The Congenital Toxoplasmosis Burden in Brazil: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
e ALF Abstract Congenital toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular Apicomplexa protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This infection causes subclinical or clinical lesions, such as retinochoroiditis and central nervous system lesions. The severity of fetal infection is related to the stage of pregnancy and the efficacy of the gestational treatment on fetal infection, whether it is achieved, or if it starts early. South America is the region with the highest burden of congenital toxoplasmosis and the most pathogenic genotypes. Here, we present the results of a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Strang AGGF, Ferrari RG, do Rosário DK, Nishi L, Evangelista FF, Santana PL, de Souza AH, Mantelo FM, Guilherme ALF Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

A Preliminary Evaluation of a Locally Produced Biotinylated Polyclonal Anti-rabies Antibody for Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (DRIT) in the Philippines.
Abstract Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease endemic in developing countries of Asia and Africa. Recently, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a diagnostic test for rabies. Therefore, a biotinylated polyclonal antibody (pAb) against the rabies lyssavirus (RABV) nucleoprotein was developed using a plasmid cDNA vaccine derived from a challenge virus standard 11 strain. A preliminary evaluation on the efficacy of this reagent in recognizing the Philippine RABV strain was tested using banked canine ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Manalo DL, Gomez MRR, Jarilla BR, Ang MJC, Tuason LT, Demetria CS, Medina PB, Dilig JE, Avenido-Cervantes EF, Park CH, Inoue S Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphism in IL17RA induces susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii infection in Brazilian pregnant.
In conclusion, our data suggest an immunogenic evidence of susceptibility to T. gondii infection driven by the rs4819554 (IL17RA) SNP G allele in Brazilian pregnant women. Further studies are needed to reinforce this trial marker in populations from distinct geographical areas as well as to confirm the protective pattern related to the G-allele of the SNP rs2275913 (IL17A) in pregnant women. PMID: 32598917 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - June 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrade JMA, de Oliveira CBS, Meurer YDSR, Santana JE, de Almeida YGB, Vilela Dos Santos P, de Souza DMS, Costa GP, Talvani A, Palomino GM, Freitas JCOC, de Andrade-Neto PVF Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

SAND FLY TYPING: A SIMPLE AND MORPHOLOGICALLY-SUPPORTED METHOD BASED ON POLYMORPHISM OF 18S rRNA GENE IN A LEISHMANIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF ARGENTINA.
Barroso PA Abstract Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that in the Americas are distributed from southern United States to northern Argentina. The vectors for this disease are small dipterans known as sand flies that are usually identified morphologically by observing structures with taxonomic value; but it is time-consuming, laborious, and requires entomological expertise. Then, this work was aimed at identifying sand flies with molecular techniques, using the morphological identification as a reference technique, in an endemic area of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) located in northern Argentina. ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Almazán MC, Copa GN, Lauthier JJ, Gil JF, Quiroga IL, Hoyos CL, Fernández MED, Nasser JR, Korenaga M, Marco JD, Barroso PA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Detection of circulating cell-free DNA to diagnose Schistosoma japonicum infection.
Abstract Schistosomiasis occurs in 240 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. Thus, early diagnosis and monitoring of schistosomiasis progression are needed to treat patients. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is present as fragments of parasite-derived DNA in host body fluids. Detection of this cfDNA in host blood may be a promising diagnostic marker of schistosomiasis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the potential of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), a molecular taxonomy and barcoding marker, in diagnosing schistosomiasis using infected rabbit and mice sera. A 192 bp fragment of ITS2 wa...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ullah H, Qadeer A, Giri BR Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Effect of nitazoxanide on diarrhea: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Abstract We aimed to systematically review evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of nitazoxanide in treating infectious diarrhea. On September 21, 2017, we identified relevant studies using 12 databases. The estimates of the included studies were pooled as a risk ratio (RR). We conducted a network and pairwise random-effects meta-analysis for both direct and indirect comparisons of different organisms that are known to cause diarrhea. The primary and secondary analysis outcomes were clinical response until cessation of illness, parasitological response and adverse events. We included 18 studies in our ana...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hashan MR, Elhusseiny KM, Huu-Hoai L, Tieu TM, Low SK, Minh LHN, Nghia TLB, Loc LQ, Y MN, Eid PS, Abed M, Elkolaly SS, Tawfik GM, Huy NT Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

VectorInfo: A Web Resource for Medically Important Indian Arthropod Disease Vectors.
