Corrigendum: Medical management of heavily exposed victims: an experience at the Tokaimura criticality accident (2021 J. Radiol. Prot. 41 S391 [https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ac270d] )
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Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - January 13, 2022 Category: Physics Authors: Makoto Akashi and Kazuhiko Maekawa Source Type: research

The role of empathy in ethics of radiological protection
Radiological protection is often considered a matter of scientific and technological facts only, not of value judgements. This perception is now gradually changing, especially with ICRP Publication 138, which addressed the ethical foundation of the system of radiological protection. It identified values which have guided the Commission ’s recommendations over the decades, but have not always been made explicit. Four core values are discussed (beneficence/non-maleficence, prudence, justice, dignity) as well as three procedural values (accountability, transparency, inclusivity). The latter are considered critical...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - January 13, 2022 Category: Physics Authors: Friedo Z ölzer and Neysan Zölzer Source Type: research

Cutaneous and local radiation injuries
This article will provide an overview of radiation-induced injuries to the skin, deeper tissues, and organs. The history and nomenclature; types and causes of injuries; pathophysiology; evaluation and diagnosis; current medical management; and current research of the evaluation and management are presented. Cutaneous radiation injuries (CRI) or local radiation injuries (LRI) may lead to cutaneous radiation syndrome, a sub-syndrome of ARS. These injuries may occur from exposure to ra... (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - January 12, 2022 Category: Physics Authors: Carol J Iddins, Andrea L DiCarlo, Mark D Ervin, Eduardo Herrera-Reyes and Ronald E Goans Source Type: research

Prediction of the irradiation doses from ultrashort laser-solid interactions using different temperature scalings at moderate laser intensities
The ionising radiation created by high intensity and high repetition rate lasers can cause significant radiological hazard. Earlier defined electron temperature scalings are used for dose characterisation and prediction using Monte Carlo modelling. Dosimetric implications of different electron temperature scalings are investigated and the resulting equivalent doses are compared. It was found that scaling defined by Beg et al (1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 447 –57) predicts the highest electron temperatures for given intensities, and subsequently the highest doses. The atomic number of the target, x-ray generation effici...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - January 12, 2022 Category: Physics Authors: V Barkauskas and A Plukis Source Type: research

A review of radiation doses and associated parameters in Western Australian mining operations (2018 –20)
In the 2019 –20 reporting period, 19 mining operations in Western Australia were identified as having workers who were likely to be exposed to ionising radiation stemming from naturally occurring radioactive materials, 17 of which, known hereinafter as reporting entities (REs), were required to submit an annual report of the dose estimates of their workforce to the mining regulatory authority. In 2018 the International Commission for Radiological Protection published the revision of the dose coefficients (DCs) for occupational intakes of radionuclides of the uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay series, in ICRP-137...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - January 12, 2022 Category: Physics Authors: Martin I Ralph and Marcus Cattani Source Type: research

The need to review low-dose decision-making in radiation protection
The current approach in the system of protection, and the way in which it is implemented in regulation and practical application, has resulted in the allocation of significant and disproportionate societal resources to reduce relatively low-level exposures to even lower levels. The resulting exposure levels are often a fraction of the basic natural background level, and in particular are comparable to, or often significantly less than, the variability of natural background exposures due to individual decision-making, which the system of protection deems acceptable. There are arguments for a wider approach to decision...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - January 12, 2022 Category: Physics Authors: Roger Coates Source Type: research

A coherent framework for non-ionising radiation protection
A coherent and overarching framework for health protection from non-ionising radiation (NIR) does not currently exist. Instead, many governments maintain different compliance needs targeting only some NIR exposure situations. An international framework developed by the World Health Organization would promote a globally consistent approach for the protection of people from NIR. Designed based on decades of practical experience the framework provides guidance on establishing clear national health and safety objectives and how they should be achieved. It supports multisectoral action and engagement by providing a common...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - January 12, 2022 Category: Physics Authors: Rick Tinker, Jacques Abramowicz, Efthymios Karabetsos, Sigur ður Magnusson, Rüdiger Matthes, Mirjana Moser, Shengli Niu, John O’Hagan and Emilie van Deventer Source Type: research

