A Randomized Open Trial Assessing the Feasibility of Behavioral Activation for Pathological Grief Responding.
This study investigated the feasibility of using behavioral activation to treat enduring postbereavement mental health difficulties using a two-arm, multiple baseline design comparing an immediate start group to a delayed start group at baseline, 12-, 24-, and 36-weeks postrandomization. Participants received 12-14 sessions of behavioral activation within a 12-week intervention period starting immediately after the first assessment or after 12weeks for the delayed start group. Prolonged grief, posttraumatic stress, and depression symptoms were assessed as outcomes. Compared with no treatment, behavioral activation was asso...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 11, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Papa A, Sewell MT, Garrison-Diehn C, Rummel C Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Development of a Brief Version of the Social Phobia Inventory Using Item Response Theory: The Mini-SPIN-R.
Abstract The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) is a widely used measure in mental health settings and a 3-item version (mini-SPIN) has been developed as a screening instrument for social anxiety disorder. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the SPIN and developed a brief version (mini-SPIN-R) designed to assess social anxiety severity using item response theory. Our sample included 569 individuals with social anxiety disorder who participated in 2 clinical trials and filled out a battery of self-report measures. Using a nonparametric kernel smoothing method we identified the most sensitiv...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 11, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Aderka IM, Pollack MH, Simon NM, Smits JA, Van Ameringen M, Stein MB, Hofmann SG Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of Attention Training for Generalized Social Phobia: Does Attention Training Change Social Behavior?
Abstract The use of attention training protocols for the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) is undergoing increased examination. Initial investigations were positive but more recent investigations have been less supportive of the treatment paradigm. One significant limitation of current investigations is overreliance on self-report. In this investigation, we expanded on initial investigations by using a multimodal assessment of patient functioning (i.e., including behavioral assessment). Patients with a primary diagnosis of SAD (n=31) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of attention traini...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 11, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bunnell BE, Beidel DC, Mesa F Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Reducing TV Watching During Adult Obesity Treatment: Two Pilot Randomized Controlled Trials.
Abstract The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors are not well understood. Two, 8-week, pilot, randomized controlled trials were conducted examining the effect of a reduced TV watching prescription on energy balance behaviors and weight loss within an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention. In the first study, participan...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 11, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Raynor HA, Steeves EA, Bassett DR, Thompson DL, Gorin AA, Bond DS Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Couple Relationship Distress and Observed Expression of Intimacy During Reminiscence About Positive Relationship Events.
Abstract Satisfied couples report that positive, intimate communication is central to their relationship. We developed the positive reminiscence task, in which couples discuss positive relationship moments to assess communication of positive intimacy. The behavior and heart rate of 28 satisfied and 25 distressed couples were assessed during positive reminiscence and problem solving. As predicted, satisfied couples demonstrated higher rates of positive affect and dyadic intimacy than distressed couples during positive reminiscence, and these positive behaviors occurred at much lower rates during problem solving tha...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 11, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Osgarby SM, Halford WK Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Mental Imagery and Post-Event Processing in Anticipation of a Speech Performance Among Socially Anxious Individuals.
Abstract The present study investigated whether post-event processing (PEP) involving mental imagery about a past speech is particularly detrimental for socially anxious individuals who are currently anticipating giving a speech. One hundred fourteen high and low socially anxious participants were told they would give a 5min impromptu speech at the end of the experimental session. They were randomly assigned to one of three manipulation conditions: post-event processing about a past speech incorporating imagery (PEP-Imagery), semantic post-event processing about a past speech (PEP-Semantic), or a control condition...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 11, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brozovich FA, Heimberg RG Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Treating PTSD in Patients With Psychosis: A Within-Group Controlled Feasibility Study Examining the Efficacy and Safety of Evidence-Based PE and EMDR Protocols.