Abstract VectorInfo is a freely accessible web resource, emphasised on medically important Indian arthropods funded by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and maintained by one of its premier institute, Vector Control Research Center (VCRC). VectorInfo elucidates and curates medically important Indian arthropod's biological, omics technologies to adopt a holistic view of the molecules that make up an organism, aimed at the detection of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, enzymes & pathways and immune specific genes. The nitty-gritty of VectorInfo is aimed at scrutinizing all the possible information o...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gopal J, Ramamoorthy T, Kasinathan G, Narendran PK, Purushothaman J, Yellapu NK Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

One Year of African Swine Fever Outbreak in China.
Abstract African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to domestic pigs and wild boars. Since 2018, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in China. As of August 3, 2019, a total of 151 ASF clusters of outbreaks reported in China have caused severe economic losses for the industry, the pig farmers and pork producers, due to the lack of an efficacious vaccine. The present study aims to analyze the epidemiologic characteristics of ASF outbreak that occurred in several regions across China during the period August 2018- August 2019. Particular focus was on the epidemic distribution, main transmission routes, incidence/fatalit...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tao D, Sun D, Liu Y, Wei S, Yang Z, An T, Shan F, Chen Z, Liu J Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Voriconazole-Benznidazole Combination Treatment for Chagas Disease.
te;a-Bournissen F Abstract Combination therapy has been proposed as an ideal strategy to reduce drug toxicity and improve treatment efficacy in Chagas disease. Previously, we demonstrated potent in vivo anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of voriconazole. In this work, we aimed to study the synergistic effect of voriconazole (VCZ) and benznidazole (BZ) both in vitro and in vivo models of T. cruzi infection using the Tulahuen strain. Combining VCZ and BZ at fixed concentrations, the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) on amastigotes was lower than the obtained IC50 for BZ alone and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentrati...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gulin JEN, Eagleson MA, López-Muñoz RA, Solana ME, Altcheh J, García-Bournissen F Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Niche divergence and paleo-distributions of Lutzomyia longipalpis mitochondrial haplogroups (Diptera: Psychodidae): Niche divergence within the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex.
ey JM Abstract Lutzomyia longipalpis is a complex of species which has a wide but discontinuous distribution from southeastern Mexico to northern Argentina and Uruguay. To date, eight mitochondrial haplogroups have been identified along its distribution although key environmental tolerances and ecological niche models have been analyzed only at the complex level. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether genetic diversification using three mitochondrial genes of the Lu. longipalpis complex is associated with niche divergence and to explore evolution of distributional projections of all haplogroups betwee...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moo-Llanes DA, Pech-May A, de Oca-Aguilar ACM, Salomón OD, Ramsey JM Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Blending studies with selected waterbuck odor constituents or analogues in the development of a potent repellent blend against savannah tsetse.
Abstract Previous comparison of the body odors of tsetse-refractory waterbuck and those of tsetse-attractive ox and buffalo showed that a blend of 15 EAG-active compounds specific to waterbuck, including C5-C10 straight chain carboxylic acid homologues, methyl ketones (C8-C12 straight chain homologues and geranyl acetone), phenols (guaiacol and carvacrol) and δ-octalactone, was repellent to tsetse. A blend of four components selected from each class of compounds (δ-octalactone, pentanoic acid, guaiacol, and geranylacetone) showed repellence that is comparable to that of the 15 components blend and can ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: M Wachira DB, Kabaka JM, O Mireji DP, Okoth SO, Ng'ang'a MM, Murilla GA, Hassanali A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Risk-free point-of-care visceral leishmaniasis diagnostics: combining buffy coat microscopy and immunoassay in tertiary rural hospitals in Sudan.
This study assessed the diagnostic effectiveness of buffy coat (BC) microscopy and the rK39 immunoassay test separately and combined as an easy non-invasive method applied to peripheral blood sample for field diagnosis of VL. 151 VL suspected patients were recruited from tertiary rural hospitals in Bazura, Gedaref state, from 2014-2015. All patients were tested for VL using rK39 ICT and microscopy smears from LN aspirate and BC in addition to PCR from BC as a reference standard test. Both BC and LN aspirate microscopy showed perfect specificity (100%) with false negative results, while the majority of true positives (81%) ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: El-Amin LM, Khalid KE, El-Badry AA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Chagas bugs and Trypanosoma cruzi: puppets and puppeteer?
lar A Abstract A widely accepted idea in parasite-host relationships is that the former manipulates the latter so that it increases its own success. In the case of complex life cycles, this means that the parasite is able to manipulate the first host which allows its transmission to the second host. In this paper, I formalize the idea that this may be the case for the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite and its vectors, bugs of the subfamily Triatominae. I discuss the sources of existing evidence and propose some types of manipulation. This manipulation could also occur in the second host, that is, a vertebrate. Here, I em...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Córdoba-Aguilar A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Molecular detection and characterization of tick-borne haemoparasites among cattle on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania.
