An innovative and user-friendly scoring system for standardised quantitative interpretation of the urine-based point-of-care strip test (POC-CCA) for the diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis- a proof-of-concept study.
Abstract The point-of-care strip assay for the detection of the schistosome Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) in urine has shown to be a user-friendly and sensitive alternative to stool microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections. However, visual scoring of the test is by definition observer dependent and leads to discussion about the qualitative interpretation, in particular in low intensity infections when test lines tend to be weak. In order to standardise visual scoring, an innovative approach for semi-quantitative interpretation of the POC-CCA cassettes, called G-scores, was developed ...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Casacuberta-Partal M, Hoekstra PT, Kornelis D, van Lieshout L, van Dam GJ Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Vaccination with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii CDPK3 induces protective immunity against experimental toxoplasmosis.
In this study, the immune protective function of recombinant TgCDPK3 (rTgCDPK3) against experimental toxoplasmosis in BALB/c were evaluated. We divided the mice into different dose groups of vaccines and all immunizations with purified rTgCDPK3 protein were injected by intramuscular at weeks 0, 2, and 4 in BALB/c mice. The rTgCDPK3 vaccine provided protection was correlated with the development of humoral and cellular immune responses demonstrated through the antigen-specific spleen cell proliferation, release of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, and the production of the high titers of IgG antibody with a predominance of IgG2a o...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wu M, An R, Chen Y, Chen T, Wen H, Yan Q, Shen J, Chen L, Du J Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Habitat characterization of sandfly vectors of leishmaniasis in khyber pakhtunkhwa, pakistan.
HABITAT CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDFLY VECTORS OF LEISHMANIASIS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN. Acta Trop. 2019 Aug 15;:105147 Authors: Khan K, Wahid S, Khan NH Abstract Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, is currently distributed in 98 countries of the world and wide spread throughout Pakistan. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli and P. sergenti Parrot are vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) while P. major Yakimoff and P. hindustanicus Theodor are vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan of Pakistan. The present...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khan K, Wahid S, Khan NH Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

A new species of Laelaps Koch, 1836 (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) parasitic of the sigmodontine rodent Oligoryzomys flavescens Waterhouse, 1837 (Rodentia: Cricetidae): Molecular and morphological characterization.
Abstract Laelaps schatzi sp. nov. (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is described on the bases of mites collected from the sigmodontine Oligoryzomys flavescens Waterhouse, 1837 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Pereyra, Buenos Aires, Argentina, based on morphological, morphometric and molecular data. Two DNA fragments, mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear 18.S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial gene sequence were deposited in the public Genbank datebase. The DNA extraction was conducted nondestructively using Chelex®100 modified for this study, to prevent vouchers for further microscopically examination. Laelaps schatzi s...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Savchenko E, Lareschi M Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in areas with pest outbreaks and simuliotoxicosis in Northeast Anatolia Region, Turkey.
Abstract Accurate species identification provides the foundation for successful pest management and vector control of black flies. Accordingly, we examined the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences of four morphologically and chromosomally identified species of black flies (S. vernum group sp., S. bergi Rubtsov, S. bezzii (Corti), and S. kiritshenkoi Rubtsov) in Northeast Anatolia Region of Turkey where simuliid pest problems and simuliotoxicosis cases have been reported among cattle. COI gene sequences of these species and closely related species available in GenBank were used to provide spe...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Onder Z, Yildirim A, Duzlu O, Arslan MO, Sari B, Tasci GT, Ciloglu A, Aydin NP, Inci A, Adler PH Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