Abstract The present study uses a within-group controlled design to examine the efficacy and safety of two psychological approaches to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 10 patients with a concurrent psychotic disorder. Patients were randomly assigned either to prolonged exposure (PE; N=5) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR; N=5). Before, during, and after treatment, a total of 20 weekly assessments of PTSD symptoms, hallucinations, and delusions were carried out. Twelve weekly assessments of adverse events took place during the treatment phase. PTSD diagnosis, level of social functioning,...
Source: Behavior Therapy - October 11, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: de Bont PA, van Minnen A, de Jongh A Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Epidemiology of insomnia in college students: relationship with mental health, quality of life, and substance use difficulties.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of insomnia using rigorous diagnostic criteria and a comprehensive assessment battery. In a large sample (N=1,074) of college students (mean age 20.39years), participants were asked to complete a week-long sleep diary and comprehensive questionnaire packet assessing recommended daytime functioning domains (i.e., fatigue, quality of life, depression, anxiety, stress, academic performance, substance use) during the academic year. A significant portion of this sample of college students met proposed DSM-5 criteria for chronic insomnia (9...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Taylor DJ, Bramoweth AD, Grieser EA, Tatum JI, Roane BM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Distress tolerance and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns: testing the incremental contributions of affect dysregulation constructs on suicidal ideation and suicide attempt.
Abstract Empirical work has suggested relationships among suicide-related outcomes and several constructs related to affect dysregulation, notably anxiety sensitivity (AS) and distress tolerance (DT). However, important questions remain, including the relative contributions of these affect regulation variables as well as the direct contribution of DT on suicidal ideation and prior attempts. The current study sought to better elucidate the nature of these relationships by examining AS, DT, and suicidal ideation and attempt in a clinical sample (N=192). Consistent with prior work and prediction, findings revealed a ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Capron DW, Norr AM, Macatee RJ, Schmidt NB Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

A Clinical Trial of In-Home CBT for Depressed Mothers in Home Visitation.
This study examined the efficacy of IH-CBT using a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 93 new mothers in a home visiting program. Mothers with major depressive disorder identified at 3months postpartum were randomized into IH-CBT and ongoing home visitation (n=47) or standard home visitation (SHV; n=46) in which they received home visitation alone and could obtain treatment in the community. Depression was measured at pre- and posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up using interviews, clinician ratings, and self-report. Mothers receiving IH-CBT showed improvements in all indicators of depression relative to the SHV condit...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ammerman RT, Putnam FW, Altaye M, Stevens J, Teeters AR, Van Ginkel JB Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Mapping mindfulness facets onto dimensions of anxiety and depression.
Abstract Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Participants were 187 treatment-seekin...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Desrosiers A, Klemanski DH, Nolen-Hoeksema S Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The impact of rumination on state paranoid ideation in a nonclinical sample.
This study aimed to experimentally test the hypothesis that rumination may play a role in the maintenance or exacerbation of state paranoid ideation. Following a paranoia induction, 37 nonclinical participants were randomly assigned to either a rumination task or a distraction control condition. In accord with main hypothesis, rumination was associated with maintained levels of paranoia, whereas distraction was associated with a decrease in levels of paranoia. These findings suggest that perseverative thinking may play a role in the maintenance of paranoid ideas, which may have implications for our understanding of the mai...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Martinelli C, Cavanagh K, Dudley RE Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Treating obsessive-compulsive disorder in intimate relationships: a pilot study of couple-based cognitive-behavior therapy.