The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and species composition of bovine TBPs in cattle kept in Zanzibar Island. A total of 236 blood samples were randomly collected in cattle population in June and July, 2019. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing to detect and identify pathogens. PCR screening of all 236 samples revealed that 64.5% of animals were infected by TBPs, including Theileria parva (34.3%), T. mutans (38.1%), T. taurotragi (30.9%), Anaplasma marginale (10.2%), Babesia bigemina (5.1%), T. velifera (3.4%) and B. bovis (2.1%). Overall a total of 86 animals (36.4%) were c...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ringo AE, Rizk MA, Moumouni PFA, Liu M, Galon EM, Li Y, Ji S, Tumwebaze M, Byamukama B, Thekisoe O, Xuan X Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Natural Plasmodium infection in wild macaques of three states in Peninsular Malaysia.
In this study we surveyed the prevalence of simian malaria in wild macaques of three states in Peninsular Malaysia, namely Pahang, Perak and Johor using blood samples from 103 wild macaques (collected by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia) subjected to microscopic examination and nested PCR targeting the Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. As expected, PCR analysis yielded significantly higher prevalence (64/103) as compared to microscopic examination (27/103). No relationship between the age and/or sex of the macaques with the parasitaemia and the Plasmodium species infecting the ma...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amir A, Shahari S, Liew JWK, de Silva JR, Khan MB, Lai MY, Snounou G, Abdullah ML, Gani M, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Lau YL Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Solid lipid nanoparticles as a novel formulation approach for tanespimycin (17-AAG) against Leishmania infections: preparation, characterization and macrophage uptake.
Formiga FR Abstract 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin) is an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which has been studied in the treatment of cancer such as leukemia or solid tumors. Alternatively, 17-AAG may represent a promising therapeutic agent against leishmaniasis. However, the delivery of 17-AAG is difficult due to its poor aqueous solubility. For exploring the therapeutic value of 17-AAG, we developed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by double emulsion method. SLN exhibited ∼100 nm, PDI
Source: Acta Tropica - June 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pires VC, Magalhães CP, Ferrante M, Rebouças JS, Nguewa P, Severino P, Barral A, Veras PST, Formiga FR Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Wing geometric morphometrics for identification of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of neglected epidemiological importance.
Abstract Culicidae comprises more than 3,500 species, some of which are responsible for the spread of various human diseases, causing millions of deaths worldwide. Correct identification of these species is essential for the development of surveillance and control strategies. The most common method of mosquito identification is based on specific traits of the external morphology of species. However, identification of mosquitoes by morphological characters can be inaccurate or even unfeasible if the specimen is damaged or there is a lack of distinguishing features, as in the case of cryptic species complexes. Wing ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Souza ALDS, Multini LC, Marrelli MT, Wilke ABB Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Binding of elastase-1 and enterocytes facilitates Trichinella spiralis larval intrusion of the host's intestinal epithelium.
Abstract Elastase-1 is one member of serine protease family, distributes in organisms widely and plays a crucial role in the invasion and development of Trichinella spiralis. In order to identify the binding of T. spiralis elastase-1 (TsEla) with host's intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and its role in Trichinella larval intrusion, TsEla gene was cloned and expressed in our previous study. The recombinant TsEla (rTsEla) has the enzymatic activity to degrade specific peptide substrate. A specific binding between rTsEla and IECs was detected by Far Western blot, and ELISA. In an in vitro invasion assay, rTsEla prom...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hu CX, Zeng J, Yang DQ, Yue X, Dan Liu R, Long SR, Zhang X, Jiang P, Cui J, Wang ZQ Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Low genetic diversity and strong immunogenicity within the apical membrane antigen-1 of Plasmodium ovale spp. imported from Africa to China.
Abstract Malaria is still an important challenge for global public health because of its extensive mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium ovale is mainly distributed in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. it includes two distinct ovale malaria species, which are P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) is an asexual blood-stage protein which is essential for Plasmodium. Thus far, no study on gene polymorphism and immunogenicity of P. ovale AMA-1 (PoAMA-1) has been conducted. Amplified poama1 gene products from 14 P. ovale curtisi samples and 12 P. ovale wallikeri samples imported fr...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lei Y, Shen F, Zhu H, Zhu L, Chu R, Tang J, Yao W, Zhu G, Zhang D, Cao J, Cheng Y Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Effect of recombinant serine protease from newborn larval stage of Trichinella spiralis on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis in mice.
