An Ixodes scapularis glutathione S-transferase plays a role in cell survival and viability during Langat virus infection of a tick cell line.
In this study, we evaluated the role of a GST during LGTV infection. ISE6 cells were infected with LGTV with a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01 and observed daily. The infection success was monitored via indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for LGTV for up to 4 days. The gene expression of IsGST1 was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using IsGST1 gene-specific primers. Knockdown of the IsGST1 gene with subsequent LGTV infection was also performed. Afterward, ISE6 cell mortality and viability were checked daily until the fourth day. The virus titer from supernatants of IsGST1-knockdow...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hernandez EP, Talactac MR, Santos Vitor RJ, Yoshii K, Tanaka T Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Modelling the present and future distribution of Biomphalaria species along the watershed of the Middle Paranapanema region, S ão Paulo, Brazil.
The objectives of the study were to evaluate the current distribuition and predict the future distribution of habitats of Biomphalaria species at a high spatial resolution along 114 freshwater sites in the Middle Paranapanema watershed. The modelling encompassed 55 municipalities of the Middle Paranapanema region, which were analyzed through the maximum entropy algorithm. All geographic coordinates of the Biomphalaria species collected from 2015-2018 and environmental data were obtained through WorldClim, HydroSHEDS, TOPODATA and Secretaria do Meio Ambiente for the 1970-2017 period. For the 2041-2060 period we used the Had...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Palasio RGS, de Azevedo TS, Tuan R, Chiaravalloti-Neto F Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Modified DMEM xenic culture medium for propagation, isolation and maintenance of Balantioides coli.
In this study, a modified Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) with pH 7.0-7.5, containing 5 mg/mL starch and 20% new calf serum, was optimized for propagation of B. coli at 28°C-32°C. At the growth-peaking stage, the average trophozoite density was up to 12,970 trophozoites per milliliter. A reproducible protocol for isolation and maintenance of this parasite was also developed based on the modified DMEM culture medium. Moreover, cloning results of B. coli populations showed that 250 trophozoites in 3 mL modified DMEM medium were the minimal number of trophozoites that propagated to the growth-peaking stage, an...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yan W, Wang T, Zhao L, Sun C Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic potential of mefloquine on experimental trichinellosis.
Abstract Conventional anthelmintics such as albendazole could not achieve complete cure of trichinellosis till now. The antimalarial mefloquine mediates oxidative stress and disrupts lysosomal functions leading to cell death. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of mefloquine on experimental acute and chronic trichinellosis and to clarify the possible mechanisms of such effects. Mice were divided into four groups; Group I: Uninfected untreated control (20 mice); Group II: Infected untreated control (40 mice); Group III: infected and treated with albendazole (400 mg/kg) (40 mice); Grou...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elmehy DA, Ismail HIH, Soliman NA, Amer BS, Elkaliny HH, El-Ebiary AA, Gamea GA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles derived from Trichinella spiralis prevent colitis by inhibiting M1 macrophage polarization.
Abstract Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous containers released by cells that are powerful agents of intercellular communication. EVs have been described for various parasites and are associated with tissue inflammation. Several studies have demonstrated that parasite EVs can have either pro- or anti-inflammatory impacts, depending on the type of parasite. To evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of EVs produced by Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), we established a mouse model with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The muscle larvae of T. spiralis were cultured in vitro and the released ...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gao X, Yang Y, Liu X, Wang Y, Yang Y, Boireau P, Liu M, Bai X Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Field application of a novel multiplex qPCR assay reveals the occurrence of the zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma braziliense in Nigerian dogs.
In this study, we subjected 203 hookworm microscopy-positive samples of the 885 individual faecal samples collected from dogs in Nigeria to a recently developed multiplex qPCR for the detection and characterisation of canine hookworm species. The qPCR demonstrated a diagnostic sensitivity of 98% (95% CI 95-99.4) allowing the detection of A. caninum and A. braziliense in 81.3% (165/203, 95% CI 75.3-86.1) and 51.2% (104/203, 95% CI 44.4-58) of the microscopy-positive faecal samples of dogs from Nigeria, respectively and 34.5% (70/203, 95% CI 28.3-41.3) of mixed infections with both hookworm species. The finding of A. brazili...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Massetti L, Kamani J, Wiethoelter A, McDonagh P, Colella V, Traub RJ Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Serological, molecular and bacteriological approaches for detecting Leptospira sp. carrier rams maintained in semiarid conditions.