Abstract Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) involving exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an established treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), not all patients respond optimally, and some show relapse upon discontinuation. Research suggests that for OCD patients in close relationships, targeting relationship dynamics enhances the effects of CBT. In the present study, we developed and pilot tested a 16-session couple-based CBT program for patients with OCD and their romantic partners. This program included (a) partner-assisted ERP, (b) techniques targeting maladaptive relationship patter...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Abramowitz JS, Baucom DH, Boeding S, Wheaton MG, Pukay-Martin ND, Fabricant LE, Paprocki C, Fischer MS Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Characteristics of individuals seeking treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Abstract Despite severe functional impairment, only 35% to 40% of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seek treatment, and fewer than 10% receive evidence-based treatment. The current study examined the characteristics of 525 individuals who contacted the clinic of the Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety at the University of Pennsylvania to inquire about OCD treatment and completed a phone screen. Callers who were deemed appropriate for the clinic (n=396, 75%) were invited to participate in an in-person intake evaluation. Only 137 (35%) of the eligible individuals completed the intake eva...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Levy HC, McLean CP, Yadin E, Foa EB Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Anxiety sensitivity and interoceptive exposure: a transdiagnostic construct and change strategy.
This study (a) evaluated levels of AS across different anxiety disorders, (b) examined change in AS over the course of transdiagnostic psychological intervention, and its relationship with outcome, and (c) described the implementation of IE to address AS with patients with different anxiety disorders. Participants (N=54) were patients who received treatment with the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) in two consecutive treatment trials. Participants completed a measure of AS at pre- and posttreatment, and multiple occasions during treatment. Symptom severity was assessed at pre- and ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Boswell JF, Farchione TJ, Sauer-Zavala S, Murray HW, Fortune MR, Barlow DH Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Differential Associations Between Perceived and Objective Measurement of Distress Tolerance in Relation to Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence and Response Among HIV-Positive Individuals.
Abstract The present study sought to extend prior work, showing an association between self-reported distress tolerance and self-reported antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence, by conducting a multimethod test of the association between distress tolerance and objective measures of ART adherence among a sample of 140 individuals (23.6% female) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Findings indicated that, after accounting for negative affectivity and ART side-effect severity, distress tolerance was significantly associated with pill count adherence as well as viral load. Specifically, a differential associati...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Oser ML, Trafton JA, Lejuez CW, Bonn-Miller MO Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Cultural diversity: do we need a new wake-up call for parent training?
We present methodological and conceptual limitations in the existing literature and provide recommendations for researchers studying the effects of ethnicity on PT outcomes. PMID: 23768671 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ortiz C, Del Vecchio T Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Experiential avoidance as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and perceived stress.
Abstract Given the significant deleterious effects of stress on psychological and physical well-being, the present two-part study sought to clarify relations among putative vulnerability factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance) for perceived stress. Relations among anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance, and perceived stress were examined using a large college student sample (N=400) in Study 1 and were replicated using a large community sample (N=838) in Study 2. As predicted, experiential avoidance moderated the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and perceived stress. Contrary to exp...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bardeen JR, Fergus TA, Orcutt HK Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicts social anxiety symptoms in young adults.
Abstract Peer victimization leads to negative outcomes such as increased anxiety and depression. The prospective relationship between peer victimization and social anxiety in children and adolescents is well established, and adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are more likely than individuals with other anxiety disorders to report a history of teasing. However, a crucial bridge between these findings (peer victimization in young adults) is missing. We manipulated perceptions of peer exclusion in a young adult sample (N=108) using the Cyberball Ostracism Task. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicted s...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Levinson CA, Langer JK, Rodebaugh TL Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Effects of interpretation training on hostile attribution bias and reactivity to interpersonal insult.
Abstract Research suggests that individuals high in anger have a bias for attributing hostile intentions to ambiguous situations. The current study tested whether this interpretation bias can be altered to influence anger reactivity to an interpersonal insult using a single-session cognitive bias modification program. One hundred thirty-five undergraduate students were randomized to receive positive training, negative training, or a control condition. Anger reactivity to insult was then assessed. Positive training led to significantly greater increases in positive interpretation bias relative to the negative group...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hawkins KA, Cougle JR Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Depression in homebound older adults: problem-solving therapy and personal and social resourcefulness.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telehealth-PST. Resourcefulness Scale for Older Adults was used to measure personal and social resourcefulness. Only personal resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with depression outcomes at postintervention, and neither resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with group assi...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Choi NG, Marti CN, Bruce ML, Hegel MT Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.