US National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine launch low dose research strategy initiative
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Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 7, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Simon Bouffler Source Type: research

United States medical preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergencies
With the end of the Cold War in 1991, U.S. Government (USG) investments in radiation science and medical preparedness were phased out; however, the events of 11 September, which involved a terroristic attack on American soil, led to the re-establishment of funding for both radiation preparedness and development of approaches to address injuries. Similar activities have also been instituted worldwide, as the global threat of a radiological or nuclear incident continues to be a concern. Much of the USG ’s efforts to plan for the unthinkable have centred on establishing clear lines of communication between agencie...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Andrea L DiCarlo, Mary J Homer and C Norman Coleman Source Type: research

Size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) for computed tomography and influencing factors on it: a systematic review
The actual dose received during a computed tomography (CT) examination depends on both the patient size and the radiation output of the scanner. To represent the actual patient morphometry, a new radiation dose metric named size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) was developed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine in 2011. The purpose of this article is to review the SSDE concept and the factors influencing it. Moreover, the appropriate methodology of SSDE determination and the application of SSDE as a diagnostic reference-level quantity is critically analyzed based on the data available in the literatur...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: D M Satharasinghe, J Jeyasugiththan, W M N M B Wanninayake and A S Pallewatte Source Type: research

Decommissioning procedure and induced activation levels, calculations and measurements in an 18 MeV medical cyclotron
The present article describes the decommissioning of a self-shielded 18 MeV medical cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 after 14 years of operation. A Monte Carlo simulation of the possible nuclear reactions was performed in order to plan the decommissioning activities. During the cyclotron dismantling, the activities of the cyclotron components, concrete wall and floor samples were measured. Residual activities were analysed by means of an HPGe detector and liquid scintillation counting, and compared with simulation data. Dosimetry of the staff involved in the decommissioning procedure was monitored by individual TL dosimete...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Riccardo Calandrino, Simone Manenti, Flavia Groppi, Francesco Broggi, Carlo Bergamaschi, Andrea Ferrari, Simona Manenti, Massimiliano Nizzi, Alessandro Loria and Antonella del Vecchio Source Type: research

Obituary: Dr Norman Elwood Gentner
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Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Prevention and management of infections after exposure to ionising radiation
Ionising radiation impacts many organ systems, each of which comprises a level of immunity to infectious disease. Bone marrow toxicity after radiation results in a predisposition to leukopenia and subsequent susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Radiation-induced damage to mucosal, integumentary, and solid organ structures disrupts additional lines of innate defense. Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in effective antimicrobial prophylaxis, resulting in decreased infectious complications and improved survival. Vaccination schedules following myeloablative radiation have beco...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Keri R Maher, Ian M Bouligny and Andrew M Yeager Source Type: research

Study, measurement and mitigation of radon activity concentration in the School of Computer Science of A Coru ña in the North West of Spain
A study of the radon activity concentration was carried out at the School of Computer Science of ‘Universidade da Coruña’ (UDC, Spain). For this purpose, building location, the type of soil and the construction materials were analysed. Subsequently, the radon activity concentration was determined using two different techniques: measurement in situ with an on-site ionization chamber detector (short term) and measurement with trace detectors (long term). Based on the results obtained, and according with the Spanish Law (Spanish Official Bulletin —Boletín Oficial del Estado, of 21 December...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Goretti Arias-Ferreiro, A Otero-Pazos, Ana Ares-Pernas, I Fern ández-Ibáñez, B A Rodríguez-Gómez and J L Calvo-Rolle Source Type: research

