Reducing sexual victimization among adolescent girls: a randomized controlled pilot trial of my voice, my choice.
This study seeks to add to the literature by evaluating the effects of My Voice, My Choice (MVMC), a 90-minute assertive resistance training program that emphasizes skill practice in an immersive virtual environment (IVE). We hypothesized that MVMC would reduce male-to-female sexual victimization among adolescent girls over a 3-month follow-up period. We also examined whether these results would generalize to other forms of male-to-female relationship violence and to girls' psychological distress. Eighty-three female students from an urban public high school were randomized to MVMC (n=47) or to a wait-list control conditio...
Source: Behavior Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rowe LS, Jouriles EN, McDonald R Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Are 60-Minute Prolonged Exposure Sessions With 20-Minute Imaginal Exposure to Traumatic Memories Sufficient to Successfully Treat PTSD? A Randomized Noninferiority Clinical Trial.
Abstract The study aims to determine whether 60-minute sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) that include 20minutes of imaginal exposure (IE) are noninferior to the standard 90-minute sessions that include 40minutes of IE in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to explore the relationship of treatment outcome to within- and between-session habituation and change in negative cognitions. Thirty-nine adult veterans with chronic PTSD were randomly assigned to 90-minute (n=19) or 60-minute (n=20) sessions of PE. PTSD symptoms were assessed by an unaware independent evaluator before and after treatment and at...
Source: Behavior Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nacasch N, Huppert JD, Su YJ, Kivity Y, Dinshtein Y, Yeh R, Foa EB Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Evidence that a volitional help sheet reduces alcohol consumption among smokers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Abstract Cigarette smokers have greater problems with alcohol than members of the general population, due partly to the influence of smoking on alcohol consumption. The present study was designed to test the ability of implementation intentions to reduce alcohol consumption among cigarette smokers. Sixty-five smokers (37 women, 28 men; age M=33.77, SD=9.69) were randomly allocated to an active control condition (n=31) or were asked to form implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet (n=34). The outcome measure was subsequent alcohol intake, measured 1-month postbaseline. There was a significant decreas...
Source: Behavior Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Armitage CJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Intensive Group-Based CBT for Child Social Phobia: A Pilot Study.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are encouraging, and suggest that brief, intensive, group CBT for children with social anxiety is beneficial for many youngsters. PMID: 25892171 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Donovan CL, Cobham V, Waters AM, Occhipinti S Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Parenting skills and parent readiness for treatment are associated with child disruptive behavior and parent participation in treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Consideration of parent readiness and skills, in addition to symptom severity, may inform clinical decision making and screening procedures. PMID: 25892172 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Andrade BF, Browne DT, Naber AR Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The influence of emotion down-regulation on the expectation of sexual reward.
Abstract Emotion regulation research has shown successful altering of unwanted aversive emotional reactions. Cognitive strategies can also regulate expectations of reward arising from conditioned stimuli. However, less is known about the efficacy of such strategies with expectations elicited by conditioned appetitive sexual stimuli, and possible sex differences therein. In the present study it was examined whether a cognitive strategy (attentional deployment) could successfully down-regulate sexual arousal elicited by sexual reward-conditioned cues in men and women. A differential conditioning paradigm was applied...
Source: Behavior Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brom M, Laan E, Everaerd W, Spinhoven P, Cousijn J, Both S Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Mediators of exposure therapy for youth obsessive-compulsive disorder: specificity and temporal sequence of client and treatment factors.
CONCLUSIONS: The study provides a preliminary examination of specificity and temporal sequence among child and therapist behaviors in predicting youth anxiety. Results suggest that therapists should educate clients in the natural rebound effects of anxiety between sessions and should be aware of the negatively reinforcing properties of avoidance during exposure. PMID: 25892174 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Chu BC, Colognori DB, Yang G, Xie MG, Lindsey Bergman R, Piacentini J Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Immediate effect of couple relationship education on low-satisfaction couples: a randomized clinical trial plus an uncontrolled trial replication.