Abstract Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoida...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Krieger T, Altenstein D, Baettig I, Doerig N, Holtforth MG Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Initial Evaluation of an Integrated Treatment for Comorbid PTSD and Smoking Using a Nonconcurrent, Multiple-Baseline Design.
Abstract The present study examined an integrated treatment for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and smoking entitled "Smoke-Free to Overcome PTSD: An Integrated Treatment" (STOP IT program). A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design was used with six community-recruited adult smokers with PTSD to investigate both patient acceptance of the treatment and its initial efficacy on both PTSD and smoking. Potential order effects of exposure-based and affect management components were also examined. A gold-standard assessment strategy that included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al....
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Feldner MT, Smith RC, Monson CM, Zvolensky MJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Emotion differentiation as a protective factor against nonsuicidal self-injury in borderline personality disorder.
Abstract Evidence that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) serves a maladaptive emotion regulation function in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has drawn attention to processes that may increase risk for NSSI by exacerbating negative emotion, such as rumination. However, more adaptive forms of emotion processing, including differentiating broad emotional experiences into nuanced emotion categories, might serve as a protective factor against NSSI. Using an experience-sampling diary, the present study tested whether differentiation of negative emotion was associated with lower frequency of NSSI acts and urges in 38 ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - June 23, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zaki LF, Coifman KG, Rafaeli E, Berenson KR, Downey G Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Tending the garden and harvesting the fruits of behavior therapy.
Abstract For the past half century, behavior therapy has served as the theoretical basis for successful inquiries into the nature and treatment of many emotional disorders. Although there are core principles shared by all behavior therapies, two primary approaches, traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), have emerged as the most viable treatment approaches, even though they achieve their success through different methods and are predicated in different assumptions, principles, questions, and scientific strategies. In this special series, theorists and therapists wi...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fresco DM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy.
Abstract A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theorie...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hayes SC, Levin ME, Plumb-Vilardaga J, Villatte JL, Pistorello J Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The science of cognitive therapy.
Abstract Cognitive therapy (CT) refers to a family of interventions and a general scientific approach to psychological disorders. This family has evolved from a specific treatment model into a scientific approach that incorporates a wide variety of disorder-specific interventions and treatment techniques. The goal of this article is to describe the scientific approach of CT, review the efficacy and validity of the CT model, and exemplify important differences and commonalities of the CT approaches based on two specific disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder and health anxiety. PMID: 23611069 [PubMed - in pr...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hofmann SG, Asmundson GJ, Beck AT Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Acceptance and commitment therapy: empirical considerations.
Abstract Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), including behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and their integration, has evolved over the past four decades to become the most empirically supported psychological treatment for a range of psychiatric conditions, spanning the preponderance of Axis I disorders, selected Axis II disorders, and a range of associated clinical-health problems. The evolution of cognitive-behavioral theory and treatment has followed a coherent scientific framework, first introduced in the cognitive-behavioral modeling and treatment of depression, to include: (a) systematic clinical observation...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rector NA Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Caution: The Differences Between CT and ACT May Be Larger (and Smaller) Than They Appear.
Abstract Hofmann, Asmundson, & Beck (2013--this issue) offer an overview of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) as well as its similarities and differences from so-called "third-generation" behavior therapies, particularly Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). In this commentary we suggest that CBT is most accurately viewed as a broad family of distinct psychotherapy models that includes the traditional Beckian approach of cognitive therapy as well as newer acceptance-based approaches such as ACT. We argue that Hofmann, Asmundson, & Beck's discussion of the differences in CT and ACT's view of the...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Herbert JD, Forman EM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The Science of CBT: Toward a Metacognitive Model of Change?