Reflection on the proposed changes to dose quantities —an industrial perspective
In 2021, the ICRP initiated the revision of the general recommendations of the system of radiation protection, and part of it will focus on dose quantities. The recently published ICRP Publication 147 and ICRU Report 95 have described the extent of the proposed modifications and paved the way for the strategy to be adopted. These revisions would seek to simplify, improve the accuracy and extend the field of use of dose quantities. While the Radiological Protection Working Group of the World Nuclear Association recognises the notable improvement in the estimation of the protection quantities and the usefulness of such...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: M Lips, E Anderson, K Nishida, G Schneider, J Zic, C Sanders, J Owen, J Hondros and A de Ruvo Source Type: research

High-dose radiation exposure and hypothyroidism: aetiology, prevention and replacement therapy
Without any doubt, high dose radiation exposure can induce hypothyroidism. However, there are open questions related to the mechanisms of its induction, corresponding dose thresholds and possible countermeasures. Therefore, this review addresses the aetiology, prevention and therapy of radiation induced hypothyroidism. External beam radiotherapy with several 10 Gy to the head and neck region and radioiodine therapy with several 100 Gy thyroid absorbed dose can destroy the thyroid gland and can induce autoantibodies against thyroid tissue. According to recent literature, clinical hypothyroidism is observed at threshol...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Christoph Reiners, Heribert H änscheid and Rita Schneider Source Type: research

The Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety —30 years of international coordination of radiation protection and safety matters
The Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety (IACRS) was constituted in 1990, as a forum for collaboration and coordination between international bodies with regards to radiation safety. It consists today of representatives of eight intergovernmental member organizations (the European Commision, Food and Agriculture Organization, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Labour Office, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/ Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), Pan American Health Organization, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the World Health Or...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Stefan Mundigl, Carl Blackburn, Miroslav Pinak, Tony Colgan, Christopher Clement, Thomas Otto, Miroslav Voytchev, Shengli Niu, Roger Coates, Bernard Le Guen, Alain Rannou, Edward Lazo, Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace, Pablo Jimenez, Borislava Batandjieva-Metca Source Type: research

Characterization of OSL dosimeters used at the ELI-beamlines laser-driven accelerator facility
The Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) Beamlines laser-driven accelerator facility is set to operate the most intense non-military laser system in the world, with ultra-high power up to 10 PW, concentrated plasma intensities of up to 10 24 W cm −2 , and ultra-short laser pulses of the order of few femtoseconds. A robust and redundant radiation monitoring system is in place to minimise risks to personnel and general public. Beryllium oxide optically stimulated luminescence (BeO-OSL) detectors are used to monitor radiation levels in the experimental building and surrounding grounds. In fact, in recent years, BeO-...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: A Cimmino, D Horv áth, V Olšovcová, V Stránský, R Truneček and R Versaci Source Type: research

Review of extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine
The exposure of the fingers is one of the major radiation protection concerns in nuclear medicine (NM). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the exposure, dosimetry and protection of the extremities in NM. A wide range of reported finger doses were found in the literature. Historically, the highest finger doses are found at the fingertip in the preparation and dispensing of 18 F for diagnostic procedures and 90 Y for therapeutic procedures. Doses can be significantly reduced by following recommendations on source shielding, increasing distance and training. Additionally, important trends contributin...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Robert Kollaard, Alessandra Zorz, J érémie Dabin, Peter Covens, Jennie Cooke, Melissa Crabbé, Lidia Cunha, Anita Dowling, Mercè Ginjaume and Leanne McNamara Source Type: research

Obituary for Wolfgang Weiss
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Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Wolfgang-Ulrich M üller and Christian Streffer Source Type: research

Keeping the ICRP recommendations fit for purpose
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has embarked on a review and revision of the system of Radiological Protection that will update the 2007 general recommendations in ICRP Publication 103 . This is the beginning of a process that will take several years, involving open and transparent engagement with organisations and individuals around the world. While the system is robust and has performed well, it must adapt to address changes in science and society to remain fit for purpose. The aim of this paper is to encourage discussions on which areas of the system might gain the greatest benefit f...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: C Clement, W R ühm, J Harrison, K Applegate, D Cool, C-M Larsson, C Cousins, J Lochard, S Bouffler, K Cho, M Kai, D Laurier, S Liu and S Romanov Source Type: research