S, Alves CJ Abstract Even in the adverse environmental conditions of the semiarid region, leptospires can survive and spread by alternative routes of transmission, such as sexual in ewes, however, there is no data on rams. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the use of serological, molecular and microbial tools applied to diagnosis of Leptospira sp. Infection in rams maintained in semiarid conditions. Biological samples of urinary (urine, kidney and bladder) and genital (vas deferens, epididymis tail and vesicular gland) tracts were collected from 40 slaughtered rams for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and b...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soares RR, Barnabé NNDC, Nogueira DB, da Silva LSC, Júnior JPA, Malossi CD, Ullmann LS, da Costa DF, Silva MLCR, Dos Santos Higino SS, de Azevedo SS, Alves CJ Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Detection of Leishmania species (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Porto Velho, Northern Brazil.
os JF Abstract Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania species and transmitted by infected female sand flies. CL is widely distributed in Brazil, but knowledge about vectors and transmission cycles could be complex according to localities. The sand fly fauna in Rondônia State is extensive, diverse, and largely unexplored. Although the state records a mean of 1,000 CL cases per year, the vectors of CL are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess phlebotomine sand fly fauna composition using diversity indexes (Shannon [H'] and Simpson [1/D]) and to detect the prevalence ...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Silva ANR, Júnior AMP, de Paulo PFM, da Silva MS, Castro TS, Costa GDS, Freitas MTS, Rodrigues MMS, Medeiros JF Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of different extracellular vesicles secreted by Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.
Abstract Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous populations of different membrane-wrapped vesicles in size and encapsulated cargo and have recently emerged as a crucial carrier with the functions in intercellular communication, being involved in host-parasite interactions. However, Echinococcus granulosus EVs are not fully described. To separate EVs with a different size, the culture supernatant of E. granulosus protoscoleces (PSCs) was sequentially centrifuged at 2,000g, 10,000g and 110,000g, and the resulting precipitates were accordingly named as 2K, 10K and 110K EVs, respectively. The size and morpholo...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wu J, Cai M, Yang J, Li Y, Ding J, Kandil OM, Kutyrev I, Ayaz M, Zheng Y Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Understanding the role of temporal variation of environmental variables in predicting Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in a temperate region of Argentina.
dueña-Almeida FF Abstract Environmental variables related to vegetation and weather are some of the most influential factors that impacting Aedes (Stegomya) aegypti, a mosquito vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. In this paper, we aim to develop temporal predictive models for Ae. aegypti oviposition activity utilizing vegetation and meteorological variables as predictors in Córdoba city (Argentina). Eggs were collected using ovitraps placed throughout the city from 2009 to 2012 that were replaced weekly. Temporal generalized linear mixed models were developed with negative binomial distri...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benitez EM, Estallo EL, Grech MG, Frías-Céspedes M, Almirón WR, Robert MA, Ludueña-Almeida FF Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Intestinal protozoa and helminths in ulcerative colitis and the influence of anti-parasitic therapy on the course of the disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of Blastocystis sp. should be introduced in the complex examination of UC patients. Further clinical studies are necessary for assessment of the efficiency of anti-Blastocystis therapy in UC patients. PMID: 33188747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - November 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Toychiev A, Navruzov B, Pazylova D, Davis N, Badalova N, Osipova S Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Methods for detecting insecticide resistance in sand flies: a systematic review.
Abstract The classification of insecticide resistance in sand flies populations is based on concepts and methodologies used to characterize the susceptibility profile in mosquitoes. This can generate erroneous and subjective interpretations since they are biologically different organisms. In this context, the goal of this review is to analyze the works and/or articles that aimed at characterizing the susceptibility of sand flies and describing the methodological parameters, in order to improve future works to estimate more accurately the resistance of sand flies to insecticides. Using keywords that refer to the pu...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rocha D, da Costa LM, Pessoa GDC, Obara M Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Epidemiology and determinants of clonorchiasis in school children in southeastern China.