High prevalence of taeniasis and Taenia solium cysticercosis in children in western Sichuan, China.
This study discloses a high prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in primary school-aged children in minority areas of western Sichuan, suggesting an urgent necessity for school-based disease control. PMID: 31415736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - August 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li T, Chen X, Wang H, Openshaw JJ, Zhong B, Felt SA, Ito A, Luby SP Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Unusual Clinical Manifestations of Dengue Disease - Real or Imagined?
kis N Abstract The disease caused by each of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) have plagued humans since last century. Symptoms of dengue virus (DENV) infection range from asymptomatic to dengue fever (DF) to severe dengue disease (SDD). One third of the world's population lives in regions with active urban DENV transmission, and thousands of serologically naïve travelers visit these areas annually, making a significant portion of the human population at risk of being infected. Even though lifelong immunity to the homotypic serotype is achieved after a primary DENV infection. Heterotypic DENV infectio...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Estofolete CF, de Oliveira Mota MT, Bernardes Terzian AC, de Aguiar Milhim BHG, Ribeiro MR, Nunes DV, Mourão MP, Rossi SL, Nogueira ML, Vasilakis N Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Infection Status with Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Lao PDR.
Abstract Studies on the infection status with fishborne zoonotic trematode (FZT) metacercariae were reviewed with our data, which obtained from the fish survey in 8 administrative localities, i.e., Vientiane Municipality, Luang Prabang, Xieng Khouang, Vientiane, Khammuane, Savannakhet, Saravane and Champasak Provinces of Lao PDR (Laos) in 10 times. Total 1,046 freshwater fishes (69 species) were examined with the artificial digestion method from 2002 to 2011. Total 6 species of zoonotic trematode, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis yokogawai, Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus an...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chai JY, Lee SH, Rim HJ, Sohn WM, Phommasack B Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Challenges in the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sichuan, Western China.
Abstract A literature review was performed to define the history of transmission of human parasitic diseases and the evolution of control measures adopted in Sichuan Province during the past several decades. In particular, monitoring data related to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections collected since 2006 were analyzed to determine prevalence based on the current control measures and strategies. It was observed that high STH infections, existing mostly in hilly and mountain areas where cultural and economic development has been slower than that in the plain areas, present a continuing challenge to the preve...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tian H, Luo J, Zhong B, Huang Y, Xie H, Liu L Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Comparison of the clinical signs, pathological and immuohistochemical findings in visceral organs of chickens experimentally infected with Salmonella Zega through three routes.
Abstract Salmonella Zega isolated from natural outbreaks that were characterized by high mortality in poultry farms in three Southwestern States of Nigeria was used to inoculate two week-old chicks through different routes in order to determine and compare the clinical signs, pathological and immunohistochemical changes in each route of infection. The birds were divided into 4 groups of 25 each as groups A (orally inoculated), B (intraperitoneally inoculated), C (inoculated per cloaca) and D (uninoculated control). All the birds were inoculated with 0.2 ml of 1 × 108 cfu of the bacteria....
Source: Acta Tropica - August 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mshelbwala FM, Ibrahim NDG, Saidu SN, Kadiri AKF, Kwanashie CN Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

A Patent Perspective on Chikungunya.
Abstract Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) belonging to the Alphavirus genus and transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of Aedes spp. Nearly 40 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas have documented chikungunya cases. Most recent severe outbreaks have occurred in Indian Ocean islands of Réunion and Mauritius and India. There is no specific drug treatment for the disease, neither is there a standardized vaccine available for prevention of the disease. The present review gives a global perspective on patents filed pertaining to chikungunya. The United States has been...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dapurkar D, Telang M Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem from the Arab Republic of Egypt.
This article reviews the history of LF control activities and summarizes the NLFEP extensive interventions to eliminate LF in Egypt. Based on MoHP data, mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC and ALB was started in 2000 in 161 implementation units (IUs). Additional IUs were included in subsequent MDA rounds, with the last IU included in 2007. MDA stopping surveys were conducted based on WHO guidelines (2005; 2011). Information about the presence of those suffering from lymphoedema/elephantiasis and hydrocele patients was collected, and care provided to those needing care in five rural health units (RHU) by primary health ...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ramzy RMR, Kamal HA, Hassan MA, Haggag AA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

High prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis B viruses in insectivorous bats from China.
In this study, a total of 197 insectivorous bats belonging to 10 bat species were captured from karst caves in Mengyin County, Shandong Province and Xianning City, Hubei Province, China. PCR amplification indicated that in total 6.6% (13/197) bats were positive to HBVs. The HBV positive rate in bats was 7.1% (9/127) and 5.7% (4/70) in Shandong Province and Hubei Province, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that HBV from the two places were in the same cluster with 90.5%-99.5% homology, but distinct from bat HBVs from other places in China and other countries. We concluded that HBV was prevalent and genetic diver...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lei SC, Xiao X, Liu JW, Han HJ, Gong XQ, Zhao M, Wang LJ, Qin XR, Yu XJ Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Echinococcus granulosus: Insights into the protoscolex F-actin cytoskeleton.
Abstract Echinococcus granulosus is a cestode parasite whose cytoskeleton plasticity allows it to enter and develop inside its hosts, completing thus its life cycle. We focused our attention on F-actin organization and distribution in E. granulosus protoscoleces (PSC) in order to contribute to the knowledge of the parasite cytoskeleton. In particular, we addressed some aspects of F-actin rearrangements in PSC at different stages of the evagination/invagination process. The use of light microscopy allowed us to identify different PSC structures and phalloidin staining displayed a parasite's highly organized F-actin...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: La-Rocca S, Farias J, Chalar C, Kun AE, Fernandez V Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