Safety culture to improve accidental event reporting in radiotherapy
Background and purpose. The potential for unintended and adverse radiation exposure in radiotherapy (RT) is real and should be studied because RT is a highly complex, multistep process, which requires input from numerous individuals from different areas and steps of the RT workflow. The ‘Incident’ (I) is an event the consequence of which is not negligible from the point of view of protection or safety. A ‘near miss’ (NM) is defined as an event that is highly likely to happen but did not occur. The purpose of this work is to show that through systematic reporting and analysis of these adverse e...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Francesco Tramacere, Angela Sardaro, Stefano Arcangeli, Nicola Maggialetti, Corinna Altini, Dino Rubini, Giuseppe Rubini, Maurizio Portaluri and Artor Niccoli Asabella Source Type: research

How often does it happen? A review of unintended, unnecessary and unavoidable high-dose radiation exposures
High-dose radiation exposures of humans occur every year around the world, and may lead to harmful tissue reactions. This review aims to look at the available information sources that can help answering the question of how often these events occur yearly on a global scale. In the absence of comprehensive databases of global occurrence, publications on radiation accidents in all uses of radiation and on rates of high-dose events in different medical uses of radiation have been reviewed. Most high-dose radiation exposures seem to occur in the medical uses of radiation, reflecting the high number of medical exposures pe...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Ola Holmberg and Miroslav Pinak Source Type: research

Use of effective dose to assess x-ray protective clothing
This review article provides an overview on the results of studies conducted by the authors to improve the current personal protection concept in the clinical application of x-rays. With the aid of personal dose equivalent measurements during radiologically guided clinical interventions, laboratory tests using the Alderson-Rando phantom as well as Monte Carlo simulations various x-ray application scenarios were investigated. The organ doses and the effective doses of staff persons standing near the patient were determined. The 3D-attenuation properties of protective clothing under the scattered radiation emitted by t...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Heinrich Eder and Helmut Schlattl Source Type: research

Early-response multiple-parameter biodosimetry and dosimetry: risk predictions
The accepted generic multiple-parameter and early-response biodosimetry and dosimetry assessment approach for suspected high-dose radiation (i.e. life-threatening) exposure includes measuring radioactivity associated with the exposed individual (if appropriate); observing and recording prodromal signs/symptoms; obtaining serial complete blood counts with white-blood-cell differential; sampling blood for the chromosome-aberration cytogenetic bioassay using the ‘gold standard’ dicentric assay (premature chromosome condensation assay for exposures>5 Gy photon acute doses equivalent), measurement of proteo...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: William F Blakely, Matthias Port and Michael Abend Source Type: research

25 years of RIFE —a brief history and highlights
In 2020, the UK environmental regulators and food safety agencies, published the 25th edition of the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) report. This marks a quarter of a century since the landmark RIFE report was first published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in 1996, which represented the first joint monitoring and assessment report for the United Kingdom. This paper provides a summary of the RIFE report, how it has evolved and presents some case studies from over the 25 year period. (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - December 6, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Alastair Dewar, Franck Dal Molin, Fiona Clyne, Nigel Leech, Ray Pemberton, Gillian Sinclair, Mark Toner, Stephen Wilson, Gillian Bramley, Christopher Thomas, Will Munro, Fiona Abbott and Karl Lombardi Source Type: research

Going out of print
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Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 25, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: M C Thorne Source Type: research

Estimation of occupational radiation doses in neuroendovascular procedures
To estimate the mean effective dose per procedure with multiple dosimetry, to calculate the annual effective dose to personnel working in neuroendovascular procedures and compared with methods reported in the literature and with national and international limits. The radiation dose to personnel was monitored in 20 procedures classified as diagnostic or therapeutic. During each procedure, the equivalent dose to eyes, thyroid, under and over the lead apron at chest level, hands, gonads and knees was measured with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter chips (TLD-100). Estimations of the annual effective dose from...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 25, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: D L ópez-Ángeles, I Gamboa-deBuen, C Martínez-de los Santos, K Alaniz-Sida, S Vega-Montesinos and X Lopez-Rendon Source Type: research

