Derivation of new diagnostic reference levels for neuro-paediatric computed tomography examinations in Switzerland
Purpose. Definition of new national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP) for neuro-paediatric CT examinations depending on the medical indication. Methods . Paediatric cranial CT data sets acquired between January 2013 and December 2016 were retrospectively collected between July 2016 and March 2017 from eight of the largest university and cantonal hospitals that perform most of the neuro-paediatric CTs in Switzerland. A consensus review of CTDI vol and DLP was undertaken for three defined anatomical regions: brain, facial bone, and pet...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 20, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Franca Wagner, Julie Bize, Damien Racine, R égis Le Coultre, Francis Verdun, Philipp R Trueb and Reto Treier Source Type: research

Dosimetric and microdosimetric analyses for blood exposed to reactor-derived thermal neutrons
Thermal neutrons are found in reactor, radiotherapy, aircraft, and space environments. The purpose of this study was to characterise the dosimetry and microdosimetry of thermal neutron exposures, using three simulation codes, as a precursor to quantitative radiobiological studies using blood samples. An irradiation line was designed employing a pyrolytic graphite crystal or —alternatively—a super mirror to expose blood samples to thermal neutrons from the National Research Universal reactor to determine radiobiological parameters. The crystal was used when assessing the relative biological effectiveness f...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 20, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: F Ali, J Atanackovic, C Boyer, A Festarini, J Kildea, L C Paterson, R Rogge, M Stuart and R B Richardson Source Type: research

Establishment of detailed respiratory tract model and Monte Carlo simulation of radon progeny caused dose
As radon is one of the most important natural radiation sources, its radiation hazard has always been a concern. α and β particles emitted by short-lived radioactive radon progeny nuclides could result in a high local dose and induce radiation damage to the respiratory tract. A detailed respiratory tract model needs to be built and dose distribution in the respiratory tract should be studied to reflect the characteristics of energy deposition caused by radon and its progeny. Therefore, in the present work, a dosimetric study was conducted on the respiratory tract and non-uniform dose distribution in the br...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 20, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Hongyu Zhu, Junli Li, Rui Qiu, Yuxi Pan, Zhen Wu, Chunyan Li and Hui Zhang Source Type: research

Considerations on the use of the terms radiosensitivity and radiosusceptibility
The separate use of the terms ‘radiosensitivity’ and ‘radiosusceptibility’ has been suggested to describe variability in the risk of, respectively, adverse tissue reactions (deterministic effect) following radiotherapy and radiation-induced cancer (stochastic effect). The aim of this note is to present arguments against such distinction. We feel that it is premature to make a concrete final judgement on these definitions because of the limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying individual sensitivity to both radiation-related cancers and radiation-related tissue injury. Moreover, the e...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 20, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Andrzej Wojcik, Simon Bouffler, Michael Hauptmann and Preetha Rajaraman Source Type: research

Past and present work practices of European interventional cardiologists in the context of radiation protection of the eye lens —results of the EURALOC study
This paper investigates over five decades of work practices in interventional cardiology, with an emphasis on radiation protection. The analysis is based on data from more than 400 cardiologists from various European countries recruited for a EURALOC study and collected in the period from 2014 to 2016. Information on the types of procedures performed and their annual mean number, fluoroscopy time, access site choice, x-ray units and radiation protection means used was collected using an occupational questionnaire. Based on the specific European data, changes in each parameter have been analysed over decades, while co...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 11, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Joanna Domienik-Andrzejewska, Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac, Panagiotis Askounis, Peter Covens, Octavian Dragusin, Sophie Jacob, Jad Farah, Emilio Gianicolo, Renato Padovani, Pedro Teles, Anders Widmark and Lara Struelens Source Type: research

