protein (YAP) and PDZ-binding protein TAZ through MST1/2 and LATS1/2 pathway. It is also engaged in cross-talk with various other signaling pathways, including WNT, BMPs, Notch, GPCRs, and Hedgehog to further modulate activities of YAP/TAZ. Because YAP and TAZ are transcriptional coactivators that lack DNA-binding activity, both proteins must interact with DNA-binding transcription factors to regulate target gene's expression. To activate target genes involved in cell prolif...
Source: BMB Reports - January 25, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim MK, Jang JW, Bae SC Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Hippo-YAP/TAZ Signaling in Angiogenesis.
Abstract Angiogenesis is a complex, multistep process involving dynamic changes in endothelial cell (EC) shapes and behaviors, especially in specialized cell types such as tip cells (with active filopodial extensions), stalk cells (with less motility) and phalanx cells (with stable junction connections). The Hippo-Yes-associated protein (YAP)/ transcription activator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) signaling plays a critical role in development, regeneration and organ size by regulating cell-cell contact and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Recently, with the finding that YAP is expressed in the front edge of the develop...
Source: BMB Reports - January 25, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Park JA, Kwon YG Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Regulation of the Hippo Signaling Pathway by Ubiquitin Modification.
Abstract The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult tissue homeostasis and organ size control. Abnormal regulation of Hippo signaling can be a cause for multiple types of human cancers. Since the awareness of the importance of the Hippo signaling in a wide range of biological fields has been continually grown, it is also understood that a thorough and well-rounded comprehension of the precise dynamics could provide fundamental insights for therapeutic applications. Several components in the Hippo signaling pathway are known to be targeted for proteasomal degradation via ubiquitination by E3 ligas...
Source: BMB Reports - January 25, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim Y, Jho EH Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Clinical Implications of the Hippo-YAP Pathway in Multiple Cancer Contexts.
Abstract The Hippo pathway plays prominent and widespread roles in various forms of human carcinogenesis. Specifically, the Yes-associated protein (YAP), a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, can lead to excessive cell proliferation and the inhibition of apoptosis, resulting in tumorigenesis. It was reported that the YAP is strongly elevated in multiple types of human malignancies such as breast, lung, small intestine, colon, and liver cancers. Recent work indicates that, surprisingly, Hippo signaling components' (SAV1, MST1/2, Lats1/2) mutations are virtually absent in human cancer, rendering this signaling...
Source: BMB Reports - January 25, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim HB, Myung SJ Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Estrogen-related receptor γ is a novel catabolic regulator of osteoarthritis pathogenesis.
Estrogen-related receptor γ is a novel catabolic regulator of osteoarthritis pathogenesis. BMB Rep. 2018 Jan 25;: Authors: Son YO, Chun JS Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is a leading cause of disability with a large socioeconomic cost. OA is a whole-joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction, synovial inflammation, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone sclerosis. To date, however, no effective disease-modifying therapies for OA have been developed. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), a family of orphan nuclear receptor transcription factor...
Source: BMB Reports - January 25, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Son YO, Chun JS Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Medicarpin induces lipolysis via activation of Protein Kinase A in brown adipocytes.
Abstract Natural pterocarpan Medicarpin (Med) has been shown to have various beneficial biological roles, including inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, stimulation of bone regeneration and induction of apoptosis. However, the effect of the Med on lipolysis in adipocytes has not been reported. Here, we show the effect of Med on lipolysis in different mouse adipocytes and elucidate the underlying mechanism. We observed that Med treatment promoted release of glycerol in the media. Differentiated mouse brown adipose tissue cells were treated with Med. RNA-Seq analysis was performed to elucidate the effect of med and sub...
Source: BMB Reports - January 22, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Imran KM, Yoon D, Lee TJ, Kim YS Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
New Role of LTR-Retrotransposons for Emergence and Expansion of Disease-Resistance Genes and High-Copy Gene Families in Plants.
In this study, we constructed new reference genome sequences of two pepper species (Capsicum baccatum and C. chinense), and updated the reference genome of C. annuum. We focused on the study for speciation of Capsicum spp. and its driving forces. We found that chromosomal translocation, unequal amplification of LTR-Rs, and recent gene duplications in the pepper genomes as major evolutionary forces for diversification of Capsicum spp. Specifically, our analyses revealed that the nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich-repeat proteins (NLRs) were massively created by LTR-R-driven retroduplication. These retoduplicated NLRs were ...
Source: BMB Reports - January 22, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim S, Choi D Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
MicroRNAs as Critical Regulators of the Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Vascular Biology.