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex immune-mediated disease of gastrointestinal tract that is mainly driven by Th1/Th17 immune response. "Helminth therapy" has emerged, and helminth-derived immunoregulatory molecules are being used as safe and new therapeutic antigens for IBD. Recombinant serine protease (SP) from newborn Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) larvae (NBL) was expressed and purified. BALB/c mice were immunized with NBL-SP at 100 µg three times at an interval of 5 days. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) administration. The ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qu Z, Jin X, Wang Y, Yang Y, YangLi, Bai X, Yang Y, Xu N, Wang X, Liu M Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Human myiasis cases originating and reported in Africa for the last two decades (1998-2018): A review.
Abstract The article reviews literature on myiasis in Africa and cases that originated in Africa over the last two decades (1998-2018). The relevant literature was obtained by using several databases (Science-Direct, JSTOR, Google Scholar, Ebscohost and PubMed). We searched for the following words or their combination myiasis, maggots, fly species responsible for myiasis found in Africa, and the different types of myiasis. References in several articles provided links to other relevant works. Only papers written in English were reviewed. In total, we reviewed 51 articles which covered a total of 849 myiasis cases....
Source: Acta Tropica - June 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kuria SK, Oyedeji AO Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Molecular detection of rickettsial bacteria in ticks of the genus Ixodes from the Southern Cone of America.
Abstract To obtain information about rickettsial bacteria in ticks of the genus Ixodes from Argentina and Uruguay, specimens of I. fuscipes (previously named as I. aragaoi), Ixodes pararicinus, Ixodes sp. cf. I. affinis, and Ixodes sp. were tested targeting the rickettsial gltA and ompA genes. Rickettsial bacteria was detected in all of these species. Rickettsia found in Ixodes sp. is closely related to Ca. Rickettsia mendelii, which was previously detected in I. ricinus of the Czech Republic and later in I. brunneus from the USA. Phylogenetic analyses of the Rickettsia strains found in I. fuscipes, I. pararicinus...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sebastian PS, Flores FS, Saracho-Bottero MN, Tarragona EL, Venzal JM, Nava S Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Comparative transcriptome analysis of normal and CD44-deleted mouse brain under chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is a globally-distributed intracellular parasitic protozoon with wide host range. Chronic infection is the most prevalent form of T. gondii infection, which can lead to significant damage. CD44 plays an important role in body's immune response, however, little is known about the function and mechanism of CD44 in T. gondii infection until now. In the present study, total RNA isolated from four groups including C57BL/6 mouse (C57), C57BL/6△CD44 mouse(C57△CD44), C57BL/6 mouse infected with T. gondii (C57-TG) and C57BL/6△CD44 infected with T. gondii (C57△CD44-TG)were subjected to com...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li S, He B, Yang C, Yang J, Wang L, Duan X, Deng X, Zhao J, Fang R Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Population structure of Leishmania major in southeastern Morocco.
This study investigated the population structure of L. major in southeastern Morocco. Samples (n = 67) were collected from patients with CL in five different endemic areas located in three provinces (Ouarzazate, Tinghir, and Zagora). These samples were then sequenced using two nuclear markers: internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and a fragment of the virulence factor GP63. Next, the sequences were edited and analyzed. Molecular diversity indices showed a high population genetic diversity but an overall low haplotype diversity. Our results suggest small population differentiation, indicating a low geographic structure....
Source: Acta Tropica - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kbaich MA, Mhaidi I, Daoui O, Maatallah IA, Riyad M, Akarid K, Lemrani M Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

The immunotherapy with hMASP-2 DNA nanolipoplexes against echinococcosis in experimentally protoscolex-infected mice.
Abstract Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a complex and neglected zoonotic infectious disease, is mainly caused by larval tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus with a worldwide distribution. For CE, an effective drug treatment is not yet available. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of hMASP-2-based immunotherapy against hydatid cysts by using murine model. Eighteen weeks after infection with 2000 viable protoscoleces intraperitoneally, the infected mice were treated with hMASP-2 DNA nanolipoplexes (pcDNA3.1-hMASP-2) and albendazole respectively. After six weeks treatment, a significant reduction in th...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chen C, Gao Q, Luo Y, Zhang G, Xu X, Li Z, Wang J, He Q, Sheng L, Ma X Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Metabolic profiles of Oncomelania hupensis after molluscicidal treatment: carbohydrate metabolism targeted and energy deficiency.