Virtual reality-based adaptive dose assessment method for arbitrary geometries in nuclear facility decommissioning
This paper presents an improved and efficient virtual reality-based adaptive dose assessment method (VRBAM) applicable to the cutting and dismantling tasks in nuclear facility decommissioning. The method combines the modeling strength of virtual reality with the flexibility of adaptive technology. The initial geometry is designed using three-dimensional computer-aided design tools, and a hybrid model composed of cuboids and a point-cloud is generated automatically according to the virtual model of the object. In order to improve the efficiency of dose calculation while retaining accuracy, the hybrid model is converte...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 11, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Yong-kuo Liu, Nan Chao, Hong Xia, Min-jun Peng and Abiodun Ayodeji Source Type: research

Medical imaging dose optimisation from ground up: expert opinion of an international summit
As in any medical intervention, there is either a known or an anticipated benefit to the patient from undergoing a medical imaging procedure. This benefit is generally significant, as demonstrated by the manner in which medical imaging has transformed clinical medicine. At the same time, when it comes to imaging that deploys ionising radiation, there is a potential associated risk from radiation. Radiation risk has been recognised as a key liability in the practice of medical imaging, creating a motivation for radiation dose optimisation. The level of radiation dose and risk in imaging varies but is generally low. Th...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 11, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Ehsan Samei, Hannu J ärvinen, Mika Kortesniemi, George Simantirakis, Charles Goh, Anthony Wallace, Eliseo Vano, Adrian Bejan, Madan Rehani and Jenia Vassileva Source Type: research

Natural levels of polonium-210 in urine
This paper presents a review and analysis of available data on background levels of polonium-210 in urine. It was established that 819 measurements could be considered to correspond to natural background levels, excluding a large number of values identified by the original investigators as potentially due to an artificial source or due to recognised enhancement of dietary intake. Almost 550 measurements were extracted from studies reported in the literature; additional measurements were contributions of previously unpublished data by authors of more recent papers. The majority of the measurements (462) were single sa...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 11, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Alan Hodgson Source Type: research

Neutron flux measurements on a mock-up of a storage cask for high-level nuclear waste using 2.5 MeV neutrons
In this study, a neutron generator (NG) producing neutrons of 2.5 MeV was employed to simulate neutrons produced in spent nuclear fuel. Different configurations of shielding layers of steel and polyethylene were positioned between the target of the NG and a NE-213 detector. The results of the measurements of neutron and γ radiation and the corresponding simulations with the code MCNP6 are presented. Details of the experimental set-up as well as neutron and photon flux spectra are provided as reference points for such NG investigations with shielding structures. (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 6, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: H Saur í Suárez, F Becker, A Klix, B Pang and T Döring Source Type: research

Dosimetric factors for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in a non-reference pregnant phantom
This study evaluates the impact of using non-reference fetal models on the fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radionuclide administration. The six-month pregnant phantoms including fetal models at the 10th and 90th growth percentiles were constructed at either end of the normal range around the 50th percentile and implemented in the Monte Carlo N-Particle code version MCNPX 2.6. This code has then been used to evaluate the 99m Tc S factors of the target organs of interest, as this is the most commonly used radionuclide in nuclear medicine procedures. Substantial variations were observed in the S factors between the...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 6, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Laleh Rafat-Motavalli, Hashem Miri-Hakimabad and Elie Hoseinian-Azghadi Source Type: research

Usefulness of cancer-free survival in estimating the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence from radiation exposure
Risk projection models estimating the lifetime cancer risk from radiation exposure are generally based on exposure dose, age at exposure, attained age, gender and study-population-specific factors such as baseline cancer risks and survival rates. Because such models have mostly been based on the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the baseline risks and survival rates in the target population should be considered when applying the cancer risk. The survival function used in the risk projection models that are commonly used in the radiological protection field to estimate the cancer risk from medi...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 6, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Songwon Seo, Dal Nim Lee, Young Woo Jin, Won Jin Lee and Sunhoo Park Source Type: research