Abstract The endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a newly recognized, fundamental biological process involved in development and tissue regeneration, as well as pathological processes such as the complications of diabetes, fibrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The EndMT process is tightly controlled by diverse signaling networks, similar to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of this network, with the capacity to target multiple messenger RNAs involved in the EndMT process as well as in the regulation of disease pro...
Source: BMB Reports - January 22, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim J Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Regulation of Hippo Signaling by Actin Remodeling.
Abstract The Hippo signaling pathway controls nuclear accumulation and stability of the transcriptional coregulator YAP and its paralog TAZ. The activity of Hippo-YAP signaling is influenced not only by biochemical signals, but also by cell shape and mechanical tension transmitted through cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix adhesions. Data accumulated thus far indicates that the actin cytoskeleton is a key mediator of the regulation of Hippo-YAP signaling by means of a variety of biochemical and mechanical cues. In this review, we have outlined the role of actin dynamics and actin-associated proteins in the regula...
Source: BMB Reports - January 22, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Seo J, Kim J Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Gata6 in pluripotent stem cells enhance the potential to differentiate into cardiomyocytes.
In conclusion, Gata6 could be utilized as a biomarker to select the best PSC lines to produce PSC-derived cardiomyocytes for therapeutic purposes. PMID: 29335067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMB Reports)
Source: BMB Reports - January 16, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yoon CH, Kim TW, Koh SJ, Choi YE, Hur J, Kwon YW, Cho HJ, Kim HS Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Imprinted gene Zinc finger protein 127 is a novel regulator of master pluripotency transcription factor, Oct4.
Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show great promise for replacing current stem cell therapies in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the original method for cellular reprogramming, involving four exogenous transcription factors, is characterized by low efficiency. Here, we focused on using epigenetic modifications to enhance the reprogramming efficiency. We hypothesized that there would be a new reprogramming factor involved in DNA demethylation, acting on the promoters of pluripotency-related genes. We screened proteins that bind to the methylated promoter of Oct4 and identified Zinc finge...
Source: BMB Reports - January 16, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kwon YW, Ahn HS, Park JY, Yang HM, Cho HJ, Kim HS Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Functional roles of glutamic acid E143 and E705 residues in the N-terminus and transmembrane domain 7 of Anoctamin 1 in calcium and noxious heat sensing.
Abstract Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is an anion channel that is activated by changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and noxious heat. Although the critical roles of ANO1 have been elucidated in various cell types, the control of its gating mechanisms by Ca2+ and heat remain more elusive. To investigate critical amino acid residues for modulation of Ca2+ and heat sensing, we constructed a randomized mutant library for ANO1. Among 695 random mutants, reduced Ca2+ sensitivity was observed in two mutants (mutant 84 and 87). Consequently, the E143A mutant showed reduced sensitivity to Ca2+ but not to high temperatures, wherea...
Source: BMB Reports - January 16, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Choi J, Jang Y, Kim H, Wee J, Cho S, Son WS, Kim SM, Yang YD Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Cell Proliferation and Migration Mechanism of Caffeoylserotonin and Serotonin via Serotonin 2B receptor in Human Keratinocyte HaCaT cells.
In this study, we investigated the effect of CaS on proliferation and migration of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells compared to that of 5-HT. CaS enhanced keratinocyte proliferation even under serum deficient condition. This effect of CaS was mediated by serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2BR) related to the cell proliferation effect of 5-HT. We also confirmed that both CaS and 5-HT induced G1 progression via 5-HT2BR/ERK pathway in HaCaT cells. However, Akt pathway was additionally involved in upregulated expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E induced by CaS by activating 5-HT2BR. Moreover, CaS and 5-HT induced cell migration i...
Source: BMB Reports - January 16, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim HE, Cho H, Ishihara A, Kim B, Kim O Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Adequate concentration of B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) is required for pluripotency and self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells via downregulation of Nanog transcription.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that a sufficient concentration of Bcl3 in mESCs plays a critical role in the maintenance of pluripotency and the self-renewal of mESCs via the regulation of Nanog transcriptional activity. PMID: 29335071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMB Reports)
Source: BMB Reports - January 16, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kang S, Yun J, Kim DY, Jung SY, Kim YJ, Park JH, Ji ST, Jang WB, Ha J, Kim JH, Baek SH, Kwon SM Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Rebound Excitability Mediates Motor Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder resulting from loss of dopamine neurons. In dopamine deficient state, the basal ganglia increases inhibitory synaptic outputs to the thalamus. This increased inhibition by the basal ganglia output is known to reduce firing rate of thalamic neurons that relay motor signals to the motor cortex. This 'rate model' suggests that the reduced excitability of thalamic neurons is the key for inducing motor abnormalities in PD patients. We reveal that in response to inhibition, thalamic neurons generate rebound firing at the end of inhibition. This rebound firing ...