Abstract Clonorchiasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease in China because of the popularity in ingesting raw freshwater fish. To explore the epidemiology and determinants of clonorchiasis in children, a cross-sectional survey was implemented in two middle schools in Qiyang county, Hunan province, in southeastern China. Questionnaire survey and fecal examination were implemented. Questionnaires were fed back by 627 students, while stool samples were collected from 557 students, out of which 545 ones also provided questionnaire information. The percentage of students ingesting raw freshwater fish was 40.5...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qian MB, Zhuang SF, Zhu SQ, Deng XM, Li ZX, Zhou XN Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Larvicidal activity, route of interaction and ultrastructural changes in Aedes aegypti exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.
lo I Abstract Blastospores or conidia (formulated or not) of entomopathogenic fungi were assessed against Aedes aegypti larvae. Larvae (L2) were exposed to 105, 106, 107, and 108 propagules mL-1 water suspension. Mineral oil at 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% (v/v) was employed to observe the effect on larval survival. The 0.1% mineral oil did not affect larval survival. Accordingly, 107 propagules mL-1 and 0.1% mineral oil were used to prepare all fungal emulsions. The fungal suspension or formulation was prepared as follows: 107 propagules mL-1 on 0.03% TweenⓇ 80 (v/v) aqueous solution or 107 propagules mL-1 on 0.03% Twee...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Oliveira Barbosa Bitencourt R, Reis Dos Santos Mallet J, Mesquita E, Silva Gôlo P, Fiorotti J, Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt V, Guedes Pontes E, da Costa Angelo I Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Oxidative status and changes in the adenosine deaminase activity in experimental host infected with tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica.
In conclusion, the F. gigantica induced significant oxidative stress as evident from the increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation along with the disruption of antioxidant and detoxification cascade ultimately lead to pathogenic and inflammatory responses in the experimental host. Whereas, the altered ADA activity could modulate the host's immune responses toward Th-2 type and would facilitate the successful establishment of flukes within their host, thus indicating that ADA could be exploited as a target for the development of novel anthelmintic drugs against fasciolosis. PMID: 33166513 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rehman A, Rehman L, Ullah R, Beg MA, Khan MAH, Abidi SMA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Host feeding patterns of Nyssorhynchus darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Brazilian Amazon.
m MAM Abstract Nyssorhynchus darlingi (Root) is the dominant malaria vector in the Brazilian Amazon River basin, with additional Anophelinae Grassi species involved in local and regional transmission. Mosquito blood-feeding behavior is an essential component to define the mosquito-human contact rate and shape the transmission cycle of vector-borne diseases. However, there is little information on the host preferences and blood-feeding behavior of Anophelinae vectors in rural Amazonian landscapes. The barrier screen sampling (BSS) method was employed to sample females from 34 peridomestic habitats in 27 rural commu...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nagaki SS, Chaves LSM, López RVM, Bergo ES, Laporta GZ, Conn JE, Sallum MAM Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Seasonal dynamics of phlebotomine sand flies and autochthonous transmission of Leishmania infantum in high-altitude ecosystems in southern Spain.
The objective of this study was to interrogate the existence of stable populations of sand flies in high-altitude ecosystems and evaluate if these populations are enough to support autochthonous transmission of leishmaniasis. These altitudinal conditions can be found in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain). Therefore, we have determined the sand fly population dynamics in different biotopes located at elevations above 1,300 m a.s.l. and searched for evidence of leishmaniasis transmission. Five collecting sites above 1,300 m a.s.l. containing large livestock concentrations were selected. Sand flies were caught using CDC light tra...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Díaz-Sáez V, Corpas-López V, Merino-Espinosa G, Morillas-Mancilla MJ, Abattouy N, Martín-Sánchez J Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Interpopulation variations in life history traits and reproductive tactics in Aedes aegypti: A test on populations 50 km apart.
We examined the life history traits of Aedes aegypti populations from 2 cities in southern Taiwan separated by 50 km. Results revealed a high level of trait differentiation in immature developmental time and survival of Ae. aegypti between the 2 cities. The Kaohsiung populations exhibited total pupation of 40%-60% on day 8; this was significantly lower than that of the Tainan populations and laboratory-reared KHsm mosquitos, which exhibited a pupation rate of 70%-90%. The slow immature development of the Kaohsiung populations was reflected in the low percentage of adult emergence (22%-26%) on day 10. The prolonged immature...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bong LJ, Tu WC, Neoh KB Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in three species of non-human primates in southeast Mexico: A contribution to reservoir knowledge.