An observational longitudinal study to evaluate tools and strategies available for the diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Disease in a non-endemic country.
CONCLUSION: PCR in peripheral blood has proven to be the most adequate strategy for the diagnosis of CCD, allowing an early and reliable diagnosis. PMID: 31394076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - August 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Simón M, Gil-Gallardo LJ, Asunción Iborra M, Carrilero B, López MC, Romay-Barja M, Murcia L, Carmen Thomas M, Benito A, Segovia M Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Molecular identification of mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculatus group of subgenus Cellia (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Indonesian Archipelago.
This study reports the molecular differentiation of females of Anopheles maculatus s.l. collected in eight localities on five islands in the Indonesian Archipelago: Hargowilis and Hargotirto villages of Central Java Province, North Kalimantan Province, Sabang off the northern tip of Sumatra Province, Sumba Island of East Nusa Tenggara Province and Sulawesi Province. Analyses based on rDNA (ITS2 and D3) and mtDNA (COII) sequences revealed the presence of An. greeni for the first time in North Kalimantan, and at least one novel (previously unrecognized) species of the Maculatus Group in Central Java (Hargowilis). Despite the...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Made Ali RS, Wahid I, Saingamsook J, Saeung A, Wannasan A, Walton C, Harbach RE, Somboon P Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal parasites in ruminant livestock in the Coastal Savannah zone of Ghana.
Abstract Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasite infections result in significant economic losses to ruminant livestock production. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with GIT parasite infections in livestock from Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in cattle and small ruminants kept under different management systems in the Coastal Savannah zone from October 2014 to February 2015. Faecal samples were collected from 328 cattle and 502 small ruminants (sheep and goats) and examined by formal ether concentration microscopy. The management systems and environmental conditions of the farm or hou...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Squire SA, Robertson ID, Yang R, Ayi I, Ryan U Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

A pilot evaluation of alternative procedures for the simplification of LAMP-based malaria diagnosis in field conditions.
This study evaluates different procedures for the simplification of sample preparation and result reading steps of current LAMP protocols. The reference 'Boil & Spin' (B&S) pre-amplification procedure was compared to three alternative methods, along with a colorimetric staining protocol based on malachite green. Results suggested that the B&S supernatant transference step may be omitted without an impact on test performance, even when colorimetry was incorporated to facilitate results visualization. Procedures skipping centrifugation and/or heat-incubation were proved to be compatible with LAMP-based malaria DN...
Source: Acta Tropica - August 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Serra-Casas E, Guetens P, Chiheb D, Gamboa D, Rosanas-Urgell A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Role of Nucleic Acid Amplification assays in monitoring treatment response in Chagas disease: Usefulness in clinical trials.
an AG Abstract Chagas disease has become a global health problem due to migration of infected people out of Latin America to non-endemic countries. For more than 40 years, only the nitroimidazole compounds Benznidazole and Nifurtimox, have been used for specific treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with disappointing results, specially due to the long duration of treatment and adverse events in the chronic phase. In the last years, ergosterol inhibitors have been also proposed for specific treatment. Different randomized clinical trials were performed for evaluating their treatment efficacy and safety. One of ...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sulleiro E, Muñoz-Calderon A, Schijman AG Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