Abstract Couple relationship education (RE) usually is conceived of as relationship enhancement for currently satisfied couples, with a goal of helping couples sustain satisfaction. However, RE also might be useful as a brief, accessible intervention for couples with low satisfaction. Two studies were conducted that tested whether couples with low relationship satisfaction show meaningful gains after RE. Study 1 was a three-condition randomized controlled trial in which 182 couples were randomly assigned to RELATE with Couple CARE (RCC), a flexible delivery education program for couples, or one of two control cond...
Source: Behavior Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kim Halford W, Pepping CA, Hilpert P, Bodenmann G, Wilson KL, Busby D, Larson J, Holman T Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Specific phobias in youth: a randomized controlled trial comparing one-session treatment to a parent-augmented one-session treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Parent augmentation of OST produced no appreciable gains in treatment outcomes. Directions for future research are highlighted. PMID: 25645164 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ollendick TH, Halldorsdottir T, Fraire MG, Austin KE, Noguchi RJ, Lewis KM, Jarrett MA, Cunningham NR, Canavera K, Allen KB, Whitmore MJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Implications of RDoC for the Research and Practice of Psychotherapy.
Abstract The field of psychotherapy is at an important juncture. Recent changes in the field include (a) the skeptical reception of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and (b) NIMH's prioritization of an alternative classification system to guide translational and intervention research. Moreover, (c) the field continues to be held accountable to governmental agencies and third-party payers to demonstrate its empirical basis. Thus, psychological research as it relates to the practice of psychotherapy is at a crossroads. In this article, we provide a brief overview of several generations of ps...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hershenberg R, Goldfried MR Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Preliminary effects of progressive muscle relaxation on cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms in experienced smokers in acute cigarette abstinence: a randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSIONS: PMR significantly reduces cigarette craving, withdrawal symptoms, and blood pressure in smokers undergoing acute abstinence. PMR may be used as an adjunct to cigarette dependency treatments. PMID: 25645166 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Limsanon T, Kalayasiri R Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

A randomized hybrid efficacy and effectiveness trial of behavioral activation for latinos with depression.
est P Abstract Depression presents a significant public health burden for Latinos, the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the United States. The current study performed a randomized controlled trial of Behavioral Activation (BA) for Latinos (BAL, n=21), with relatively minor modifications, compared to treatment as usual (TAU, n=22) in a community mental health clinic setting with a sample of depressed, Spanish-speaking Latinos. TAU was a strong comparison condition, taking place at the same clinic, under the same guidelines and clinic protocols, with similar levels of ongoing consultation, and using the...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kanter JW, Santiago-Rivera AL, Santos MM, Nagy G, López M, Hurtado GD, West P Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of depression: a randomized controlled trial.
Abstract UNLABELLED: Depression is a common and significant health problem among older adults. Unfortunately, while effective psychological treatments exist, few older adults access treatment. The aim of the present randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the efficacy, long-term outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of a therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) intervention for Australian adults over 60years of age with symptoms of depression. Participants were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n=29) or a delayed-treatment waitlist control group (n=25). Twenty-seven t...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Titov N, Dear BF, Ali S, Zou JB, Lorian CN, Johnston L, Terides MD, Kayrouz R, Klein B, Gandy M, Fogliati VJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.
Abstract UNLABELLED: There is preliminary support for internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) as a way of improving access to treatment among older adults with anxiety. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the efficacy, long-term outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of an iCBT program for adults over 60years of age with anxiety. Successful applicants were randomly allocated to either the treatment group (n=35) or the waitlist control group (n=37). The online treatment course was delivered over 8weeks and provided with brief weekly contact with a clinical psychologist via telep...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dear BF, Zou JB, Ali S, Lorian CN, Johnston L, Sheehan J, Staples LG, Gandy M, Fogliati VJ, Klein B, Titov N Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

A randomized clinical trial of a brief family intervention to reduce accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a preliminary study.