A fast simulation method for radiation maps using interpolation in a virtual environment
In nuclear decommissioning, virtual simulation technology is a useful tool to achieve an effective work process by using virtual environments to represent the physical and logical scheme of a real decommissioning project. This technology is cost-saving and time-saving, with the capacity to develop various decommissioning scenarios and reduce the risk of retrofitting. The method utilises a radiation map in a virtual simulation as the basis for the assessment of exposure to a virtual human. In this paper, we propose a fast simulation method using a known radiation source. The method has a unique advantage over point ke...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 6, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Meng-Kun Li, Yong-Kuo Liu, Min-Jun Peng, Chun-Li Xie and Li-Qun Yang Source Type: research

Highlights of articles in this issue
Highlights of the articles in this issue are given in the PDF file. (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 5, 2018 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Optimisation of environmental remediation: how to select and use the reference levels
A number of past industrial activities and accidents have resulted in the radioactive contamination of large areas at many sites around the world, giving rise to a need for remediation. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), such situations should be managed as existing exposure situations (ExESs). Control of exposure to the public in ExESs is based on the application of appropriate reference levels (RLs) for residual doses. The implementation of this potentially fruitful concept for the optimisation of remediation in various regions ...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 4, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: M Balonov, L Chipiga, S Kiselev, M Sneve, T Yankovich and G Proehl Source Type: research

Harmonisation of standards for permissible radionuclide activity concentrations in foodstuffs in the long term after the Chernobyl accident
The article critically examines the practice of post-Chernobyl standardisation of radionuclide concentrations (mainly 137 Cs and 90 Sr) in food products (FPs) in the USSR and the successor countries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Recommendations are given on potential harmonisation of these standards of radionuclide concentrations in FPs among the three countries, taking into account substantial international experience. We propose to reduce the number of product groups for standardisation purposes from the current amount of several dozens to three to five groups to optimise radiation control and increase the transp...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 4, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: M Balonov, V Kashparov, A Nikolaenko, V Berkovskyy and S Fesenko Source Type: research

Obituary —Charles Boyd Meinhold (1934–2017)
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 4, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: S James Adelstein and Kenneth R Kase Source Type: research

Estimation of lung absorption parameters for oxides of 238 Pu
Following inhalation of an aerosol of relatively insoluble particles, it is usually found that the fractional dissolution rate of material retained in the lungs decreases with time, and the amount remaining undissolved can be represented simply by a decreasing exponential function with two or more components. A few exceptions are known, in which the dissolution rate increases with time. The most important in the context of radiological protection is probably that of 238 Pu dioxide. Several published comprehensive data sets, from animal studies and accidental human exposures, have been analysed using the Human Respira...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 4, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: D Gregoratto and M R Bailey Source Type: research

Ray ’s Awareness. Radiation Health Effects Made Easy with Professor Dee and Doctor Hay
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Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 4, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Frank de Vocht Source Type: research

Assessment of organ dose and image quality in head and chest CT examinations: a phantom study
The purpose of this study is to assess dose for radiosensitive organs and image quality in head and chest computed tomography (CT) examinations. Our focus was in the brain, eye lens and lung organs using two protocols; one protocol with fixed mAs and filtered back projection (FBP) and another with tube current modulation (TCM) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Measurements were performed on a 128-slice CT scanner by placing thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in an anthropomorphic adult phantom. Results were compared to a CT-Expo software. Objective image quality was assessed in terms of signal...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 4, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: S Gharbi, S Labidi, M Mars, M Chelli, S Meftah and M F Ladeb Source Type: research

Inconsistencies and omissions in the implementation of IRR17 to medical, dental and veterinary practices
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 4, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: B Michael Moores Source Type: research

UN Scientific Committee launches a new evaluation of thyroid cancer data in regions affected by the Chernobyl accident
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - June 4, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Richard Wakeford Source Type: research