This study makes it clear that the risk of infection is present in the study area and that the different DTUs of the parasite can coexist in the same habitat, indicating that T. cruzi infection in the study area is very complex and involves many ecological factors. However; there is a need for long-term studies of host-parasite interactions to provide a solid understanding of the ecology of these species and to understand the dispersion strategies of T. cruzi. PMID: 33166517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rovirosa-Hernández MJ, López-Monteon A, García-Orduña F, Torres-Montero J, Guzmán-Gómez D, Dumonteil E, Waleckx E, Lagunes-Merino O, Canales-Espinoza D, Ramos-Ligonio A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL): A Cross-Sectional Community Based Survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices in a Highly Endemic Area of Waziristan (KPK Province), Pakistan.
Abstract Recent outbreaks of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in Waziristan make the disease a public health concern in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, Pakistan. The awareness and behavior of local community towards the disease is an important factor towards effective control and management of CL in endemic areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional community based survey was piloted in new emerging district North Waziristan Agency (KPK province), Pakistan from August 2019- February 2020. The study aimed to examine the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of the local community members regarding CL. The results reveal...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Irum S, Ahmad A, Khan A, Naz S, Simsek S, Habib A, Afzal MS, Nadeem MA, Qasim M, Ahmed H Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Coagulation-flocculation: a potential application for mosquito Larval Source Management (LSM).
In this study, dechlorinated water was treated with Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACl, sewage treatment using), and we observed the impacts of PACl treatment on the development and survival of immature Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes. When exposed to PACl treatment, physical effect is believed to be a main reason of coagulation-flocculation caused high larvae mortality: Ⅰ) alum floc layer increases the difficulty of larvae foraging, leads larvae starving to death; (Ⅱ) the little floc particles could attach to the lateral hair of larvae, which impede floatation process and then surface respiration by larval mosquitoes. The ...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ran LX, Sheng HM, En LP, Yu LX, Bing X Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Effect of zebra skin-derived compounds on field catches of the human African trypanosomiasis vector Glossina fuscipes fuscipes.
Abstract The riverine tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is a major vector of trypanosome pathogens causing African trypanosomiasis. This fly species uses a combination of olfactory and visual cues to locate its hosts. Previously, traps and targets baited with visual cues have been used in vector control, but the development of olfactory-based tools has been challenging. Recently, repellents have shown promise as olfactory-based tools in tsetse vector control. Here, we evaluated a three-component blend comprising 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, acetophenone and geranyl acetone (blend K), previously identified as a rep...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Olaide OY, Tchouassi DP, Yusuf AA, Pirk CWW, Masiga DK, Saini RK, Torto B Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Reviews and advances in diagnostic research on Schistosoma japonicum.
Abstract Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection has decreased significantly in prevalence and intensity of infection in China. However, this disease still remains a serious public health problem in some endemic areas of the Philippines and Indonesia. Thus, more accurate and sensitive methods are much needed for further control of this disease. Here, we review the research progress in techniques for the diagnosis of S. japonicum infection. PMID: 33159894 [PubMed - as supplie...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chen C, Guo Q, Fu Z, Liu J, Lin J, Xiao K, Sun P, Cong X, Liu R, Hong Y Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

A cross-sectional survey on parasitic infections in schoolchildren in a rural Tanzanian community.
Abstract Infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death in children in low- and middle-income countries. Infection with helminths and intestinal protozoa cause considerable morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the health status of schoolchildren in nine villages of the Kilombero district. We conducted a cross-sectional survey and subjected 427 children aged 6-12 years to standardized diagnostic tests. We found that 15% of children were infected with Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii, 12% with Schistosoma mansoni, and 5% with Plasmodium falciparum. The most common soil-tr...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Palmeirim MS, Mrimi EC, Minja EG, Samson AJ, Keiser J Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Mosquito-borne parasites in the Great Plains: searching for vectors of nematodes and avian malaria parasites.
This study assessed the prevalence of mature infections of Dirofilaria immitis and avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida) within urban mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in Oklahoma. 2,620 pools consisting of 12,686 mosquitoes from 13 species collected over two summers were tested for the presence of filarioid and haemosporidian DNA. Dirofilaria immitis-infected mosquitoes were detected only in Aedes albopictus (MIR=0.18-0.22) and Culex pipiens complex (MIR=0.12) collected in cities in central and southern Oklahoma. Two other filarioid nematode species with 91-92% similarity with Onchocerca spp. and Mansonella spp. ...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Noden BH, Bradt DL, Sanders JD Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

DNA barcoding of mosquitoes collected through a nationwide survey in 2011 and 2012 in Malawi, Southeast Africa.