A preliminary study to assess the use of a "Snakes and Ladders" board game in improving the knowledge of elementary school children about taeniasis.
A preliminary study to assess the use of a "Snakes and Ladders" board game in improving the knowledge of elementary school children about taeniasis. Acta Trop. 2019 Jul 29;:105117 Authors: Wulanyani NMS, Pratama YS, Swastika K, Made Sudarmaja I, Wandra T, Yoshida T, Budke CM, Ito A Abstract The Snakes and Ladders board game was modified so that it contained information on taeniasis. A quantitative approach was used to evaluate if elementary school children were able to answer correctly more questions about Taenia saginata and Taenia solium transmission and control after playing the game comp...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wulanyani NMS, Pratama YS, Swastika K, Made Sudarmaja I, Wandra T, Yoshida T, Budke CM, Ito A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Comparison of screening tests without a gold standard - a pragmatic approach with virtual reference testing.
Abstract Well-defined diagnostic gold standards are rarely available for the diagnosis of rare diseases such as some tropical infections. Algorithms for reliable test evaluation without gold standard are therefore desirable. On the basis of previous work of Gart & Buck (1966), Rogan & Gladen (1978), and Hui & Walter (1980), a modeling approach for the comparison of diagnostic tests without a gold standard - and thus without reliably characterized reference sample material - is established especially for situations not fulfilling the requirement of conditional independence of the diagnostic tests evalua...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hahn A, Schwarz NG, Frickmann H Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Development of a Next Generation DNA Sequencing-based Multi Detection Assay for detecting and identifying Leishmania parasites, blood sources, plant meals and intestinal microbiome in phlebotomine sand flies.
Abstract Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by Leishmania parasites transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Human infections with different Leishmania species cause characteristic clinical manifestations; cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis. Here we describe the development and application of a Miseq Next GenerationSequencing (NGS)-based Multi Detection Assay (MDA) designed to characterize metagenomics parameters pertinent to the sand fly vectors which may affect their vectorial capacity for Leishmania. For this purpose, we developed a MDA by which, DNA fragments were amplified through polyme...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abbasi I, Nasereddin A, Warburg A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Identification of Antigen B (AgB) Gene Polymorphism in Cattle and Sheep Isolates of Echinococcus granulosus and Investigation of Effects on Serological Diagnosis.
Abstract Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is a worldwide common helminth disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic differences between distinct isolates of E. granulosus obtained from cattle and sheep and determine the polymorphism of the AgB1 gene by DNA sequence analysis, as well as investigating its relationship with serological response using ELISA and Western Blot tests. For this aim, germinal membranes of hydatid cysts of 30 cattle and 30 sheep from the provinces of Elazig and Erzincan in Turkey and serum samples of these animals were col...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kesik HK, Simsek S, Kilinc SG, Koroglu E Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Concurrent Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infections in a peri-urban community along the Weija dam in Ghana:- A Wake up call for effective National Control Programme.
Abstract Globally over 200 million people are infected with schistosomiasis, and approximately 80% are caused by just two of five species, Schistosoma haematobium and Schitosoma mansoni that are broadly distributed, and often overlap across sub-Saharan Africa. Like most neglected tropical diseases, mortality is low (an estimated 200,000 deaths annually) and morbidity is considerably high and probably underestimated. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to co-infection with these two species. We have studied co-infection with S. mansoni and S. haematobium in a peri-urban community in Ghana, one of the most...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anyan WK, Abonie SD, Aboagye-Antwi F, Tettey MD, Nartey LK, Hanington PC, Anang AK, Muench SB Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

The association between child Schistosoma spp. infections and morbidity in an irrigated rice region in Mali: a localized study.
CONCLUSION: Our research contributes an important micro-geographical assessment of the heavy burden of schistosomiasis and associated morbidity in children who live in the rice irrigation regions. Our literature review found that there has been very limited research conducted on the impact of the treatment to control morbidity in the ON. Therefore, there is a need to do a comparable, but more extensive, study to identify any changes in morbidity and to indicate current requirements for the control programme. Our results from 2005 called for routine integration of iron supplementation, food fortification and diet diversific...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mutombo N, Landouré A, Young Man W, Fenwick A, Dembélé R, Sacko M, Keita AD, Traoré MS, Webster JP, McLaws ML Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