Comparison of normal tissue dose calculation methods for epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients
Radiation dosimetry is an essential input for epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients aimed at quantifying the dose –response relationship of late-term morbidity and mortality. Individualised organ dose must be estimated for all tissues of interest located in-field, near-field, or out-of-field. Whereas conventional measurement approaches are limited to points in water or anthropomorphic phantoms, computational approaches using patient images or human phantoms offer greater flexibility and can provide more detailed three-dimensional dose information. In the current study, we systematically compared four...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 9, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Matthew M Mille, Jae Won Jung, Choonik Lee, Gleb A Kuzmin and Choonsik Lee Source Type: research

Quantities for assessing high photon doses to the body: a calculational approach
Tissue reactions are the most clinically significant consequences of high-dose exposures to ionising radiation. However, currently there is no universally recognized dose quantity that can be used to assess and report generalised risks to individuals following whole body exposures in the high-dose range. In this work, a number of potential dose quantities are presented and discussed, with mathematical modelling techniques employed to compare them and explore when their differences are most or least manifest. The results are interpreted to propose the average ( D GRB ) of the absorbed doses to the stomach, small intes...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 9, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Jonathan S Eakins and Elizabeth A Ainsbury Source Type: research

Is eye lens dosimetry needed in nuclear medicine?
Introduction. The exact level of exposure experienced by nuclear medicine personnel, whose work often requires performing manual procedures involving radioactive isotopes, is associated with the form of radiation source used. The variety of radionuclides and medical procedures, and the yearly increase in the number of patients, as well as the change of the individual dose limit for the lens of the eye from a value of 150 mSv yr −1 to 20 mSv yr −1 , mean that issues of eye lens routine dosimetry become interesting from the radiation protection point of view. Objective. This paper presents an analysis of th...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 9, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: M Wrzesie ń, L Królicki, Ł Albiniak and J Olszewski Source Type: research

Quantities for assessing high doses to the body: a short review of the current status
Tissue reactions are the most clinically significant consequences of high-dose exposures to ionizing radiation. However, there is currently no universally recognized or recommended dose quantity that can be used to assess generalized risks to individuals following whole body exposures in the high-dose range. This is particularly problematic in emergency response situations, for example, following external exposures of large numbers of individuals: in attempts to relate the triage dosemeter absorbed dose to the risk to the individual, such that a ‘dose’ may subsequently be reported to medical professionals...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 9, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Jonathan S Eakins and Elizabeth A Ainsbury Source Type: research

Measurement of scattered and transmitted x-rays from intra-oral and panoramic dental x-ray equipment
The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of transmitted radiation arising from the use of intra-oral dental x-ray equipment and scattered radiation arising from the use of both intra-oral and panoramic x-ray equipment. Levels of scattered radiation were measured at 1 m from a phantom, using an ion chamber with a volume of 1800 cm 3 . Transmitted radiation was measured using both (i) a phantom and dose –area product (DAP) meter and (ii) a patient and a 1800 cm 3 ion chamber. For intra-oral radiography the patient study gave a maximum transmission of 1.80% (range 0.04 –1.80%, mean 0.26%) and the pha...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 9, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: John Holroyd Source Type: research

The latest study of Japanese nuclear workers
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 8, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Suminori Akiba Source Type: research

Use of active personal dosimeters in hospitals: EURADOS survey
The objective was to collect data about the use of APDs and to identify the basic problems in the use of APDs in hospitals. APDs are most frequently used in interventional radiology and cardiology departments (54%), in nuclear medicine (29%), and in radiotherapy (12%). Most types of APDs use silicon diodes as the detector; however, in many cases their calibration is not given proper attention, as radiation beam qualities in which they are calibrated differ significantly from those in which they are actually used. The survey revealed problems related t... (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 7, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac, Eleftheria Carinou and Filip Vanhavere Source Type: research