Abstract We conducted a nationwide survey of mosquito distribution in Malawi from November 2011 to April 2012, and from July to September 2012. Using dried specimens of mosquito adults collected during the survey, we analyzed their cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences, prepared specimens, and registered the genetic information (658 bp) of 144 individuals belonging to 51 species of 10 genera in GenBank. Using the obtained genetic information, we analyzed the degree of intraspecific variation and investigated the various species from morphological and genetic perspectives. Moreover, we conducted phylo...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maekawa Y, Pemba D, Kumala J, Gowelo S, Higa Y, Futami K, Sawabe K, Tsuda Y Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

The tissue specific tropism in Trypanosoma cruzi. Is it true?
nte G Abstract Systematic microscopical observations on tissues from mice, inoculated with different Trypanosoma cruzi isolates, were carried out in order to assess whether the parasite expresses tissue-specific tropism, or if it can invade tissues pervasively within the mammal host. A total of ninety mice were included in the study. Sixty, subcutaneously-inoculated with 15 × 104 T. cruzi-blood trypomastigotes were dissected and examined daily for detecting and counting parasites during 12 days of acute infection. Additionally, two long-term experiments using mice inoculated with 5 × 103 metacy...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Añez N, Crisante G Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Incursion and establishment of the Old World arbovirus vector Aedes (Fredwardsius) vittatus (Bigot, 1861) in the Americas.
Abstract Routine biosurveillance efforts at the Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on 18 June 2019, detected two unusual mosquitos in a CO2-baited CDC light trap. Morphological and molecular analysis confirmed the presence of Aedes (Fredwardsius) vittatus (Bigot, 1861) - the first record of the Old World dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever virus vector into the Americas - and provide evidence for its establishment in Cuba. Newly submitted GenBank sequences from Dominican Republic further evidence its establishment in the Caribbean, and a median-joining network analysis using mitochondrial COI gene sequence...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pagac BB, Spring AR, Stawicki JR, Dinh TL, Lura T, Kavanaugh MD, Pecor DB, Justi SA, Linton YM Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Antischistosomal properties of aurone derivatives against juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.
ho AA Abstract Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease caused by helminth flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affecting over 240 million people in more than 70 countries. The treatment relies on a single drug, praziquantel, making urgent the discovery of new compounds. Aurones are a natural type of flavonoids that display interesting pharmacological activities, particularly as chemotherapeutic agents against parasites. In pursuit of treatment alternatives, the present work conducted an in vitro and in vivo antischistosomal investigation with aurone derivatives against Schistosoma mansoni. After preparation of ...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pereira VRD, da Silveira LS, Mengarda AC, Júnior IJA, da Silva OOZ, Miguel FB, Silva MP, Almeida ADC, da Silva Torres D, Pinto PF, Coimbra ES, de Moraes J, Couri MRC, da Silva Filho AA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Congenital Chagas Disease: development and assessment of a specific IgM capture-based assay for diagnosis of transmission.
In this study we propose to detect specific IgM antibodies (Ab) by developing a capture-based ELISA employing an improved antigen (Ag) to diagnose the transplacental transmission of T. cruzi, and in consequence, to enhance access to effective treatment. Firstly, a new chimera Ag (CP4) was obtained from the fusion of CP1 and CP3 protein, carrying FRA, SAPA, MAP, TSSAII/V/VI and TcD Ag from T. cruzi. Then, we optimized the assay by capturing IgM Ab with a polyclonal anti-IgM Ab and evaluating three Ag formulations to detect specific IgM bound. The formulations were formed as follows: i) F1: CP1 and CP3; ii) F2: CP1, CP3, B13...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peverengo LM, Rodeles LM, Maldonado C, Ballering G, Pujato N, D'Amico I, Vicco MH, Garcia L, Jurado L, Altcheh J, Marcipar I Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Modeling Host-Feeding Preference and Molecular Systematics of Mosquitoes in Different Ecological Niches in Canada.