Absorbed dose rate coefficients for 134 Cs and 137 Cs with steady-state distribution in the human body: S -coefficients revisited
In this study, we calculated updated absorbed dose rate coefficients for 134 Cs and 137 Cs based on data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on specific absorbed fractions. The absorbed dose rate coefficients are prov... (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 24, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Mats Isaksson, Martin Tondel, Robert W ålinder and Christopher Rääf Source Type: research

Simplified approach to estimation of organ absorbed doses for patients undergoing abdomen and pelvis CT examination
This study aimed to evaluate relationships between D W and effective diameter ( D Eff ), which can be measured more readily, in order to estimate SSDE at various positions within a routine clinical abdomen and pelvis CT examination for Thai patients. An in-house ImageJ algorithm was developed to measure D w (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 24, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: S Sookpeng, C J Martin and M R L ópez-González Source Type: research

Quantitative evaluation of conservatism in the concept of committed dose from internal exposure for radiation workers
In this study, we develop an approach to the quantitative evaluation of the conservatism in the concept of the committed dose from internal exposure for radiation workers from the viewpoint of radiological risk. Actual annual doses due to an intake of radionuclides for strontium-90 ( 90 Sr), caesium-137 ( 137 Cs), and plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) were simulated. Risks of fatal cancer, i.e. unconditional death probability rates, were calculated in accordance with the risk estimation method in ICRP Publication 60. It was found that the cons... (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 24, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Michiya Sasaki, Haruyuki Ogino and Takatoshi Hattori Source Type: research

Accumulation of radio-iron and plutonium, alone and in combination, in Pseudomonas putida grown in liquid cultures
The impact of low doses of ionising radiation on biological and environmental systems have been historically difficult to study. Modern biological tools have provided new methods for studying these mechanisms but applying these tools to a dose –response relationship may require refinement of dosimetric techniques that incorporate a detailed understand of radionuclide accumulation in biological cells, particularly when assessing the impact of low doses of ionising radiation. In this work Pseudomonas putida ( KT2440) grown in liquid culture was exposed to low dose rates (10 –20 mGy d −1 ) of 239 Pu an...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 24, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Lisa M Manglass, Molly Wintenberg, Charlotte Vogel, Mark Blenner and Nicole E Martinez Source Type: research

Review of engagement activities to promote awareness of radiation and its associated risk amongst the Japanese public before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident
Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, many radiation experts directly experienced a vast gap between ideal and real public understanding (PU) of radiation in risk communication. Therefore, this study collated and reviewed information about PU activities for radiation and its risk that six Japanese academic societies —which seem to be socially neutral expert communities —related to radiation and radiation risk conducted before and after the accident. Activities these radiation-related societies provided to the general public were discussed from the following perspectives: (a...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 24, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Akihiro Sakoda, Naoki Nomura, Yujiro Kuroda, Takahiko Kono, Wataru Naito and Hiroko Yoshida Source Type: research

Remote virtual regulatory inspections of facilities and practices utilising ionising radiation and MRI installations during the Covid-19 pandemic
This study presents the experience gained and lessons learnt from the implementation of the RVIs and explores the RVIs perception by the stakeholders. Moreover, the effectiveness and the capability of RVIs to identify ‘findings’, is assessed by comparing the on-site and the remote inspections outcomes. The presented study showed that RVIs could not replace the on-site inspections, entirely; however, they could support and contribute to the inspection activities and program, in certain circumstances. RVIs were proven to... (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 24, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Costas J Hourdakis, Stavroula Vogiatzi, Christos Pafilis, Maria Kalathaki, Panagiotis Tritakis, Magda Nikolaou, George Manios, Vasiliki Liotsou, Zoi Thrapsanioti and Martha Lambrinakou Source Type: research