This study was designed to clarify the dynamic metabolic process by metabonomics, together with the previous transcriptomic and enzymological profiles, to identify potential metabolite markers and metabolism pathways that related to the toxic mechanism of the molluscicide. In total, 56 metabolites were identified for O. hupensis, and 75% of these metabolites consisted of amino acids and derivatives, organic acids, and nucleic acid components. The concentration of glucose, maltose, succinate, choline, and alanine changed significantly after molluscicide treatments. These changes in metabolites mainly occurred in the process...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xiong T, Jiang N, Xu S, Li SZ, Zhang Y, Xu XJ, Dong HF, Zhao QP Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Male Schoolchildren in the Upper and Lower Dir Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and a Review of Previous Record in Pakistan.
Abstract Documented reports are limited, showing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as a severe threat to schoolchildren in Pakistan. The present study aimed to investigate the clinico-epidemiology and associated risk factors of CL in local and Afghan male schoolchildren between 6 and 16 years of age. The experimental strategy involved a questionnaire for the collection of information and clinical diagnosis (microscopy and semi-nested PCR) of 113 CL symptomatic schoolchildren out of 8,833 schoolchildren (7,175 local and 1,658 Afghan refugees) studying in nineteen schools of the Upper and Lower Dir Districts, Khyber Pakh...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zeb I, Ali A, Nawab J, Khan MQ, Kamil A, Tsai KH Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Trypanosomes of vectors and domestic dogs in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission areas from Brazilian southwestern Amazon: new mammalian host for Trypanosoma janseni.
The objective of this study was to investigate the T. cruzi infection in triatomine fauna as well as in dogs from distinct areas of Acre, western Brazilian Amazonia, which recently reported acute cases of human CD as well as an area that have not notify this disease recently. . Triatomines were collected and the intestinal contents were evaluated for the presence of trypanosomatids by optical microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the mini-exon gene. Blood smear, hemoculture, PCR and serology were performed in the studied mammals. Fecal content of four triatomines were positive (11.6%) in the fresh examin...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Malavazi PFNS, Daudt C, Melchior LAK, Meneguetti DUO, Xavier SCC, Jansen AM, Souza SF, Roque ALR Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Shelter dogs as indicators for trypanosoma cruzi infection in an urban area of aracaju, brazil.
SHELTER DOGS AS INDICATORS FOR TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI INFECTION IN AN URBAN AREA OF ARACAJU, BRAZIL. Acta Trop. 2020 Jun 08;:105577 Authors: Cruz ACFG, Santos NAF, Jeraldo VLS, Madi RR, da Rosa JA, de Melo CM Abstract Shelters are places that receive certain species of domestic animals, mostly dogs and cats, that are normally abandoned. These animals are easy to handle because they are crowded and have limited movement. Dogs, due to the close relationship with humans, are considered the main domestic reservoirs in the peridomiciliary cycle of American trypanosomiasis infection in humans. Therefore, in seve...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cruz ACFG, Santos NAF, Jeraldo VLS, Madi RR, da Rosa JA, de Melo CM Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Landscape Effects on the Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Migonemyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Corrientes city, northern Argentina.
lo EL Abstract We analyses the relationship between landscape and environmental variables estimated from high-resolution satellite images with the temporal variation of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Migonemyia migonei, vectors of leishmaniasis, in Corrientes city. At 8 collection sites, 14 samples were conducted between March 2012 to February 2014. Proportion of land cover classes derived from high resolution satellite images as: water, bare soil, urban areas, low vegetation and high vegetation, as well as average, maximum and minimum values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Normalized Dif...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martín ME, Stein M, Willener JA, Kuruc JA, Estallo EL Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Epidemiology and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Papua, Indonesia: a molecular diagnostic study.
Abstract Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasitic worm that is of considerable clinical relevance. Indeed, it may persist asymptomatically for many years, but can lead to potentially fatal dissemination when the host's immune status is impaired. As commonly employed stool microscopy techniques (e.g. Kato-Katz thick smear) fail to detect S. stercoralis, the epidemiology is poorly understood. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional household survey in the district of Mimika in Papua, Indonesia. A total of 331 individuals, aged 1 month to 40 years, had a single stool sample subjected to real-time polymerase chai...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kridaningsih TN, Sukmana DJ, Mufidah H, Diptyanusa A, Kusumasari RA, Burdam FH, Kenangalem E, Poespoprodjo JR, Fuad A, Mahendradhata Y, Supargiyono S, Utzinger J, Becker SL, Murhandarwati EEH Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Design, development and assessment of an essential oil based slow release vaporizer against mosquitoes.