Source: BMB Reports - January 16, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim J, Kim D Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Epac2a-knockout mice are resistant to dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and short-term cold stress.
This study was performed to elucidate the response of Epac2a-KO mice to dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy and acute cold stress. Compared to age-matched wild-type mice, Epac2a-KO mice showed higher energy expenditures and expression of myogenin and uncoupling protein-1 in skeletal muscle (SM) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively. Epac2a-KO mice exhibited greater endurance to dexamethasone and cold stress. In wild-type mice, exogenous leptin mimicked the responses observed in Epac2a-KO mice. This suggests that leptin-mediated hypothalamic signaling toward SNA appears to be intact in these mice. Hence, the potenti...
Source: BMB Reports - January 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Song SE, Shin SK, Park SY, Hwang IS, Im SS, Bae JH, Choi MS, Song DK Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Force-Mediated Proinvasive Matrix Remodeling Driven by Tumor-associated Mesenchymal Stem-like cells in Glioblastoma.
Abstract In carcinoma, cancer-associated fibroblasts participate in force-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, consequently leading to invasion of cancer cells. Likewise, the ECM remodeling actively occurs in glioblastoma (GBM) and the consequent microenvironmental stiffness is strongly linked to migration behavior of GBM cells. However, in GBM the stromal cells responsible for force-mediated ECM remodeling remain unidentified. We show that tumor-associated mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs) provide a proinvasive matrix condition in GBM by force-mediated ECM remodeling. Importantly, CCL2-mediated Janu...
Source: BMB Reports - January 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lim EJ, Suh Y, Kim S, Kang SG, Lee SJ Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Selective regulation of osteoclast adhesion and spreading by PLC γ/PKCα-PKCδ/RhoA-Rac1 signaling.
In this study, we investigated the link between signal modulators known to M-CSF- and OPN-induced osteoclast adhesion and spreading. M-CSF- and OPN-induced osteoclast adhesion was achieved via activation of stepwise signals, including integrin αvβ3, PLCγ, PKCδ, and Rac1. Osteoclast spreading induced by M-CSF and OPN was shown to be controlled via sequential activation, consistent with the osteoclast adhesion processes. In contrast to osteoclast adhesion, osteoclast spreading induced by M-CSF and OPN was blocked via activation of PLCγ/PKCα/RhoA signaling. The combined results indicate that...
Source: BMB Reports - January 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim JM, Lee K, Jeong D Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Integration of metabolomics and transcriptomics in nanotoxicity studies.
Abstract Biomedical research involving nanoparticles has produced useful products with medical applications. However, the potential toxicity of nanoparticles in biofluids, cells, tissues, and organisms is a major challenge. The '-omics' analyses provide molecular profiles of multifactorial biological systems instead of focusing on a single molecule. The 'omics' approaches are necessary to evaluate nanotoxicity because classical methods for the detection of nanotoxicity have limited ability in detecting miniscule variations within a cell and do not accurately reflect the actual levels of nanotoxicity. In addition, ...
Source: BMB Reports - January 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shin TH, Lee DY, Lee HS, Park HJ, Jin MS, Paik MJ, Manavalan B, Mo JS, Lee G Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Erratum to: Potentiation of TRAIL killing activity by multimerization through isoleucine zipper hexamerization motif.
Abstract The BMB Reports would like to correct in the ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS of BMB Rep. 49(5), 282-287 titled "Potentiation of TRAIL killing activity by multimerization through isoleucine zipper hexamerization motif." PMID: 29279065 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMB Reports)
Source: BMB Reports - December 1, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Han JH, Moon AR, Chang JH, Bae J, Choi JM, Lee SH, Kim TH Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Promoting and Improving Three Rs Practice: The Korean Guidelines.
Abstract Scientists planning research that involves the use of animals are required to examine the possibilities for replacement, reduction, or refinement (the Three Rs), and their protocol must be reviewed by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Good scientific practice involving appropriate search techniques on the available Three Rs resources is essential for both ethical and scientific reasons. Appropriate experimental design and statistical analysis techniques are particularly necessary for research involving the use of animals, because this can improve animal welfare and scientific outcomes, as w...
Source: BMB Reports - November 29, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Choe BI, Lee GH Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Prevalence of negative frequency-dependent selection, revealed by incomplete selective sweeps in African populations of Drosophila melanogaster.