Abstract Accommodation consists of changes in family members' behavior to prevent or reduce patients' obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals or distress. High levels of family accommodation are associated with more severe symptoms and functional impairment in patients, and may also interfere with exposure-based treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an intervention to reduce accommodation in the family members of adult OCD patients. Patients (N=18, mean age=35.44, 33% male, 94% Caucasian) received a course of standard individual exposure and ritual prevention (ERP) for OCD. Family member...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Thompson-Hollands J, Abramovitch A, Tompson MC, Barlow DH Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Evaluating Statistical and Clinical Significance of Intervention Effects in Single-Case Experimental Designs: An SPSS Method to Analyze Univariate Data.
Abstract Single-case experimental designs are useful methods in clinical research practice to investigate individual client progress. Their proliferation might have been hampered by methodological challenges such as the difficulty applying existing statistical procedures. In this article, we describe a data-analytic method to analyze univariate (i.e., one symptom) single-case data using the common package SPSS. This method can help the clinical researcher to investigate whether an intervention works as compared with a baseline period or another intervention type, and to determine whether symptom improvement is cli...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maric M, de Haan E, Hogendoorn SM, Wolters LH, Huizenga HM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Extreme cognitions in bipolar spectrum disorders: associations with personality disorder characteristics and risk for episode recurrence.
Abstract Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are often characterized by cognitive inflexibility and affective extremities, including "extreme" or polarized thoughts and beliefs, which have been shown to predict a more severe course of illness. However, little research has evaluated factors that may be associated with extreme cognitions, such as personality disorders, which are often characterized by extreme, inflexible beliefs and are also associated with poor illness course in BSDs. The present study evaluated associations among BSDs, personality disorder characteristics, and extreme cognitions (polarized...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stange JP, Adams AM, O'Garro-Moore JK, Weiss RB, Ong ML, Walshaw PD, Abramson LY, Alloy LB Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The relationships among social comparisons, body surveillance, and body dissatisfaction in the natural environment.
We examined the relationships among social comparisons (i.e., body, eating, and exercise), body surveillance, and body dissatisfaction in the natural environment. Participants were 232 college women who completed a daily diary protocol for 2weeks, responding to online surveys 3 times per day. When the contemporaneous relationships among these variables were examined in a single model, results indicated that comparing one's body, eating, or exercise to others or engaging in body surveillance was associated with elevated body dissatisfaction in the same short-term assessment period. Additionally, individuals with high trait-...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fitzsimmons-Craft EE, Bardone-Cone AM, Wonderlich SA, Crosby RD, Engel SG, Bulik CM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Countering Fear Renewal: Changes in the UCS Representation Generalize Across Contexts.
Abstract After treatment of anxiety disorders, fear often returns. Analogue studies show that outside the extinction context the conditional stimulus (CS) activates the acquisition memory (CS predicts unconditional stimulus; UCS), rather than the extinction memory (CS does not predict UCS). Conditioning theory postulates that fear also diminishes after a reduction in the subjective cost of the UCS, which can occur in absence of any changes in the CS-UCS association. We hypothesized that fear reduction via "UCS deflation" generalizes across context. Healthy students underwent acquisition in context A with...
Source: Behavior Therapy - February 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Leer A, Engelhard IM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Advances in evidence-based intervention and assessment practices for youth with an autism spectrum disorder.
Abstract This special series is designed to highlight recent advances in the evidence-based treatment and assessment of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The seven articles for this special series include novel applications of cognitive-behavioral therapy to address core aspects of ASD, empirical research that provides understanding of ways to assess and intervene with individuals with ASD, and studies that focus on the implementation of evidence-based interventions for youth with ASD. In this introductory paper, we provide an overview of the current state of the field related to the treatment and assessm...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: McLeod BD, Wood JJ, Klebanoff S Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial.