The reservoir system for Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) species in large Neotropical wetland.
iraglia Herrera H Abstract Distinct species of Trypanosoma have been documented sharing the same hosts in different environments in intricate transmission networks. Knowing this, this study investigated the role of different hosts in the transmission cycles of Trypanosoma species in the Pantanal biome. The mammals were sampled from November 2015 to October 2016. We sampled a total of 272 wild mammals from 27 species belonging to six orders and 15 families, and three species of triatomines (n = 7). We found high parasitemias by Hemoculture test for Trypanosoma cruzi (TcI), Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypano...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martins Santos F, Texeira Gomes Barreto W, de Macedo GC, da Silva Barros JH, Chagas Xavier SCD, Martins Garcia C, Mourão G, de Oliveira J, Ribeiro Rimoldi A, de Oliveira Porfírio GE, de Andrade GB, Perles L, André MR, Jansen AM, Miraglia Herrera H Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Multilocus genotyping and risk factor analysis of Giardia duodenalis in dogs in Korea.
This study analyzed Giardia infections, implementing multilocus genotyping, including the 18S rRNA, gdh, and β-giardin genes, in sheltered, companion, and special-purpose dogs throughout Korea. Of 640 dog stool samples, 99 (15.5%) were G. duodenalis-positive; this prevalence was similar to that previously reported in Korean calves. In addition, the prevalence was significantly higher in the southern region, and lower in non-sheltered dogs, older dogs, and in the autumn season. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all G. duodenalis-positive samples belonged to assemblages C and D. Although no G. duodenalis assemblages A...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kim HY, Lee H, Lee SH, Seo MG, Yi S, Kim JW, Kim CH, Lee YR, So B, Kwon OD, Kwak D Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Changing patterns in the distribution of the Mayaro virus vector Haemagogus species in Trinidad, West Indies.
Abstract The Mayaro virus disease (MAYVD) is an emerging mosquito borne zoonosis that was first reported on the island of Trinidad in 1954. The viral agent for this disease is known to presently be endemic to Central and South America. The enzootic cycle of the Mayaro virus (MAYV) is not fully characterized, though primates are thought to be the main reservoir with Haemagogus species of mosquitoes as the primary vector. This virus has been responsible for several sporadic cases of infections and limited outbreaks, but it is postulated that the MAYVD will become a major epidemic in the future, following in the step...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali R, Mohammed A, Jayaraman J, Nandram N, Feng RS, Lezcano RD, Seeramsingh R, Daniel B, Lovin DD, Severson DW, Ramsubhag A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Tiger in the sun: a report of Aedes albopictus in Jamaica.
This report describes the presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Jamaica. The adults were found while conducting an ongoing survey of mosquitoes on the island. Specimens were collected using a combination of modified Center for Disease Control (CDC) miniature light traps and BG sentinel traps. A total of six adult female Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected at two different locations in October of 2018. This finding increases the number of Aedes mosquito species on the island bringing with it public health implications. PMID: 31351894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali I, Mundle M, Anzinger JJ, Sandiford SL Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Molecular, morphological and experimental-infection studies of cercariae of five species in the superfamily Diplostomoidea (Trematoda: Digenea) infecting Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) in Brazil.
;M, Alves Pinto H Abstract Trematodes belonging to the superfamily Diplostomoidea have complex life cycles involving birds, mammals and reptiles as definitive hosts, and gastropods and different groups of invertebrates and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. Molecular studies of these parasites are numerous, but data from larval stages in mollusks remain scarce, particularly in South America. The present study focused mainly on five morphotypes of longifurcate cercariae found in Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, collected between 2009 and 2017. In each morphotype, nucl...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: López-Hernández D, Locke SA, de Assis JCA, Drago FB, de Melo AL, Leite Rabelo ÉM, Alves Pinto H Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

In vitro synergistic interaction of potent 4-aminoquinolines in combination with dihydroartemisinin against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.
Abstract High-grade chloroquine (CQ) resistance has been reported in malaria endemic geographical regions such as Papua New Guinea, northern Papua, and eastern and Western provinces of Indonesia, along with low-level resistance in Vietnam, South Korea, Turkey, Burma, South America, and Madagascar. Studies on CQ drug resistance have revealed the association of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter protein. Thus, we are in dire need of alternate chemotherapeutic agents which in combination with artemisinin (or its analogues) are efficacious against chloroquine resistant strains. Such combinations may thwa...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Agarwal D, Singh S, Gupta RD, Awasthi SK Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Comparison between Pupal and Adult X-ray Radiation, designed for the Sterile Insect Technique for Aedes albopictus Control.
In this study, the relative effectiveness of X-ray irradiation as a mosquito SIT was investigated. Both pupal and adult Aedes albopictus were subjected to different radiation doses and their emergence, survivorship, longevity, induced sterility, and male mating competitiveness were evaluated. Relative to controls, irradiation had no significant effect on emergence and survivorship but significantly reduce adult longevity. Induced sterility were essentially same for both irradiated pupal and adult. At a dose of 40 Gy, 97% and 100% sterility was respectively achieved for males and females. Mating competitiveness was r...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Du W Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