Radiation characterisation and dosimetric measurements of a femtosecond pulsed laser ablation system
This work describes the radiation characterisation and dosimetric measurements performed on the low-energy micromachining station of the femtosecond STELA (Santiago TErawatt LAser) at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). For this aim, ionisation chambers, solid state detectors, and radiochromic films were used. The results show the emission of pulsed x-ray produced by laser-accelerated electrons from the ablated material exhibiting both bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation. Although this radiation was produced unintentionally, a high superficial dose rate can be achieved. This radiation can be suc...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 7, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: J Prieto-Pena, F G ómez, D M González-Castaño, M T Flores-Arias, J Arines, C Bao-Varela, F Cambronero-López and A Martínez Maqueira Source Type: research

Protecting interventional radiology and cardiology staff: Are current designs of lead glasses and eye dosemeters fit for purpose?
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - May 3, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Colin J Martin Source Type: research

A systematic experimental study of parameters influencing 131-iodine in vivo spectroscopic measurements using age-specific thyroid phantoms
In this study, the influence on the calibration of the thyroid volume, the counting distance and the positioning variations are studied experimentally in a systematic way. A NaI and a germanium detector along with a realistic age-specific set of four thyroid phantoms were used to carry out this study. The thyroid phantom volumes correspond to the following ages: 5, 10, 15 and adult. It was found that the counting efficiency varies linearly with the thyroid volumes for both detectors and whatever the phantom –detector distance is. The variation in counting distance strongly influences the measurement. Whatever t...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - April 24, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Tiffany Beaumont, Maeva Rimlinger, David Broggio, Pedro Caldeira Ideias and Didier Franck Source Type: research

Track, calculate and optimise eye lens doses of interventional cardiologists using mEyeDose and mEyeDose_X
The European epidemiological study EURALOC aimed to establish a dose response relationship for low dose radiation induced eye lens opacities using interventional cardiologists as the study group. Within the EURALOC project, two dosimetry methodologies were developed serving as the basis for cumulative eye lens dose assessment. Besides being the cornerstone of the epidemiological part of the project, these dosimetry methodologies were also used to develop two calculation tools, ‘mEyeDose’ and ‘mEyeDose_X’ which enable to track, calculate, optimise and analyse eye lens doses in interventional ca...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - April 24, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: P Covens, J Dabin, O De Troyer, O Dragusin, J Maushagen and L Struelens Source Type: research

The effects of a revised operational dose quantity on the response characteristics of neutron survey instruments
The ICRU is considering revising the definition of ambient dose equivalent. This paper investigates the impacts of the proposed change on four designs of neutron survey instrument, the GNU, HSREM, LB6411 and Studsvik 2202D, in terms of their respective energy dependences of response and their performances in realistic workplace fields. In some circumstances the current designs of instrument still produce acceptable characteristics, but in general they may need to be re-optimized to better match the requirements of the new operational quantity; to that end, a simple retrofit solution for the GNU is demonstrated. The p...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - April 24, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: J S Eakins, R J Tanner and L G Hager Source Type: research

A versatile program for the calculation of linear accelerator room shielding
This work aims at designing a computer program to calculate the necessary amount of shielding for a given or proposed linear accelerator room design in radiotherapy. The program (Shield Calculation in Radiotherapy, SCR) has been developed using Microsoft Visual Basic. It applies the treatment room shielding calculations of NCRP report no. 151 to calculate proper shielding thicknesses for a given linear accelerator treatment room design. The program is composed of six main user-friendly interfaces. The first enables the user to upload their choice of treatment room design and to measure the distances required for shie...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - April 24, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Zeinab El-Taher Hassan, Nehad M Farag and Wael M Elshemey Source Type: research

Principles and technicalities: The Bernard Wheatley Award for 2017
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Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - April 17, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: M C Thorne Source Type: research

Summaries of articles in this issue
Summaries of the articles in this issue are given in the PDF file. (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - April 5, 2018 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Biokinetic models for Group VB elements
This paper reviews biokinetic data for the Group VB elements vanadium, niobium, and tantalum, and presents biokinetic models describing their systemic behaviour. The model for systemic niobium in adults was developed earlier and described in Publication 134 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The model for niobium is used as a starting point for the development of models for vanadium and tantalum. Published biokinetic data for vanadium, including comparisons with niobium, indicate that the initial distribution of vanadium is broadly similar to that of niobium but that vanadium is less firmly f...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Rich Leggett and Cailin O ’Connell Source Type: research