In conclusion, genomic patterns of positive selection are very diverse, with equal contributions of hard and soft sweeps and a surprisingly large proportion of frequency-dependent selection in D. melanogaster populations. PMID: 29187282 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMB Reports)
Source: BMB Reports - November 29, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim Y Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
New Insights into Transglutaminase 2 and Links to Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Abstract Formation of toxic protein aggregates is a common feature and mainly contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), which include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion diseases. The transglutaminase 2 (TG2) gene encodes a multifunctional enzyme, displaying four types of activity, such as transamidation, GTPase, protein disulfide isomerase, and protein kinase activities. Many studies demonstrated that the calcium-dependent transamidation activity of TG2 affected the formation of insoluble and toxic amyloid aggregates that mainly consis...
Source: BMB Reports - November 29, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Min B, Chung KC Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
JQ1, a BET inhibitor, controls TLR4-induced IL-10 production in regulatory B cells by BRD4-NF- κB axis.
In this study, JQ1 potently suppressed IL-10 expression and secretion in murine splenic and peritoneal B cells. While bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) was associated with NF-κB on IL-10 promoter region by LPS stimulation, JQ1 interfered the interaction of BRD4 with NF-κB on IL-10 promoter. In summary, BRD4 is essential for toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated IL-10 expression, suggesting JQ1 could be a potential candidate in regulating IL-10-producing regulatory B cells in cancer. PMID: 29187284 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMB Reports)
Source: BMB Reports - November 29, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lee MB, Lee J, Hong SH, You JS, Nam ST, Kim HW, Park YH, Lee D, Min KY, Park YM, Kim YM, Kim HS, Choi WS Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
HCBP6 upregulates human SREBP1c expression by binding to C/EBP β-binding site in the SREBP1c promoter.
HCBP6 upregulates human SREBP1c expression by binding to C/EBPβ-binding site in the SREBP1c promoter. BMB Rep. 2017 Nov 20;: Authors: Yang X, Han M, Liu S, Yuan X, Liu X, Feng S, Zhou L, Li Y, Lu H, Cheng J, Lin S Abstract Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) plays an important role in triglyceride (TG) homeostasis. Although our previous study showed that hepatitis C virus core-binding protein 6 (HCBP6) regulates SREBP1c expression to maintain intracellular TG homeostasis, the mechanism underlying this regulation is unclear. In the present study, we found that HCBP6 increased in...
Source: BMB Reports - November 20, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yang X, Han M, Liu S, Yuan X, Liu X, Feng S, Zhou L, Li Y, Lu H, Cheng J, Lin S Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Upstream Signalling of mTORC1 and Its Hyperactivation in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D).
In conclusion, we suggest the regulatory roles of telomerase (TERT) and hexokinase II (HKII) on mTORC1 as possible remedies to treat hyperactivation. The former inhibits mTORC1 under nutrient-rich while the latter under starved condition. We provide an idea of TOS (TOR signaling) motifs that can be used for regulation of mTORC1. PMID: 29187279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMB Reports)
Source: BMB Reports - October 30, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ali M, Bukhari SA, Ali M, Lee HW Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Identification of specifically activated angiogenic molecules in HMGB-1-induced angiogenesis.
In this study, we performed time-dependent DNA microarray analysis of endothelial cells (ECs) after HMGB-1 or VEGF treatment. The pathway analysis of each gene set upregulated by HMGB-1 or VEGF showed that most HMGB-1-induced angiogenic pathways were also activated by VEGF, although the activation time and gene sets belonging to the pathways differed. In addition, HMGB-1 upregulated some VEGFR signaling-related angiogenic factors including EGR1 and, importantly, novel angiogenic factors, such as ABL2, CEACAM1, KIT, and VIPR1, which are reported to independently promote angiogenesis under physiological and pathological cond...
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim WK, Kwon Y, Park M, Yun S, Kwon JY, Kim H Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Gastrin-releasing peptide promotes the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells through upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9.
We report that GRP significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of rat VSMCs. GRP increased mRNA and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) in VSMCs. The induction of MMP-2/9 by GRP was regulated by the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3). In addition, STAT3-knockdown of VSMCs by siRNA or blockade of the GRP receptor inhibited GRP-induced migration of VSMCs. Taken together, our findings indicate that GRP promotes the migration of VSMCs through upregulation of MMP-2/9 via STAT3 activation. PMID: 29065966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: BMB Reports)
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Park HJ, Kim MK, Kim Y, Bae SS, Kim HJ, Bae SK, Bae MK Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
PD-1 deficiency protects experimental colitis via alteration of gut microbiota.