A case of group infections with Paraginimus species in Henan, Central China.
Abstract In July of 2012, mass infections with Paragonimus species were detected in the Henan province sickening 11 of 51 people. In May 2011, these individuals had participated in an excursion during which freshwater crabs were caught and served after being toasted. Before the group infections with Paraginimus species was confirmed, 5 of the 11 patients had been misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB) and treated with an anti-TB drug regimen for six months. The most common and typical manifestations were eosinophilia (11/11, 100%) and pulmonary manifestations including, among others, stethalgia and cough (7/11 63.6%). ...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chen WQ, Deng Y, Zhang YL, Ai L, Chen JX, Lin XM, Du XB, Li P, Zhou RM, Yang CY, Liu Y, Zhang HW, Xu BL, Zhao YL Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Drug discovery for chagas disease: A viewpoint.
z J Abstract Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is a significant public health problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. And although it was described 110 years ago, only two old nitroheterocyclic drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox, are currently available for the treatment of Chagas disease and both have several limitations. Besides the clear unmet medical need, many challenges preclude the development of new treatments, some of them related to a lack of understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and parasite-host interactions. New...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Müller Kratz J Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

First report of the prevalence and genotype of Trypanosoma in bats in Yun nan Province, Southwestern China.
Abstract Trypanosome is considered as one of important parasites in almost all mammalian species, which occurs in Chiroptera throughout the world. Although numerous trypanosome species have been identified in bats in Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, little is known about the genetic diversity and pathogenicity of trypanosomes in Chinese bat. Recently, some human Trypanosoma cruzi infection attributed to a bat-related T. cruzi (TcBat) from the Noctilio spp., Myotis spp. and Artibeus spp was found. Consequently, it is a necessity to know trypanosome species in bats from China. In order to determine the preval...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cai Y, Wang X, Zhang N, Li J, Gong P, He B, Zhang X Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Seroepidemiology of foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus non-structural protein (NSP) antibodies in the livestock of Oman.
Al-Rawahi A, Gharib Al-Maawali M Abstract Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious acute viral disease that causes severe economic losses to the affected countries. To estimate the serological prevalence of the local livestock to the natural infection with FMD virus, a cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2017 in Oman. Sera from 5807 randomly selected animals (1792 cattle, 2119 goats and 1896 sheep) belonging to 884 herds were tested for the presence of antibodies against 3ABC non-structural protein (NSP) of the FMD virus by a Competition ELISA. Prevalence along with confidence intervals (C...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hammad Hussain M, Hassan Hussain Body M, Hamed Abdullah Al-Subhi A, Yousaf Ali Al-Senaidi N, Eltahir HA, Mansoor MK, Somar Al-Zadjali M, Al-Habsi SS, Saif Rashid Aluahmadi S, Salem Nasser Al-Subhi R, Khalifa Ismail Al-Beloushi M, Thani Al-Riyami BS, Hamoo Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Genetic diversity and natural selection of transmission-blocking vaccine candidate antigens Pvs25 and Pvs28 in Plasmodium vivax Myanmar isolates.
In this study, genetic diversity and natural selection of the two TBV candidate genes in Plasmodium vivax Myanmar isolates were analyzed. The 62 Myanmar P. vivax isolates showed 9 and 19 different haplotypes for Pvs25 and Pvs28, respectively. The nucleotide diversity of Pvs28 was slightly higher than Pvs25, but not significant. Most amino acid substitutions observed in Myanmar Pvs25 and Pvs28 were concentrated at the EGF-2 and EGF-3 like domains. Major amino acid changes found in Myanmar Pvs25 and Pvs28 were similar to those reported in the global population, but novel amino acid substitutions were also identified. Negativ...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lê HG, Kang JM, Jun H, Lee J, Moe M, Lam Thái T, Lin K, Myint MK, Yoo WG, Sohn WM, Kim TS, Na BK Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