Abstract Several mosquito-borne viruses (mobovirus) cause infections in Canada. Ecological data on mosquito species and host range in Canada remains elusive. The main aim of the current study is to determine the host range and molecular systematics of mosquito species in Canada. Mosquitoes were collected using BG-Sentinel traps and aspirators at 10 trapping sites in Canada during 2018 and 2019. Mosquitoes collected were identified via morphology and molecular techniques. Mosquito sequences were aligned by MUSCLE algorithm and evolutionary systematics were drawn using MEGA and SDT software. Moreover, the source of ...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shahhosseini N, Frederick C, Racine T, Kobinger GP, Wong G Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Rickettsia spp. in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from wild birds in Caldas, Colombia.
This study contributes to the knowledge on infection by Rickettsia in ticks collected from wild birds in Colombia. We also provide the first reports of infection by R. amblyommatis in the genus Ixodes collected from wild birds in South America and the presence of Rickettsia at elevations above 3000 m a.s.l. PMID: 33159903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martínez-Sánchez ET, Cardona-Romero M, Ortiz-Giraldo M, Tobón-Escobar WD, Moreno-López D, Ossa-López PA, Pérez-Cárdenas JE, Labruna MB, Martins TF, Castaño-Villa GJ, Rivera-Páez FA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Synergistic effects of cagA+ Helicobacter pylori co-infected with Opisthorchis viverrini on hepatobiliary pathology in hamsters.
Abstract Human liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is associated with several biliary diseases including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Recently, it was discovered that the liver fluke is a reservoir of Helicobacter pylori, particularly the cagA-positive strain (cytotoxin-associated gene A) in its gut. Given that two carcinogenic pathogens are associated with CCA development, however, the role of cagA-positive H. pylori in opisthorchiasis has not been clarified. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate histopathological changes of the biliary system in hamsters co-infected with O. viverri...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suyapoh W, Tangkawattana S, Suttiprapa S, Punyapornwithaya V, Tangkawattana P, Sripa B Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

COVID-19 in China: Risk Factors and R0 Revisited.
Abstract The COVID-19 epidemic spread rapidly through China and subsequently proliferated globally leading to a pandemic situation around the globe. Human-to-human transmission, as well as asymptomatic transmission of the infection, have been confirmed. As of April 03, 2020, public health crisis in China due to COVID-19 was potentially under control. We compiled a daily dataset of case counts, mortality, recovery, temperature, population density, and demographic information for each prefecture during the period of January 11 to April 07, 2020. Understanding the characteristics of spatial clustering of the COVID-19...
Source: Acta Tropica - October 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khan IM, Haque U, Zhang W, Zafar S, Wang Y, He J, Sun H, Lubinda J, Rahman MS Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Mexico State, Mexico using morphology and COI DNA barcoding.
This study provides a detailed inventory of the Culicidae from Mexico State and discusses the utility of DNA barcoding as a complementary tool for accurate mosquito species identification in Mexico. PMID: 33096064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - October 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adeniran AA, Hernández-Triana LM, Ortega-Morales AI, Garza-Hernández JA, Cruz-Ramos J, Chan-Chable RJ, Vázquez-Marroquín R, Huerta-Jiménez H, Nikolova NI, Fooks AR, Pérez-Rodríguez MA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

New carrion-visiting flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from tropical dry forests of Colombia and their phylogenetic affinities.
Abstract Many flesh flies of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are very competitive carrion visitors and breeders, and several are synanthropic species of medical and forensic importance. The knowledge of these taxa is still limited, which is more noticeable in sub-sampled ecosystems such as the tropical dry forests of Colombia. Four new species, Blaesoxipha (Gigantotheca) wajiira sp. nov., Lepidodexia deborarangoa sp. nov., Oxysarcodexia luriza sp. nov. and Udamopyga iku sp. nov., are described from tropical dry forests in the Colombian provinces of Atlántico, Bolívar, Cesar and La Guajira, all collected ...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Buenaventura E, Valverde-Castro C, Wolff M Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Surveillance of molecular markers for antimalarial resistance in Zambia: polymorphism of Pfkelch 13, Pfmdr1 and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps genes.