Abstract Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009) was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Thirty-three adolescents (11-15years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-sp...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wood JJ, Ehrenreich-May J, Alessandri M, Fujii C, Renno P, Laugeson E, Piacentini JC, De Nadai AS, Arnold E, Lewin AB, Murphy TK, Storch EA Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Improving peer engagement of children with autism on the school playground: a randomized controlled trial.
This study aimed to test the effects of a psychosocial intervention, Remaking Recess, on peer engagement for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a randomized, wait-list-controlled design, the intervention was implemented during recess at four elementary schools. The immediate treatment (IT) group consisted of 13 (2 female) elementary school students with ASD and the wait-list (WL) group contained 11 (4 female) students with ASD. All of the children with ASD were fully included in the general education program. Analyses revealed that time spent engaged with peers was significantly increased for the IT group ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kretzmann M, Shih W, Kasari C Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Not to Be Overshadowed or Overlooked: Functional Impairments Associated With Comorbid Anxiety Disorders in Youth With ASD.
This study's objective was to examine associations between comorbid anxiety disorders and difficulties commonly attributed to both anxiety and ASD (autism spectrum disorder) including self-injury, depressive symptoms, functional communication, social skill deficits and parent stress, in a well-characterized sample of youth with ASD. Fifty-nine verbally fluent participants (7-17 years; 93% Caucasian) diagnosed with ASD and their parents completed semistructured diagnostic interviews to confirm ASD diagnosis and assess for anxiety disorders. Parents completed questionnaires on child behavior and social skill as well as paren...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kerns CM, Kendall PC, Zickgraf H, Franklin ME, Miller J, Herrington J Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Anxiety in youth with and without autism spectrum disorder: examination of factorial equivalence.
This study sought to examine the metric and latent factor equivalence of anxiety as measured by the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, parent-report (MASC-P) and child-report (MASC-C), in youth with anxiety disorders and ASD with intact verbal ability (n=109, Mage=11.67years, 99 male) and a gender-matched comparison group of typically developing (TD) children and adolescents with anxiety disorders but without ASD (n=342, Mage=11.25years, 246 male). Multigroup factorial invariance (MFI) using structural equation modeling indicated equivalent latent factors in youth with and without ASD on the MASC-C (metric invari...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: White SW, Lerner MD, McLeod BD, Wood JJ, Ginsburg GS, Kerns C, Ollendick T, Kendall PC, Piacentini J, Walkup J, Compton S Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

A tangled web: the challenges of implementing an evidence-based social engagement intervention for children with autism in urban public school settings.
Abstract There is growing evidence that efficacious autism-related interventions rarely are adopted or successfully implemented in public schools, in part because of the lack of fit between the intervention and the needs and capacities of the school setting. There is little systematic information available regarding the barriers to implementation of complex interventions such as those addressing social engagement for children with autism.The present study used fieldnotes from an implementation trial to explore barriers that emerged during the training of school personnel and subsequent implementation of a social e...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Locke J, Olsen A, Wideman R, Downey MM, Kretzmann M, Kasari C, Mandell DS Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Professionals' reported provision and recommendation of psychosocial interventions for youth with autism spectrum disorder.
This study highlights the usefulness of examining not only provision of services but also recommendation/referral practices: professionals are important sources of information for families. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of the importance of disseminating intervention information to professionals and the need for consensus on terminology used to classify interventions and on criteria used to evaluate intervention efficacy. PMID: 25526836 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Christon LM, Arnold CC, Myers BJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Toward the implementation of evidence-based interventions for youth with autism spectrum disorders in schools and community agencies.
Abstract Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are rarely found in community settings where most youth with ASD receive services. Implementation research designed to help bridge this gap is needed. However, efforts to implement EBIs in community settings face a number of barriers. The main purpose of this article is to illustrate how making EBIs more flexible and integrative may help improve their utility and may increase their uptake by stakeholders in community mental health and school settings. We conclude with an example of a modular, stepped-care program that might...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wood JJ, McLeod BD, Klebanoff S, Brookman-Frazee L Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

What changes in cognitive therapy for depression? An examination of cognitive therapy skills and maladaptive beliefs.