High-resolution remote sensing-based spatial modeling for the prediction of potential risk areas of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area, China.
This study conducted a typical schistosomiasis epidemic area in the marshland and lake regions along the Yangtze River, Yueyang City, Hunan Province of China. And three types of environmental factors, i.e., NDVI, soil moisture, and shortest distance to water body, associated with the geographical distribution of snail population, were extracted from the high-resolution remoting sensing data. The predicted distribution of snail habitus from the high-resolution environmental factors were compared with the data of annual program of snail survey. The results have shown that the application of high-resolution remote sensing can...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xue JB, Xia S, Zhang LJ, Abe EM, Zhou J, Li YY, Hao YW, Wang Q, Xu J, Li SZ, Zhou XN Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Comparative laboratory and field study of biorational insecticides for Culicoides biting midge management in larval developmental sites.
Abstract An appropriate management strategy of bluetongue vectors should include larvicidal treatments in their larval development sites utilizing active substances with low environmental impact. A selection of biorational insecticides with potential against dipteran larvae was assayed in the laboratory against field collected Culicoides larvae including C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, and C. imicola, determining their median lethal concentrations in water and mud/water substrate. The efficacy of formulations containing the insect growth regulators pyriproxyfen and cyromazine, the botanical insecticide azadirachti...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Foxi C, Delrio G, Luciano P, Mannu R, Ruiu L Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Mayaro virus distribution in South America.
Abstract Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a pathogen endemic to South America and some Caribbean islands, with reports of occasional outbreaks. However, its current distribution and high-risk areas are little known. We conducted a modelling study to determine the areas with highest prevalence of MAYV occurrence in South America, based on confirmed cases and serological detection over the last 20 years and socio-environmental variables. We performed our analysis using Maxent software, a machine learning algorithm used for species distribution modeling. Our results showed that the occurrence of MAYV is mainly associated with ...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lorenz C, Freitas Ribeiro A, Chiaravalloti-Neto F Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Geographic Plasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (PfSERCA) genotype diversity in India.
Abstract Plasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (PfSERCA) is sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane bound transporter to regulate cytosol Ca2+ ions. Ca2+ act as secondary messenger and play important role in differentiation of parasite during its life cycle. Present study is epidemiological surveillance of PfSERCA (Pf3D7_0106300) gene fragment harboring 263, 402, 431 codon to look for its single nucleotide polymorphism which is well documented to be associated with Artemisinin tolerance. Filter paper with finger pricked blood samples for Plasmodium falciparum infected uncomplicated malaria patients were...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Goomber S, Mishra N, Anvikar A, Valecha N Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Distinguishing two species of Cavernicola (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
da Rosa JA Abstract The blood-sucking insects of the subfamily Triatominae are vectors of Chagas disease, the most impairing protozoan parasitic infection in Latin America. Among the five tribes known in the subfamily, one of the least studied is Cavernicolini. It has only two species within Cavernicola genus (Barber, 1937), little is known about the biochemistry of the species of this genus, therefore, using MALDI-TOF MS we provide a better understanding of the two species and differentiates them. The distinction was made by the different spectral profile of the species, where C. lenti presents unique signals in...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dos Santos Souza É, Perosa Fernandes R, Galvão C, de Paiva VF, da Rosa JA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

The potential of a DIVA-like recombinant vaccine composed by rNcSAG1 and rAtHsp81.2 against vertical transmission in a mouse model of congenital neosporosis.
In this study, we evaluated the immunogenic and protective efficacy, as well as the potential DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals) character of a recombinant subunit vaccine composed by the major surface antigen from N. caninum (NcSAG1) and the carrier/adjuvant heat shock protein 81.2 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHsp81.2) in a mouse model of congenital neosporosis. BALB/c female mice were intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunized with a mixture of equimolar quantities of rNcSAG1 and rAtHSP81.2 or each protein alone (rNcSAG1 or rAtHsp81.2). The vaccine containing a mixture of rNcSAG1 and rAtHsp81.2 significantl...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bengoa-Luoni SA, Corigliano MG, Sanchez-Lopez E, Albarracín RM, Legarralde A, Ganuza A, Clemente M, Sander VA Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