This article supports several aspects of the arguments by Hofmann, Asmundson, and Beck (2013--this issue) about the scientific basis of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), for example, that CBT has a strong evidence base, and that studies of the mechanisms of change are warranted. This response discusses growth within the broad field of CBT, as well as the diverse research methods that are needed to explore both clinical efficacy and treatment mechanism questions. It is suggested that the field of CBT may be approaching a shift in emphasis from cognitive to metacognitive assessment and interventions. The article concludes ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dobson KS Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The vision of a progressive clinical science to guide clinical practice.
Abstract Hayes and colleagues (2013--this issue) argue that empirical clinical psychology is hampered in its efforts to alleviate human suffering and present contextual behavioral science (CBS) to address the basic philosophical, theoretical and methodological shortcomings of the field. CBS represents a host of good ideas but at times the promise of CBS is obscured by excessive promotion of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Relational Frame Theory (RFT) and demotion of earlier cognitive and behavior change techniques in the absence of clear logic and empirical support. This commentary proposes that-despi...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kanter JW Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

United we stand: emphasizing commonalities across cognitive-behavioral therapies.
Abstract Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has a rich history of alleviating the suffering associated with mental disorders. Recently, there have been exciting new developments, including multicomponent approaches, incorporated alternative therapies (e.g., meditation), targeted and cost-effective technologies, and integrated biological and behavioral frameworks. These field-wide changes have led some to emphasize the differences among variants of CBT. Here, we draw attention to commonalities across cognitive-behavioral therapies, including shared goals, change principles, and therapeutic processes. Specifically, ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mennin DS, Ellard KK, Fresco DM, Gross JJ Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Preventing return of fear in an animal model of anxiety: additive effects of massive extinction and extinction in multiple contexts.
Abstract Fear conditioning and experimental extinction have been presented as models of anxiety disorders and exposure therapy, respectively. Moreover, the return of fear serves as a model of relapse after exposure therapy. Here we present two experiments, with rats as subjects in a lick suppression preparation, in which we assessed the additive effects of two different treatments to attenuate the return of fear. First, we evaluated whether two phenomena known to generate return of fear (i.e., spontaneous recovery and renewal) summate to produce a stronger reappearance of extinguished fear. At test, rats evaluated...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Laborda MA, Miller RR Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Affect Regulation and Supportive Group Therapies for Victimization-Related PTSD With Incarcerated Women.
Abstract Traumatic victimization and associated problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and affect dysregulation are prevalent among incarcerated women, but there is limited evidence to support psychotherapeutic interventions for these problems in this underserved population. A group psychotherapy designed to enhance affect regulation without trauma memory processing-Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET)-was compared to a supportive group therapy (SGT) in a randomized clinical trial with 72 incarcerated women with full or partial PTSD. Both interventions achieved statistical...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ford JD, Chang R, Levine J, Zhang W Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Unique and Specific Contributions of Dimensions of the Triple Vulnerability Model to the Prediction of DSM-IV Anxiety and Mood Disorder Constructs.
Abstract The triple vulnerability model (Barlow, 2000, 2002) posits that three vulnerabilities contribute to the etiology of emotional disorders: (1) general biological vulnerability (i.e., dimensions of temperament such as neuroticism and extraversion); (2) general psychological vulnerability (i.e., perceived control over life stress and emotional states); (3) disorder-specific psychological vulnerability (e.g., thought-action fusion for OCD). Despite the prominence of this model, a comprehensive empirical evaluation has not yet been undertaken. The current study used structural equation modeling to test the trip...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brown TA, Naragon-Gainey K Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Nonverbal and Verbal Transmission of Disgust From Mothers to Offspring: Effects on Children's Evaluation of a Novel Animal.
This study examined parent-offspring communication of disgust-related information and its effects on children's feelings of disgust and fear towards an animal. Mothers were instructed to provide information about a novel animal to their children (N=60) by studying in secrecy either disgusting or neutral attributes that were allegedly characteristic of this animal. First, mothers were instructed to do this in a nonverbal way; then they were also allowed to use verbal utterances. Results indicated that nonverbal communication of disgust by the mothers failed to produce any effects on offspring's subjective evaluations of the...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Muris P, Mayer B, Borth M, Vos M Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

A randomized controlled trial of a parent training and emotion socialization program for families of hyperactive preschool-aged children.