This study examined effortful cognitive skills and underlying maladaptive beliefs among patients treated with cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. Depressed patients (n=44) completed cognitive measures before and after 16 weeks of CT. Measures included an assessment of CT skills (Ways of Responding Scale; WOR), an implicit test of maladaptive beliefs (Implicit Association Test; IAT), and a self-report questionnaire of maladaptive beliefs (Dysfunctional Attitude Scale; DAS). A matched sample of never-depressed participants (n=44) also completed study measures. Prior to treatment, depressed patients endorsed significantly ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Adler AD, Strunk DR, Fazio RH Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Interpretation biases in paranoia.
In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group compa...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Savulich G, Freeman D, Shergill S, Yiend J Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Temporal associations between disordered eating and nonsuicidal self-injury: examining symptom overlap over 1 year.
This study compared several models of the longitudinal relationship between DE and NSSI, including concurrent and prospective models, and examined the possible moderating roles of self-objectification, impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation in these relationships. Individuals with NSSI (N=197) recruited from online forums completed measures of NSSI and DE every 3months for 1year. We tested the associations between NSSI and DE using hierarchical linear models. Results supported a concurrent relationship, wherein frequency of NSSI positively covaried with concurrent DE severity. Body surveillance moderated the concurrent rel...
Source: Behavior Therapy - December 26, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Turner BJ, Yiu A, Layden BK, Claes L, Zaitsoff S, Chapman AL Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Exposing clinicians to exposure: a randomized controlled dissemination trial of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.
CONCLUSIONS: Multicomponent trainings that address multiple potential barriers to dissemination appear to be most effective in improving clinician outcomes. Technology-based training methods offer a satisfactory, effective, and scalable way to train mental health providers in evidence-based treatments such as ET. PMID: 25311284 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Harned MS, Dimeff LA, Woodcock EA, Kelly T, Zavertnik J, Contreras I, Danner SM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Brief interventions to reduce ecstasy use: a multi-site randomized controlled trial.
Abstract Studies examining the ability of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) to augment education provision among ecstasy users have produced mixed results and none have examined whether treatment fidelity was related to ecstasy use outcomes. The primary objectives of this multi-site, parallel, two-group randomized controlled trial were to determine if a single-session of MET could instill greater commitment to change and reduce ecstasy use and related problems more so than an education-only intervention and whether MET sessions delivered with higher treatment fidelity are associated with better outcomes. The ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Norberg MM, Hides L, Olivier J, Khawar L, McKetin R, Copeland J Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Randomized controlled trial of a family intervention for children bullied by peers.
This study examined the effects of a family intervention on victimization and emotional distress of children bullied by peers. The intervention, Resilience Triple P, combined facilitative parenting and teaching children social and emotional skills relevant to developing strong peer relationships and addressing problems with peers. Facilitative parenting is parenting that supports the development of children's peer relationship skills. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 111 families who reported chronic bullying of children aged 6 to 12years. Families were randomly allocated to either an immediate start to Res...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Healy KL, Sanders MR Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability to suicidal ideation: a weakest link approach.
This study implies that weakest link models from depression may be useful in understanding which individuals are most vulnerable to experiencing suicidal ideation in the context of stress. PMID: 25311287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kleiman EM, Riskind JH, Stange JP, Hamilton JL, Alloy LB Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Differential predictors of transient stress versus posttraumatic stress disorder: evaluating risk following targeted mass violence.