This study sought to investigate the prevalence of molecular markers associated with resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in Southern and Western provinces in Zambia. SP is used primarily for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy, while AL is the first-line antimalarial for uncomplicated malaria in Zambia. Blood samples were collected from household members of all ages in a cross-sectional survey conducted during peak malaria transmission, April to May of 2017, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplicons were then analysed by high-resolution melt followi...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sitali L, Mwenda MC, Miller JM, Bridges DJ, Hawela MB, Hamainza B, Mudenda-Chilufya M, Chizema-Kawesha E, Daniels RF, Eisele TP, Nerland AH, Chipeta J, Lindtjorn B Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Detection and molecular identification of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium species from village chickens in different areas of Myanmar.
Abstract Village chicken production, a traditional, small-scale, and extensive backyard poultry industry, has been profitable for local farmers in Myanmar. However, there is scanty information available concerning the infection of these chickens with avian pathogens, including haemoprotozoan parasites. In the present study, we provide the first report of microscopic detection and molecular identification of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium parasites from seven different areas of Myanmar. Leucocytozoon gametocytes were detected in 17.6% (81/461) of the blood smears from village chickens. The nested polymerase chain rea...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Win SY, Chel HM, Hmoon MM, Htun LL, Bawm S, Win MM, Murata S, Nonaka N, Nakao R, Katakura K Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Diversity of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors in a heterogeneous landscape endemic for arboviruses.
DISCUSSION: The paper discusses the impact of human activities on landscape and its effects on mosquito populations, focusing on the segregation of different known vector species and their proximity to human altered environments. Most of these species are known arbovirus vectors and knowledge of their distribution are key elements that health authorities should take into account when planning arbovirus surveillance and vector control activities. PMID: 32971068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - September 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Câmara DCP, Pinel CDS, Rocha GP, Codeço CT, Honório NA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Yellow fever surveillance challenge: investigation of a marmoset non-autochthonous case.
We present a challenging case of a Callitrichidae (Callithrix spp) kept as a domiciliated pet that lived in the urban area of São Paulo municipality and was positive to YF virus by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. After investigation, it was the first occurrence of non-autochthonous YF case of NWNHP described, with probable place of infection in the North shore of São Paulo state. This case illustrates the importance of coordinated laboratorial and field actions, and risks posed by transit of wildlife. PMID: 32971069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - September 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fernandes NCCA, Guerra JM, Cunha MS, Beraldo KRF, Ressio RA, Cirqueira CDS, Agostini TL, de Camargo JP, Landi NCSF, Saad LDC, Spinola RMF, de Paula RAC, Sanches TC, Rivas L, Catão-Dias JL Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

miRNA profile of extracellular vesicles isolated from saliva of Haemaphysalis longicornis tick.
This study was therefore, carried out to examine the saliva of ticks for the presence of miRNA containing EVs. Vesicles were purified from saliva of partially engorged Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out to confirm that vesicles within saliva were EVs based on size and morphology. Total RNA was extracted from EVs and was analyzed by deep sequencing to determine miRNA profile. TEM analysis confirmed the presence of extracellular vesicle-like structures within tick saliva. RNA-seq analysis showed that tick-derived EVs contained small non-coding RNA populations including miR...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nawaz M, Malik MI, Zhang H, Gebremedhin MB, Cao J, Zhou Y, Zhou J Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Comparing PCR techniques against conventional cercarial shedding methods for detecting Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria snails.
Abstract The detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in both its intermediate (snail) and definitive (human) hosts is useful in providing information on the transmission of schistosomiasis. Three pairs of previously designed PCR primers (SM1-7, SMF/R & ND5) used for the detection of S. mansoni infection were tested. We assess the utility of each of these primer sets for detecting S. mansoni infection both in artificially exposed laboratory bred Biomphalaria glabrata, and field infected African Biomphalaria sudanica and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Two of the three primer sets (SMF/R & ND5) detected S. manson...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Joof E, Andrus PS, Sowunmi K, Onyango VM, Wade CM Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Rethinking the old hypothesis that new housing construction has an impact on the vector control of Triatoma infestans: A Metapopulation Analysis.
Abstract Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a hematophagous insect, vector of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of the Chagas disease. In the south of La Rioja, Argentina, the persistent infestation by triatomines encouraged a program of construction of brand new dwellings in rural areas since 2008, to reduce infestation. According to the metapopulation theory approach, each dwelling was considered to be a patch with different degrees of quality concerning the availability of shelters for T. infestans. Accordingly, brand new dwellings (BNDs) are considered of lower quality for triatomine...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cavallo MJ, Amelotti I Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Cattle in Southern Papua, Indonesia.