Abstract The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that involved teaching parenting strategies for managing hyperactive and disruptive behavior as well as emotion socialization strategies for improving children's emotion regulation. Compared to WL mothers, PT mothers reported significantly less child inattention, hyp...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Herbert SD, Harvey EA, Roberts JL, Wichowski K, Lugo-Candelas CI Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

"Watch Out for the Gerbils, My Child!" The Role of Maternal Information on Children's Fear in an Experimental Setting Using Real Animals.
"Watch Out for the Gerbils, My Child!" The Role of Maternal Information on Children's Fear in an Experimental Setting Using Real Animals. Behav Ther. 2013 Jun;44(2):317-24 Authors: Remmerswaal D, Muris P, Huijding J Abstract Using an experimental approach, we examined the effects of verbal information as provided by the mothers on children's fear of real novel animals. Mothers of children aged 8 to 12years (N=47) were shown a cage containing a pair of exotic rodents (i.e., Mongolian gerbils) and then received either positive or negative information about these animals. Mothers were told that thei...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Remmerswaal D, Muris P, Huijding J Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Development of child- and parent-report measures of behavioral avoidance related to childhood anxiety disorders.
Abstract The current report describes 3 studies conducted to develop 8-item child- and parent-report measures to further the understanding of the role of behavioral avoidance in the development, maintenance, and treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Participants included both clinical (N=463; ages 8 to 12) and community (N=421; ages 7 to 18) samples of children and their parents from primarily Caucasian intact families. Follow-up data were collected from 104 families in the community sample. Overall, the measures were internally consistent and related to anxiety, distress, and alternative measures of avoidance...
Source: Behavior Therapy - May 26, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Whiteside SP, Gryczkowski M, Ale CM, Brown-Jacobsen AM, McCarthy DM Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Heterocentric language in commonly used measures of social anxiety: recommended alternate wording.
Abstract A number of self-report measures of social anxiety contain language that appears to assume heterosexuality. It is unclear how such items should be answered by individuals who are not exclusively heterosexual, which may lead to inaccurate measurement of symptoms, perpetuation of stigma, and alienation of respondents. More specific wording could improve measurement accuracy for sexual minorities as well as heterosexual respondents. Gender-neutral wording was developed for items containing the phrase "opposite sex" in commonly used self-report measures of social anxiety (Interaction Anxiousness Sca...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Weiss BJ, Hope DA, Capozzoli MC Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Use of CBT Skills and Depression Treatment Outcome: A Theoretical and Methodological Review of the Literature.
Abstract Cognitive and behavioral therapies emphasize the importance of skill acquisition and use, and these skills are proposed to mediate treatment outcomes. Despite its theoretical importance, research on skill use as a mechanism of change in CBT and its measurement is still in its infancy. A search of online databases was conducted to identify and review the literature testing the meditational effect of CBT skills on treating depression in adults. Additionally, we reviewed the various methods to assess a patient's use of CBT skills. We identified 13 studies examining the frequency of CBT skill use and 11 studi...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hundt NE, Mignogna J, Underhill C, Cully JA Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Disgust and fear responding in contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder during pictorial exposure.
Abstract The emotion of disgust has been implicated in the development and maintenance of contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present study nonclinical participants with high (n=26) and low (n=28) levels of OCD contamination symptoms were exposed to 2 categories of disgust stimuli (blood injury and body waste) across 4 blocks using standardized disgust images. Self-report disgust and fear were recorded, as well as cardiovascular heart rate. In both groups, an initial primary disgust reaction was observed. Self-report disgust and fear, but not heart rate deceleration, was greater in the ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Broderick J, Grisham JR, Weidemann G Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

The roles of emotional reactivity and tolerance in generalized, social, and health anxiety: a multimethod exploration.