Abstract Mosquitoes (Diptera; Culicidae) are a biting nuisance and are of economic and health importance, especially for people living in tropical countries like India. Given the environmental concerns and health hazards of synthetic insecticides, development of natural products for the control of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases are needed. In view of this, an essential oil based novel liquid vaporizer formulation with citronella and eucalyptus oils has been developed using a computer aided Artificial Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization (ANN-PSO) algorithm approach aiming to predict the best optimi...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hazarika H, Tyagi V, Krishnatreyya H, Roy PK, Islam J, Chakraborty S, Gogoi N, Kishor S, Bhutia YD, Goyary D, Karmakar S, Dwivedi SK, Zaman K, Chattopadhyay P Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Salivary gland transcriptome of the Asiatic Triatoma rubrofasciata.
Abstract Salivary gland transcriptome analysis of the Asiatic Triatoma rubrofasciata was performed by high-throughput RNA sequencing. This analysis showed that the majority of reads accounting for 85.38% FPKM were mapped with a secreted class. Of these, the most abundant subclass accounting for 89.27% FPKM was the lipocalin family. In the lipocalin family, the most dominant molecules making up 70.49% FPKM were homologues of procalin, a major allergen identified from T. protracta saliva, suggesting an important role in blood-sucking of T. rubrofasciata. Other lipocalins showed similarities to pallidipin and triplat...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mizushima D, Tabbabi A, Yamamoto DS, Kien LT, Kato H Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Fasciola hepatica-derived molecules as potential immunomodulators.
es LE Abstract Through the years, helminths have co-existed with many species. This process has allowed parasites to live within them for long periods and, in some cases, to generate offspring. In particular, this ability has allowed Fasciola hepatica to survive the diverse immunological responses faced within its wide range of hosts. The vast repertoire of molecules that are constantly secreted in large quantities by the parasite, acts directly on several cells of the immune system affecting their antiparasitic capacities. Interestingly, these molecules can direct the host immune response to an anti-inflammatory ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Corral-Ruiz GM, Sánchez-Torres LE Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Trypanosoma cruzi could affect wild triatomine approaching behaviour to humans by altering vector nutritional status: a field test.
In this study, we evaluated the association between the approaching behaviour to a human host, with T. cruzi infection status and nutritional condition of M. spinolai. To this end, we captured 501 individuals in six consecutive 10 minute-timespan, using a human as bait. Captured vectors were weighed, photographed and measured to calculate their nutritional status by means of a Standardized Body Mass Index. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was assessed in the intestinal content by using a real-time PCR assay. Ordinal logistic regressions were performed separately for infected and uninfected groups to evaluate if the nutritional ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Estay-Olea D, Correa JP, Bona S, Bacigalupo A, Quiroga N, Juan ES, Solari A, Botto-Mahan C Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Foot and mouth disease in a wide range of wild hosts: a potential constraint in disease control efforts worldwide particularly in disease-endemic settings.
Abstract Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease that affects predominantly cloven-footed animal species within the order Artiodactyla. The potential of the virus to transmit, maintain and circulate itself across a wide range of susceptible hosts, including both domestic and wild ungulates, remains a single major obstacle in an effective eradication of disease worldwide, particularly in disease-endemic settings. Hence, a better understanding of virus transmission dynamics is very much crucial for an efficient control of the disease, particularly at places or regions where wildlife and livestock rearing co-...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rahman AU, Dhama K, Ali Q, Raza MA, Chaudhry U, Shabbir MZ Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Leptospira interrogans in wild Boa constrictor snakes from Northeast Brazil peri-urban rainforest fragments.
Abstract Leptospirosis, a disease that occurs worldwide, especially in tropical regions, is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira and affects mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. Boa constrictor snakes are commonly found in Atlantic rainforest fragments in peri-urban areas, which indicates a greater possibility of the contact of these animals with humans residing there. Therefore, the aim of this work was to detect Leptospira spp infection through molecular assays in wild B. constrictor snakes rescued in peri-urban areas and verify seroreactivity, by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), as well as the most...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rodamilans GM, Fonseca MS, Paz LN, Fernandez CC, Biondi I, Lira-da-Silva RM, Meyer R, Pinna MH, Portela RD Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii infection in patients with lung diseases in Shandong province, eastern China.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite, can induce various clinical symptoms. T. gondii has been considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. This survey was conducted to explore the correlation between T. gondii infection and lung diseases through a case-control study carried out in Shandong province, eastern China. In the present survey, T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 76/398 (19.10%) of patients with lung diseases, which was significantly higher (P
Source: Acta Tropica - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li YX, Wei CY, Zhang XY, Duan YH, Zhang PN, Guo MJ, Niu HT Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic diversity of avian haemosporidian parasites at an intersection point of bird migration routes: Sultan Marshes National Park, Turkey.