Abstract Schools have become a common incident site for targeted mass violence, including mass shootings. Although exposure to mass violence can result in significant distress, most individuals are able to fully recover over time, while a minority develop more pervasive pathology, such as PTSD. The present study investigated how several pre- and posttrauma factors predict posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in both the acute and distal aftermath of a campus mass shooting using a sample with known levels of pretrauma functioning (N=573). Although the largest proportion of participants evidenced resilience followin...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Miron LR, Orcutt HK, Kumpula MJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Associations between sleep hygiene and insomnia severity in college students: cross-sectional and prospective analyses.
This study examined the prevalence of diverse sleep hygiene behaviors and their associations with insomnia severity in two independent samples of college students from a cross-sectional (N=548; mean age=19; 59% female; 71% White) and a two-wave short-term prospective (N=157; mean age=19; 71% female; 76% White) study. A total of 12% to 13% of students reported clinically significant insomnia. On average, students reported frequent engagement in inconsistent sleep-wake schedules and lounging and worrying/thinking about important matters in the bed. Improper sleep scheduling, behaviors that promote arousal near bedtime, and u...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gellis LA, Park A, Stotsky MT, Taylor DJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Attributions and race are critical: perceived criticism in a sample of african american and white community participants.
Abstract The current investigation had two principal goals: (a) to examine whether attributions regarding the intentions underlying criticism from one's relative predict perceived criticism from that relative and (b) to explore differences between African Americans and Whites in attributions and perceived criticism. A new measure, the Attributions of Criticism Scale, was employed in the present study to assess attributions of perceived criticism. Results showed that the attributions scale demonstrated good psychometric properties in a sample of African American (n=78) and White (n=165) community participants. As h...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Allred KM, Chambless DL Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

What Does the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) Really Measure?
Abstract The present study seeks to investigate the extent to which the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) is successful in discriminating between experiential avoidance/psychological flexibility on the one hand and the supposed outcomes in terms of psychological well-being of having this trait on the other. This was done using exploratory factor analysis on an item pool containing the AAQ-II items, and items designed for the present study to measure distress and acceptance/non-acceptance, to see what factors are identified and on which factor(s) the AAQ-II items had the highest factor loadings. Interest...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wolgast M Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

A longitudinal study of experiential avoidance in emotional disorders.
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the degree in which measurements of trait experiential avoidance (EA) are affected by current emotional disorder and whether EA is a causal factor in the course of emotional disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) and the development of comorbidity among emotional disorders. In a sample of 2,316 adults aged 18 to 65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history of emotional disorders, and persons with a current emotional disorder, DSM-IV-based emotional disorders (CIDI: Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument) were assessed at T2 and 2 (T4) and 4...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Spinhoven P, Drost J, de Rooij M, van Hemert AM, Penninx BW Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Try to find me: social anxiety and peer first impressions.
Abstract Following initial interactions, some people are less willing to pursue ongoing contact with socially anxious individuals than with those who are not socially anxious. To better understand this process, we conducted two studies that examined peers' first impressions of target individuals. Unacquainted individuals (N=104 and 114) participated in round robin, unstructured interactions in groups of 3 to 10 and then rated each partner and themselves on items reflecting the Big Five personality dimensions. The ratings were analyzed according to Biesanz's (2010) social accuracy model of interpersonal perception,...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Aiken A, Human LJ, Alden LE, Biesanz JC Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Assessing decentering: validation, psychometric properties, and clinical usefulness of the experiences questionnaire in a spanish sample.
Portella MJ Abstract Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings in a detached manner. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) is a self-report instrument that originally assessed decentering and rumination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of EQ-Decentering and to explore its clinical usefulness. The 11-item EQ-Decentering subscale was translated into Spanish and psychometric properties were examined in a sample of 921 adult individuals, 231 with psychiatric disorders and 690 without. The subsample of nonpsychiatric participan...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Soler J, Franquesa A, Feliu-Soler A, Cebolla A, García-Campayo J, Tejedor R, Demarzo M, Baños R, Pascual JC, Portella MJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The role of perceived control over anxiety in prospective symptom reports across the menstrual cycle.