This study reported for the first time, evidence of infection with BVDV in cattle in Papua and indicated that BVDV infection may be associated with infertility. PMID: 32961168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nugroho W, Reichel MP, Ruff N, Gazali AM, Sakke IS Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Tacrolimus, a rapamycin target protein inhibitor, exerts anti-cystic echinococcosis effects both in vitro and in vivo.
; G Abstract In view of a growing need for new treatment options for human cystic echinococcosis (CE), we aimed to investigate the efficacy of mTOR pathway inhibitors against CE in vitro and in vivo. Among the seven mTOR inhibitors evaluated, tacrolimus (TAC) showed significant dose- and time-dependent killing of cultured protoscoleces and cysts in vitro. Notably, the oral administration of TAC (4 mg/kg/day) to CE mice model highly effectively reduced both the weight and number of parasitic cysts. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that TAC destroys the ultrastructure of cysts, both in vitro and in vivo. Fu...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muhedier M, Li J, Liu H, Ma G, Amahong K, Lin R, Lü G Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Protein expression profile of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci related to Th1- and Th2-type responses in the mouse cysticercosis model.
, Abraham L Abstract The intraperitoneal cysticercosis model with the Taenia crassiceps ORF strain in female BALB/cAnN mice has been widely used to study the immune response in cysticercosis. During early infection (2 weeks), the host develops a non-permissive Th1 response, whereas during late infection (8 weeks), molecules from the cysticerci induce a Th2 response that is permissive to parasite growth. The modulation of the Th2 response is induced by molecules excreted/secreted by the larval stage of the parasite. However, there is limited information regarding the response of cysticerci to the mouse immunologica...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mariana DZ, Lucía J, Magdalena H, Ricardo HÁ, Luz N, Alicia OS, Sergio EG, Pedro OS, Abraham L Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Risk factors for rabies in C ôte d'Ivoire.
This study conducted in Bouaké and San Pedro showed somes factors responsible for rabies deaths evolution in Côte d'Ivoire. Main issues identified are the geographical accessibility of anti-rabies centers, frequent bites caused by unvaccinated dogs, often category III of exposure and many non-completions of rabies PEP in ignorance context. The establishment of national comprehensive and integrated rabies control program is needed in Côte d'Ivoire. It must take into account all these factors by focusing on public awareness, dog vaccination and adoption of modern intradermal vaccination regimens to better ...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tetchi MS, Coulibaly M, Kallo V, Traoré GS, Issaka T, Joseph BBV, Gerber F, Saric J, Lechenne M, Zinsstag J, Bonfoh B Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Cystic Echinococcosis in Pakistan: A Review of Reported Cases, Diagnosis, and Management.
Abstract Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease that occurs in humans and ungulates due to infection with the larval stage of the taeniid cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. It has been estimated that approximately one million people are infected annually, resulting in US$3 billion in human and livestock-associated direct and indirect losses per year. CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, including Pakistan. This review discusses the causative agent as well as the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CE in Pakistan. PMID: 32956637 [PubMed - as supplied by pub...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khan A, Ahmed H, Khan H, Saleem S, Simsek S, Brunetti E, Afzal MS, Manciulli T, Budke CM Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Patterns of Haemoproteus majoris (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) megalomeront development.
This study aimed to test if (i) megalomeronts are present during the development of the lineage hPHSIB1 of H. majoris and if (ii) they are similar to the other investigated lineages of this species in regard of their morphology and location in organs. One adult wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix, an Afrotropical migrant, naturally infected with H. majoris lineage hPHSIB1 was wild-caught after seasonal spring migration and screened using microscopic examination of blood films and histological sections of organs as well as using PCR-based testing. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis placed the lineages hPHSIB1, hPHYBOR04 and hP...
Source: Acta Tropica - September 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Duc M, Ilgūnas M, Valkiūnas G Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Essential oils and their chemical constituents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.
Abstract This review focused on the toxicity of essential oils and their constituents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae, a key vector of important arboviral diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching major databases in the last six years. Our literature review shows that 337 essential oils from 225 plant species have been tested for larvicidal bioactivity. More than 60% of these essential oils were considered active (LC50
Source: Acta Tropica - September 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luz TRSA, de Mesquita LSS, do Amaral FMM, Coutinho DF Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research