In this study, we investigated the prevalence and diversity of avian haemosporidian parasites in Sultan Marshes National Park (SMNP), a major stopover site in the eastern Mediterranean flyway, and we evaluated the potential for avian haemosporidians in SMNP to be transmitted to areas outside of their known distributions. We sampled a total of 565 migratory and resident birds belonging to 39 species and 23 families. We applied both molecular and microscopic methods to detect and identify avian haemosporidian infections and also quantified the frequency of potential abortive infections. We identified a total of 52 different ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ciloglu A, Ergen AG, Inci A, Dik B, Duzlu O, Onder Z, Yetismis G, Bensch S, Valkiūnas G, Yildirim A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Molecular Phylogeny and taxonomy of a new Myxobolus species from the endangered ornamental fish, Otocinclus cocama endemic to Peru: A host-parasite coextinction approach.
Abstract A new Myxobolus species is described infecting gill filaments of the endangered ornamental fish Otocinclus cocama from Peruvian Amazon. In a total of 35 fish examined, five (14.3%) had myxozoan plasmodia. Taxonomic analysis was performed integrating multiple characters, including morphometrical, biological traits, ssrDNA sequence data and host ecological characters. Myxospores of M. iquitoensis n. sp. were ovoid in shape from the frontal view and measured 17.6±1.2 µm (16.2-19.8 µm) in length and 10.5±0.7 µm (9.8-12 µm) in width. The two polar capsules were elongate in...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mathews PD, Mertins O, Milanin T, Espinoza LL, Gonzales-Florese AP, Audebert F, Morandini AC Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

New records and DNA barcoding of deer flies, Chrysops (Diptera: Tabanidae) in Thailand.
In this study, an entomological survey of deer flies from different sites in Thailand between May 2018 and June 2019 were conducted. In addition, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding region was used for species identification. A total of 82 females were collected and 6 species were identified. Of these, three species are new records for Thailand: C. designatus, C. fuscomarginalis and C. vanderwulpi bringing the species total found in Thailand to nine. The COI sequences revealed an intraspecific divergence of 0.0%-2.65% and an interspecific divergence of 7.03%-13.47%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ...
Source: Acta Tropica - June 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Changbunjong T, Weluwanarak T, Sedwisai P, Ruangsittichai J, Duvallet G, Chareonviriyaphap T Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Lack of Association of IL6 polymorphism with the susceptibility to Chagas disease in Latin American populations.
TED Network Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyze IL6 rs1800795 genetic variant in the susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and in the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), in five independent Latin American cohorts. A total of 3,087 individuals from Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and two cohorts from Colombia) were studied. In all cohorts, patients were classified as seropositive for T. cruzi antigens (n= 1,963) and seronegative (n= 1,124). Based on clinical evaluation, the seropositive patients, were classified as CCC (n= 900) and asymptomatic (n= 1,063)...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 31, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Strauss M, Casares-Marfil D, Alcaraz A, Palma-Vega M, Bosch-Nicolau P, Presti MSL, Molina I, González CI, Martín J, Acosta-Herrera M, Chagas Genetics CYTED Network Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Establishment of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Southeast Asia.
Ho TH Abstract Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a common fever in parts of Southern and South East Asia. As delayed diagnosis of scrub typhus leads to inappropriate treatment and high mortality rates, of up to 70%, sensitive and rapid detection of O. tsutsugamushi is required for timely and appropriate treatment. Molecular assays, such as PCR and real-time PCR, have been shown to be more sensitive than conventional immunoassay, however, they are only available in centralized laboratories. In contrast to PCR assays, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is conducted under a constant temperatu...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 31, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nguyen CT, Nguyen UD, Le TT, Bui HT, Nguyen ANTTÁ, NguyenAnh ANTTN, Trieu NT, Trieu LP, Bui ST, Nguyen C, Van Hoang L, Ho SA, Van Nguyen B, Stenman J, Ho TH Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii Chinese I genotype Wh6 strain infection induces tau phosphorylation via activating GSK3 β and causes hippocampal neuron apoptosis.
