High-dose radiation exposure and hypothyroidism: aetiology, prevention and replacement therapy

Without any doubt, high dose radiation exposure can induce hypothyroidism. However, there are open questions related to the mechanisms of its induction, corresponding dose thresholds and possible countermeasures. Therefore, this review addresses the aetiology, prevention and therapy of radiation induced hypothyroidism. External beam radiotherapy with several 10 Gy to the head and neck region and radioiodine therapy with several 100 Gy thyroid absorbed dose can destroy the thyroid gland and can induce autoantibodies against thyroid tissue. According to recent literature, clinical hypothyroidism is observed at threshold doses of ∼10 Gy after external beam radiotherapy and of ∼50 Gy after radioiodine therapy, children being more sensitive than adults. In children and adolescents exposed by the Chernobyl accident with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 500 –800 mGy, subclinical hypothyroidism has been detected in 3% –6% of the cases with significant correlation to thyroid absorbed doses a...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - Category: Physics Authors: Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone in SCH is associated with higher risk of hyperuricemia and CVD and lower risk of obesity. These findings are potentially useful for understanding the interaction between thyroid hormone sensitivity and metabolic diseases in SCH.PMID:35078326 | DOI:10.1089/thy.2021.0500
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractObjectiveTo analyze the impact of nutritional counseling on the development of hypothyroidism after (chemo)radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients to propose a  new normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model.Materials and methodsAt baseline, at the end of (chemo)radiotherapy, and during follow-up, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with free thyroxin (fT3 and fT4), nutritional status, and nutrient intake were prospectively analyzed in 46  out of 220 screened patients. Patients received (chemo)radiotherapy within an intervention (individual nutritional counseling every 2 weeks during the...
Source: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
PurposeStudies on hyperprolactinemia and hypopituitarism in acromegaly are limited. We aimed to analyze the preoperative status, postoperative alterations, and correlated factors of hyperprolactinemia and hypopituitarism in acromegaly patients.MethodsThis is a single-center cohort study with long-term follow-up. We prospectively enrolled 529 acromegaly patients. Hyperprolactinemia and hypopituitarism were evaluated by testing hypothalamus-pituitary-end organ (HPEO) axes hormones before and after surgery.ResultsHyperprolactinemia (39.1%) and hypopituitarism (34.8%) were common in acromegaly. The incidences of axis-specific ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In conclusion, clinical assessment (goiter, diuresis) and biological monitoring of serum calcium, sodium creatinine, TSH and lithium are recommended in patients receiving Lithium therapy. The risk of Lithium discontinuation in case of side effects should be weighed against the psychological risk, and must be discussed with the psychiatrist.PMID:35074396 | DOI:10.1016/j.ando.2022.01.001
Source: Annales d'Endocrinologie - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
This study aimed at determination of the risk factors for thyroid hormone replacement following hemithyroidectomy and to develop a predictive nomogram.MethodsData of patients treated by hemithyroidectomy for benign thyroid disease between January 2015 and January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline characteristics, surgery-related variables, and preoperative and postoperative thyroid function of patients were collected from the case records and compared between patients with postoperative euthyroidism and patients with postoperative hypothyroidism. Postoperative euthyroidism patients without thyroid hormone replac...
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur study confirms and extends our knowledge on the tyrosine kinase inhibitors effects on thyroid, showing that thyroid autoimmunity is frequently observed in chronic myeloid leukemia patients on long-term therapy and is associated with a better oncological response.
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionWell-designed studies are needed to assess verbal and non-verbal neurocognition of offspring born to mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease before or during pregnancy.
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2022 Jan 20:S0003-4266(22)00001-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2021.12.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThyroid and pituitary disorders linked to the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 epidemic, are mainly due to direct infection of the endocrine glands by the virus and to cell damage induced by the immune response. The two most frequent thyroid complications of COVID-19 are low T3 syndrome, or "non-thyroidal illness syndrome" (NTIS), and thyroiditis. Studies among in-patients with COVID-19 have shown that between one out of six and half of them have a low TSH level, related to...
Source: Annales d'Endocrinologie - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur study confirms and extends our knowledge on the tyrosine kinase inhibitors effects on thyroid, showing that thyroid autoimmunity is frequently observed in chronic myeloid leukemia patients on long-term therapy and is associated with a better oncological response.
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionWell-designed studies are needed to assess verbal and non-verbal neurocognition of offspring born to mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease before or during pregnancy.
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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