First molecular phylogeny of Paralucilia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Insecta, Diptera, Calliphoridae): a preliminary approach.
First molecular phylogeny of Paralucilia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Insecta, Diptera, Calliphoridae): a preliminary approach. Acta Trop. 2019 Jul 16;:105096 Authors: Madeira-Ott T, Marinho MAT, Cordeiro J, Thyssen PJ Abstract Paralucilia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Diptera, Oestroidea, Calliphoridae) is a small genus of blowflies restricted to the Neotropical region, which is commonly reported on decaying corpses and vertebrate carcasses. The number of species currently assigned to this genus and their denominations are contentious, with either three or five species recognized by different au...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Madeira-Ott T, Marinho MAT, Cordeiro J, Thyssen PJ Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

High-resolution remote sensing-based spatial modeling for the prediction of potential risk areas of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area, China.
This study conducted a typical schistosomiasis epidemic area in the marshland and lake regions along the Yangtze River, Yueyang City, Hunan Province of China. And three types of environmental factors, i.e., NDVI, soil moisture, and shortest distance to water body, associated with the geographical distribution of snail population, were extracted from the high-resolution remoting sensing data. The predicted distribution of snail habitus from the high-resolution environmental factors were compared with the data of annual program of snail survey. The results have shown that the application of high-resolution remote sensing can...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xue JB, Xia S, Zhang LJ, Abe EM, Zhou J, Li YY, Hao YW, Wang Q, Xu J, Li SZ, Zhou XN Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Impact of Rural Doctors' Historical Changes on Schistosomiasis Epidemics in China.
Conclusions First, it is urgent to stabilize the team of rural doctors, and it is also necessary to train a group of health workers in areas where the epidemic situation is serious. Second, the preventive function of rural doctors should be improved. Third, the ability of rural areas to prevent disease depends to some extent on political power. PMID: 31302095 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - July 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xiaoyan D Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Ecological niche modeling for predicting the habitat suitability of fascioliasis based on maximum entropy model in southern Caspian Sea littoral, Iran.
Abstract The present study aimed to determine the number of cases of animal fascioliasis per district in the southern littoral of Caspian Sea and to model suitable ecological niches for Fasciola spp. in the region. Stool samples (n = 2688) were collected from cattle and sheep in Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. The samples were tested using flotation method, and the number of parasite eggs per gram (EPG) of feces was recorded for each sample. Occurrence-only data of Fasciola were collected from the field. A total of 96 points/locations were used to model the ecological niche of Fasciola in ...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meshgi B, Majidi-Rad M, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Fathi S Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Nanocarriers for effective delivery of benznidazole and nifurtimox in the treatment of chagas disease: a review.
NANOCARRIERS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY OF BENZNIDAZOLE AND NIFURTIMOX IN THE TREATMENT OF CHAGAS DISEASE: A REVIEW. Acta Trop. 2019 Jul 09;:105080 Authors: Arrúa EC, Seremeta KP, Bedogni GR, Okulik NB, Salomon CJ Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) constitute a group of infectious diseases prevalent in countries with tropical and subtropical climate that affect the poorest individuals and produce high chronic disability associated with serious problems for the health system and socioeconomic development. Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is included on the NTDs list. However, even...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Arrúa EC, Seremeta KP, Bedogni GR, Okulik NB, Salomon CJ Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Assessing Competence for Helminthiases: A Lesson Learnt from National Contest of Parasitic Diseases in China in 2012-2016.
This study aimed to assess the competency of health professionals on helminthiasis control in China. The assessment system comprised of two parts, one being the parasitological knowledge test and the other a technical skills assessment. The knowledge test mainly examined morphology, epidemiology, life history and diagnosis of common and important parasites. The skills assessment consisted of sample slides making and species identification using microscopy. From 2012 to 2016, a total of 616 participants from different levels of parasitic diseases prevention and control departments of CDC took part in the assessment. The res...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ruan Y, Tian T, Zhu Z, Hao Y, Zhang L, Zhu T, Wang L, Wang Q, Cao C, Li S, Zhou X Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs intended for human consumption in Mainland China.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most important foodborne zoonotic pathogens, which can infect virtually all warm-blooded animals, including pigs, and causes severe illness in congenitally infected infants and even death in patients with AIDS. Pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the most important intermediate hosts of T. gondii, and human transmission occurs through consumption of raw or poorly cooked pork. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched Chongqing VIP, Wanfang, Chinese Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases for published papers regarding Toxoplasma infection in pigs in C...
Source: Acta Tropica - July 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhang XX, Ren WX, Tan QD, Hou G, Fei YC, Zhao LJ, Zhao Q, Sun D Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research