Toxoplasma gondii Chinese I genotype Wh6 strain infection induces tau phosphorylation via activating GSK3β and causes hippocampal neuron apoptosis. Acta Trop. 2020 May 31;:105560 Authors: Tao Q, Wang X, Liu L, Ji Y, Luo Q, Du J, Yu L, Shen J, Chu D Abstract Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a neurophilic and intracellular parasite that can affect plenty of vertebrate animals, including humans. Recent researches indicate that T. gondii infection is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease(AD). In addition, tau hyper-phosphorylation is a crucial event leading to the for...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 31, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tao Q, Wang X, Liu L, Ji Y, Luo Q, Du J, Yu L, Shen J, Chu D Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Characterisation of anopheline larval habitats in southern Malawi.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Increasing the knowledgebase of anopheline larval ecology could enable targeted deployment of malaria control efforts and consequently reduce costs of implementation. In Malawi, there exists a knowledge gap in anopheline larval ecology and, therefore, basis for targeted deployment of larval source management (LSM) for malaria control, specifically larvicides. We set out to characterize anopheline larval habitats in the Majete area of Malawi on the basis of habitat ecology and anopheline larval productivity to create a basis for larval control initiatives in the country. METHODS: Longitu...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gowelo SA, Chirombo J, Koenraadt CJM, Mzilahowa T, Berg H, Takken W, McCann RS Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Taenia solium insulin receptors: promising candidates for cysticercosis treatment and prevention.
In this study, we identified and characterized two insulin receptor genes (TsIR-1316 and TsIR-4810) from Taenia solium. TsIR-1316 was grouped with E. multilocularis insulin receptor (EmIR-1) and TsIR-4810 was closer to Taenia pisiformis insulin-like growth factor receptor (TpIR) on the same branch with a very high bootstrap value. TsIR-1316 was located on the integument of larvae and adult worms, as well as the ovary of adults and eggs. Alternatively, TsIR-4810 was located in the parenchyma and reproductive organs of the adult worms. By using in vitro cultivation systems with Cysticercus pisiformis as a model, we demonstra...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wang L, Liang P, Wei Y, Zhang S, Aimin G, Liu G, Ehsan M, Liu M, Luo X Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Excito-repellency and biological safety of β-caryophyllene oxide against Aedes albopictus and Anopheles dirus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Excito-repellency and biological safety of β-caryophyllene oxide against Aedes albopictus and Anopheles dirus (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Trop. 2020 May 30;:105556 Authors: Nararak J, Giorgio CD, Sukkanon C, Mahiou-Leddet V, Ollivier E, Manguin S, Chareonviriyaphap T Abstract The activity of β-caryophyllene oxide as either a contact or noncontact repellent was evaluated against two laboratory strains (Aedes albopictus and Anopheles dirus) using an excito-repellency test system. N, N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) was used as a standard reference baseline for comparative purposes. β-Car...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nararak J, Giorgio CD, Sukkanon C, Mahiou-Leddet V, Ollivier E, Manguin S, Chareonviriyaphap T Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi: Snail intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines.
Abstract Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi is the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines. It was discovered by Dr. Marcos Tubangui in 1932 more than two decades after the discovery of the disease in the country in 1906. This review, the first for O. h. quadrasi, presents past and present works on the taxonomy, biology, ecology, control, possible paleogeographic origin of the snail intermediate host and future in research, control and surveillance of the snail. Extensive references are made of other subspecies of O. hupensis such as the subspecies in China for which majority of the advances...
Source: Acta Tropica - May 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Leonardo L, Varona G, Fornillos RJ, Manalo D, Tabios IK, Moendeg K, de Cadiz A, Kikuchi M, Chigusa Y, Mistica M, Hernandez L, Palasi W, Fontanilla IK Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

DNA analysis reveals non-falciparum malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals Plasmodium vivax and other non-falciparum malaria across several regions of the DRC, and enforces the importance of further testing and more precise diagnostics when testing for and treating malaria in the DRC. Here, we find a higher proportion of cases of P. vivax malaria than found in previous studies. This is the most robust DNA sequencing of Plasmodium vivax in the DRC to date. PMID: 32479838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - May 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Podgorski RM, Goff KA, Penney TP, Maness NJ, Keating J, Yukich JO, Marx PA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in pigs in Xinjiang, China.
Abstract Cryptosporidium spp. are distributed ubiquitously worldwide, and pigs are considered as one of the main reservoir hosts. Eight hundred one porcine fecal specimens were collected from seven intensive pig farms in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Cryptosporidium spp. were screened via PCR amplification of the small ribosomal subunit RNA gene, and 143 specimens (17.9%, 143/801) from all seven farms tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidium prevalence in the pigs differed significantly among farms (p
Source: Acta Tropica - May 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qi M, Zhang Q, Xu C, Zhang Y, Xing J, Tao D, Li J, Zhang L Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research