Dose coefficients for children and young adolescents exposed to external neutron fields
The risks associated with exposure to external fields of ionising radiation are important to quantify in order to provide guidance towards public and worker protection. In Publication 116 of 2010, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published adult male and female fluence-to-dose coefficients (henceforth referred to as dose coefficients) for external exposures to six types of idealised neutron fields. However, ICRP 116 dose coefficients are not appropriate for applications involving children due to their smaller body weight and stature. Our current work details dose coefficient calculations...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Keith Griffin, Matthew Mille and Choonsik Lee Source Type: research

Radon in Brazilian underground mines
Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aims to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. Any such results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) are documented. The me...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Anna Luiza M Ayres da Silva, S érgio Médici de Eston, Wilson Siguemasa Iramina and Diego Diegues Francisca Source Type: research

Upper bound dose values for meson radiation in heavy-ion therapy
Radiation treatment of cancer has evolved to include massive particle beams, instead of traditional irradiation procedures. Thus, patient doses and worker radiological protection have become issues of constant concern in the use of these new technologies, especially for proton- and heavy-ion-therapy. In the beam energies of interest of heavy-ion-therapy, secondary particle radiation comes from proton, neutron, and neutral and charged pions produced in the nuclear collisions of the beam with human tissue atoms. This work, for the first time, offers the upper bound of meson radiation dose in organic tissues due to seco...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: C Rabin, M Gon çalves, S B Duarte and G A González-Sprinberg Source Type: research

Action levels for airborne uranium in the workplace: chemical and radiological assessments
A method is described for deriving two levels of action —an investigation level (IL) and an immediate action level (IAL) —for different forms and mixtures of the natural uranium (U) isotopes 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U in air in the workplace. An IL indicates the need to confirm the validity of moderately elevated measurements of airborne U and adequacy of confinement controls and determine whether work limitations are appropriate. An IAL indicates that safeguards should be put into place immediately, including removal of workers from further exposure until conditions are acceptable. Derivations of ILs and IA...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: R W Leggett and R A Meck Source Type: research

Editorial: Protection of the Public Following the ‘Kyshtym Accident’ in 1957
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Mikhail Balonov Source Type: research

Chromosome aberrations in workers occupationally exposed to tritium
This paper reports the findings of an historical chromosome analysis for unstable aberrations, undertaken on 34 nuclear workers with monitored exposure to tritium. The mean recorded β -particle dose from tritium was 9.33 mGy (range 0.25 –79.71 mGy) and the mean occupational dose from external, mainly γ -ray, irradiation was 1.94 mGy (range 0.00–7.71 mGy). The dicentric frequency of 1.91  ± 0.53 × 10 −3 per cell was significantly raised, in comparison with that of 0.61 ± 0.30 × 10 −3 per cell for a group of 66 comparabl...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: E Janet Tawn, Gillian B Curwen and Anthony E Riddell Source Type: research

Calibration of a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn over lead aprons in fluoroscopy guided procedures
In this study, a passive personal thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) was modelled by means of the Monte Carlo (MC) code Penelope. The results obtained were validated against measurements performed in reference conditions in a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. Next, the MC model was used to evaluate the backscatter correction factor needed for the case where the dosimeter is worn... (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: A Quintero-Quintero, G Pati ño-Camargo, Á Soriano, J D Palma, J Vilar-Palop, M C Pujades, N Llorca-Domaica, F Ballester, J Vijande and C Candela-Juan Source Type: research