Abstract The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mahon JN, Rohan KJ, Nillni YI, Zvolensky MJ Tags: Arch Womens Ment Health Source Type: research

Introduction.
Abstract Cognitive behavioral therapy evolved from systematic studies testing learning theories. This research led to the development of effective treatment approaches for a variety of disorders. In more recent years we have moved away from relying on experimental psychopathology studies to directly inform our treatment approaches. This paper describes why the alienation from experimental psychopathology studies is detrimental to the advancement of treatment approaches. Examples of how systematic research can be conducted to address questions regarding treatment mechanisms and moderators are provided. Drawing on e...
Source: Behavior Therapy - July 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sloan DM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.
Abstract This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of respondin...
Source: Behavior Therapy - July 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rozenman M, Amir N, Weersing VR Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.
This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rat...
Source: Behavior Therapy - July 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Miller NV, Haas SM, Waschbusch DA, Willoughby MT, Helseth SA, Crum KI, Coles EK, Pelham WE Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

De novo fear conditioning across diagnostic groups in the affective disorders: evidence for learning impairments.
Abstract De novo fear conditioning paradigms have served as a model for how clinical anxiety may be acquired and maintained. To further examine variable findings in the acquisition and extinction of fear responses between clinical and nonclinical samples, we assessed de novo fear conditioning outcomes in outpatients with either anxiety disorders or depression and healthy subjects recruited from the community. Overall, we found evidence for attenuated fear conditioning, as measured by skin conductance, among the patient sample, with significantly lower fear acquisition among patients with depression and posttraumat...
Source: Behavior Therapy - July 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Otto MW, Moshier SJ, Kinner DG, Simon NM, Pollack MH, Orr SP Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Altering impulsive decision making with an acceptance-based procedure.
Abstract Delay discounting is one facet of impulsive decision making and involves subjectively devaluing a delayed outcome. Steeply discounting delayed rewards is correlated with substance abuse and other problematic behaviors. To the extent that steep delay discounting underlies these clinical disorders, it would be advantageous to find psychosocial avenues for reducing delay discounting. Acceptance-based interventions may prove useful as they may help to decrease the distress that arises while waiting for a delayed outcome. The current study was conducted to determine if a 60-90minute acceptance-based training w...
Source: Behavior Therapy - July 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Morrison KL, Madden GJ, Odum AL, Friedel JE, Twohig MP Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Behavioral approach system sensitivity and risk taking interact to predict left-frontal EEG asymmetry.
Abstract The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relative left-frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry. BAS sensitivity moderated the relationship between...
Source: Behavior Therapy - July 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Black CL, Goldstein KE, LaBelle DR, Brown CW, Harmon-Jones E, Abramson LY, Alloy LB Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Associations among smoking, anhedonia, and reward learning in depression.
Abstract Depression and cigarette smoking co-occur at high rates. However, the etiological mechanisms that contribute to this relationship remain unclear. Anhedonia and associated impairments in reward learning are key features of depression, which also have been linked to the onset and maintenance of cigarette smoking. However, few studies have investigated differences in anhedonia and reward learning among depressed smokers and depressed nonsmokers. The goal of this study was to examine putative differences in anhedonia and reward learning in depressed smokers (n=36) and depressed nonsmokers (n=44). To this end,...
Source: Behavior Therapy - July 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Liverant GI, Sloan DM, Pizzagalli DA, Harte CB, Kamholz BW, Rosebrock LE, Cohen AL, Fava M, Kaplan GB Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Cognitive mediators of treatment for social anxiety disorder: comparing acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Rate of change in negative cognitions at the beginning of treatment is an important predictor of change across both ACT and CBT, whereas rate of change in experiential avoidance at the beginning of treatment is a mechanism specific to ACT. PMID: 25022777 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - July 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Niles AN, Burklund LJ, Arch JJ, Lieberman MD, Saxbe D, Craske MG Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research