Abstract Emotion regulation difficulties have been implicated in the maintenance of many anxiety disorders. However, existing research has relied mostly on self-report measures of emotion regulation or one type of mood induction. The present study examined the relationships between anxiety symptoms and emotional reactivity and tolerance using multiple assessment methodologies. Participants (N=122) completed measures of generalized, social, and health anxiety symptoms and reported tolerance of and reactivity to negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, disgust) elicited by 4 film clips. Participants also completed a...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Macatee RJ, Cougle JR Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Treatment of social anxiety disorder using online virtual environments in second life.
Abstract Over 80% of people with social anxiety disorder (SAD) do not receive any type of treatment, despite the existence of effective evidence-based treatments. Barriers to treatment include lack of trained therapists (particularly in nonmetropolitan areas), logistical difficulties (e.g., cost, time, transportation), concerns regarding social stigma, and fear of negative evaluation from health care providers. Interventions conducted through electronic communication media, such as the Internet, have the potential to reach individuals who otherwise would not have access to evidence-based treatments. Second Life is...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Yuen EK, Herbert JD, Forman EM, Goetter EM, Comer R, Bradley JC Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Low spirits keep rewards subdued: decreases in sensitivity to reward and vulnerability to dysphoria.
Abstract Previous theories and research show clear divergences on the roles of the behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) in depression. Across four studies, we examined the effects of a sad mood on the motivational pattern of sensitivity to reward and punishment. Psychological variables associated with such changes and implications for vulnerability to depression were also explored. For this purpose, we designed a state version of the extensively used BIS/BAS Scales (Carver & White, 1994). Using samples of undergraduate students, we found that both a natural (Study 1) an...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hervas G, Vazquez C Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Culturally related stress, hopelessness, and vulnerability to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in emerging adulthood.
This study highlights the need for incorporating culturally related experiences in assessing risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, particularly among emerging adults from diverse backgrounds. PMID: 23312428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Therapy)
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Polanco-Roman L, Miranda R Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Attributions of change and self-efficacy in a randomized controlled trial of medication and psychotherapy for problem drinking.
Abstract The current study examines participants' attributions of change in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of problem drinkers wanting to moderate their alcohol consumption. Participants were assigned to 12 weeks of naltrexone or placebo, which was paired with either combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy (MBSCT) along with an enhanced medication management intervention or enhanced medication management only. Upon treatment completion, a questionnaire assessed participants' attributions of change along with their self-efficacy in their ability to maintain treatment gains. ...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schaumberg K, Kuerbis A, Morgenstern J, Muench F Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Cognitive refocusing treatment for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial in university students.
Abstract This investigation assessed the efficacy of a technique specifically designed to change the style and content of presleep thoughts in order to reduce nighttime cognitive arousal and decrease insomnia severity. This investigation, termed "cognitive refocusing treatment for insomnia" (CRT-I), previously improved sleep in a small sample of veterans with primary insomnia. In this investigation, university students with poor sleep were randomly assigned to attend either one session of CRT-I and sleep hygiene education (SH: n=27) or one session of only SH (n=24). Insomnia severity (assessed by the Ins...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gellis LA, Arigo D, Elliott JC Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Effects of false feedback on affect, cognition, behavior, and postevent processing: the mediating role of self-focused attention.
Abstract Current social phobia models (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Leary & Kowalski, 1995) postulate that socially anxious individuals negatively appraise their anxiety sensations (e.g., sweating, heart racing, blushing) as evidence of poor social performance, and thus fear these anxiety symptoms will be noticed and judged negatively by others. Consequently, they become self-focused and hypervigilant of these sensations and use them to judge how they appear to others. To test this model, high (N=41) and low (N=38) socially anxious participants were shown false physiological feedback regarding an increase or...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Makkar SR, Grisham JR Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research

Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.
This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reductio...
Source: Behavior Therapy - January 20, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schry AR, White SW Tags: Behav Ther Source Type: research