Dose equivalent transmission data for shielding industrial x-ray facilities up to 800 kV
The transmission factors used to calculate radiation shielding around an industrial x-ray device are determined using the MCNP6 code. The transmission factors are given for high voltages ranging between 120 and 800 kV for lead and between 200 and 800 kV for concrete. In view of the high usage intensity of industrial devices, the transmission factors are evaluated up to 1.10 −10 . The parameters used in the classic equation of Archer et al are derived from the transmission data calculated here. This type of data exists in the literature, but only for voltages lower than 150 kV to meet the design demands for faci...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 13, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: L Bourgois and S M énard Source Type: research

Radiation dose from percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedure performed using a flat detector for different clinical angiographic projections
This study intends to assess radiation dose based on angiographic projection and vessel complexities for clinical protocols used in the performance of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Dose –area product (DAP), reference air kerma ( K a,r ) and real-time monitoring of tube potentials and tube current for each angiographic projection and dose setting were evaluated for 66 patients who underwent PTCA using a flat detector system. The mean DAP and cumulative K a,r were 32.71 Gy cm 2 (0.57 Gy), 51.24 Gy cm 2 (0.9 Gy) and 102.03 Gy cm 2 (1.77 Gy) for single-, double- and triple-vessel PTCA, resp...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 13, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Anna Varghese, Roshan S Livingstone, Lijo Varghese, Subhrangshu Dey, John Jose, Viji Samuel Thomson, Oommen K George and Paul V George Source Type: research

Radiation situation dynamics at the Andreeva Bay site for temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste over the period 2002 –2016
The Coastal Technical Base (CTB) №569 at Andreeva Bay was established in the early 1960s and intended for the refueling of nuclear submarine reactors and temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW). In 2001, the base was transferred to the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy and the site remediation began. The paper describes in detail the radiation situation change at the technical site in Andreeva Bay from 2002 –2016, the period of preparation for the most critical phase of remedial work: removal of spent fuel assemblies. The analysis of aggregated indicators and data mining were...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 13, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: K Chizhov, M K Sneve, N Shandala, K Siegien-Iwaniuk, G M Smith, A Krasnoschekov, A Kosnikov, A Grigoriev, A Simakov, I Kemsky and V Kryuchkov Source Type: research

Institutional computed tomography diagnostic reference levels based on water-equivalent diameter and size-specific dose estimates
S ize-specific institutional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were generated for chest and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) based on size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) and depending on patients ’ water-equivalent diameter (Dw). 1690 CT examinations were included in the IRB-approved retrospective study. SSDEs based on the mean water-equivalent diameter of the entire scan volume were calculated automatically. SSDEs were analyzed for different patient sizes and institutional DRLs (iDRLS; 75% percentiles) based on Dw and SSDEs were generated. iDRLs were compared to the national DRLs. Mean volumetric comp...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 13, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Johannes Boos, Christoph Thomas, Elisabeth Appel, Yan Klosterkemper, Christoph Schleich, Joel Aissa, Oliver Th Bethge, Gerald Antoch and Patric Kr öpil Source Type: research

Diagnostic reference levels for common computed tomography (CT) examinations: results from the first Nigerian nationwide dose survey
Purpose . To explore doses from common adult computed tomography (CT) examinations and propose national diagnostic reference levels (nDRLs) for Nigeria. Materials and Methods . This retrospective study was approved by the Nnamdi Azikiwe University and University Teaching Hospital Institutional Review Boards (IRB: NAUTH/CS/66/Vol8/84) and involved dose surveys of adult CT examinations across the six geographical regions of Nigeria and Abuja from January 2016 to August 2017. Dose data of adult head, chest and abdomen/pelvis CT examinations were extracted from patient folders. The median, 75th and 25th percentile CT dos...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - March 13, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Ernest U Ekpo, Thomas Adejoh, Judith D Akwo, Owujekwe C Emeka, Ali A Modu, Mohammed Abba, Kudirat A Adesina, David O Omiyi and Uche H Chiegwu Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Obituary —André Allisy 1924–2017 (2017 J. Radiol. Prot. 37 809 [https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/aa8155] )
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - February 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Hans Menzel Source Type: research