Abstract Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a coinhibitory molecule and plays a pivotal role in immune regulation. Here, we demonstrate a role for PD-1 in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Wild-type (WT) mice had severe wasting disease during experimentally induced colitis, while mice deficient for PD-1 (PD-1-/-) did not develop colon inflammation. Interestingly, PD-1-/- mice cohoused with WT mice became susceptible to colitis, suggesting that resistance of PD-1-/- mice to colitis is dependent on their gut microbiota. 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing analysis showed that PD-1-/- mice had altered composi...
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Park SJ, Kim JH, Song MY, Sung YC, Lee SW, Park Y Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN21 acts as a negative regulator of ICAM-1 by dephosphorylating IKK β in TNF-α-stimulated human keratinocytes.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN21 acts as a negative regulator of ICAM-1 by dephosphorylating IKKβ in TNF-α-stimulated human keratinocytes. BMB Rep. 2017 Oct 25;: Authors: Cho YC, Kim BR, Cho S Abstract Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, contributes to the entry of immune cells into the site of inflammation in the skin. Here, we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 21 (PTPN21) negatively regulates ICAM-1 expression in human keratinocytes. PTPN21 expression was transiently induced after stimulation with T...
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cho YC, Kim BR, Cho S Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Antioxidant Effects of Selenocysteine on Replicative Senescence in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Abstract In most clinical applications, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are expanded in large scale before their administration. Prolonged culture in vitro results in cellular senescence-associated phenotypes, including accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased cell viabilities. Profiling of stem cell-related genes during in vitro expansion revealed that numerous canonical pathways were significantly changed. To determine the effect of selenocysteine (Sec), a rare amino acid found in several antioxidant enzymes, on the replicative senescence in hMSCs, we treated senescent hMSCs with Sec. Sup...
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Suh N, Lee EB Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Zinc finger Protein 143 expression is closely related to tumor malignancy via regulating cell motility in breast cancer.
Abstract We previously reported the involvement of zinc-finger protein 143(ZNF143) on cancer cell motility in colon cancer cells. Here, ZNF143 was further characterized in breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of ZNF143 in normal tissues and in tissues from metastatic breast cancer at various stages. Notably, ZNF143 was selectively expressed in duct and gland epithelium of normal breast tissues, which decreased when the tissue became malignant. To determine the molecular mechanism how ZNF143 affects breast cancer progression, it was knocked down by infecting benign breast cancer ...
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Paek AR, Mun JY, Hong KM, Lee J, Hong DW, You HJ Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride on β-amyloid-induced microglial activation.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride on β-amyloid-induced microglial activation. BMB Rep. 2017 Oct 25;: Authors: Yang SJ, Kim J, Lee SE, Ahn JY, Choi SY, Cho SW Abstract We aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of KHG26792, a novel azetidine derivative, in amyloid β (Aβ)-treated primary microglial cells. KHG26792 attenuated the Aβ-induced production of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and nitric oxide. The levels of protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, RO...
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yang SJ, Kim J, Lee SE, Ahn JY, Choi SY, Cho SW Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Hypoxia suffocates histone demethylases to change gene expression: a metabolic control of histone methylation.
Abstract Hypoxia affects various physiological and pathophyological processes. Hypoxia changes the expression of the hypoxia-responsive genes through two main pathways. First, hypoxia activates transcription factors (TF) such as Hypoxia-inducible Factor (HIF). Second, hypoxia decreases the activity of Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylases (JMJDs) that require O2 and α-Ketoglutarate (α-KG) as substrates. The JMJDs affect gene expression through their regulation of the active or repressive histone methylations. We conducted profiling of H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 under both normoxia and hy...
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Park H Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
Pro-tumorigenic roles of TGF- β signaling during the early stages of liver tumorigenesis through upregulation of Snail.
Pro-tumorigenic roles of TGF-β signaling during the early stages of liver tumorigenesis through upregulation of Snail. BMB Rep. 2017 Oct 25;: Authors: Moon H, Han KH, Ro SW Abstract Many studies have focused on the tumor suppressive role of TGF-β signaling during the early stages of tumorigenesis by activating the target genes involved in cytostasis and apoptosis. We investigated the effects of TGF-β inhibition on early tumorigenesis in the liver, by employing diverse inhibitory methods. Strikingly, TGF-β inhibition consistently suppressed hepatic tumorigenesis that was induced eit...
Source: BMB Reports - October 25, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Moon H, Han KH, Ro SW Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research