Potential risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and cancer due to cumulative doses received from diagnostic CT scans?
Potential risks from radiation exposure on the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease are indicated by epidemiological studies. Medical exposures give the largest dose to the population from artificial sources, with cumulative doses from multiple CT scans being significant. Data on doses from scans performed on 12 CT scanners in three hospitals over a period of 5 ½ years, derived using Radimetrics TM software, have been reviewed for 105 757 patients. Data have been downloaded for heart, brain, thyroid, and effective doses, and cumulative doses analysed using Excel TM spreadsheets. 2.4% of pa...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 24, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Colin J Martin and Michael Barnard Source Type: research

Valid versus invalid radiation cancer risk assessment methods illustrated using Swiss population data
After the nuclear accident in Fukushima, the public interest in radiation related cancer-risk assessment increased. However, interpretations of results from epidemiological studies and comprehension of cancer risk assessment methods can be unclear and involve questions about correctness and validity of the approaches. To shed some light on this potential lack of clarity, valid versus invalid radiation cancer risk assessments methods are illustrated here using Swiss population data. This involves a comparison of the cancer risk assessment method based on collective dose and the cumulative risk assessment method, where...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 24, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Luana Hafner and Linda Walsh Source Type: research

The optimisation of paediatric CT examinations in Scotland: phase one; benchmarking current performance
To benchmark the dose from paediatric head and chest examinations on computed tomography (CT) scanners throughout Scotland, to identify scanners that may require optimisation and to provide optimisation advice based on the protocols from better performing scanners. Anthropomorphic phantoms corresponding to 1, 5 and 10 year olds were sent to 50 CT scanners around Scotland. Head and chest examinations were undertaken by local staff using local techniques on each scanner with each phantom, and details of the protocols used were recorded. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) vol and dose length product (DLP) were record...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 18, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Mark Worrall, Nicola MacDonald, Rebecca Gillen, Andrew Hince, Lee Hampson, Rebecca Duguid, Stephen McCallum and David Gentle Source Type: research

Variability of indoor radon concentration in UK homes
This study investigated the variability of indoor radon concentrations in 518 100 homes in the UK. The statistical analysis included measurements in 395 720 homes with downstairs living rooms and upstairs bedrooms. The radon concentration in these bedrooms was found to be on average 63% of the living room value. The analysis of 122 380 homes with living rooms and bedrooms situated on the same floor found that there is a small difference in radon concentration of 9% between the two rooms. The results showed that the ratios of the living room to bedroom radon concentrations were approximately lognormally distributed. T...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 18, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Z Daraktchieva Source Type: research

Modelling of long-term retention of high-fired plutonium oxide in the human respiratory tract: importance of scar-tissue compartments
The U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries whole-body tissue donor Case 0407 had an acute intake of ‘high-fired’ plutonium oxide resulting from a glove-box fire in a fabrication plant at a nuclear defence facility. The respiratory tract of this individual was dissected into five regions (larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar-interstitial, and thoracic lymph nodes) and analysed for plutonium content. The activities in certain compartments of the respiratory tract were found to be higher than expected from the default models described in publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protec...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 18, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Deepesh Poudel, Maia Avtandilashvili, John A Klumpp, Luiz Bertelli and Sergei Y Tolmachev Source Type: research

Real-time simulation of accidental passive transport of radioactive pollutant from a proposed nuclear power plant
In this study, a local scale atmospheric dispersion problem, considering a hypothetical accidental release (1 Bq s −1 of I-131) from a nuclear power plant is simulated with a combination of weather forecasting and particle dispersion codes on a multiprocessor computer system. The meteorological parameters are predicted with a weather research and forecasting (WRF) model and used in Lagrangian particle dispersion model ... (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 18, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Idrees Ahmad, Osama Bin Muhammad, Rizwan Ahmed and Shakeel Ahmad Source Type: research

The need to update NCRP 151 data for 10 MV linear accelerator bunker shielding based on new measurements and Monte Carlo simulations
This study examines a cohort of clinical linac bunker survey measurements and compares them to popular shielding protocols. Differences were investigated using contemporary beam data for both Monte Carlo simulation and in analytical equations. For primary barriers, NCRP 151 underestimates the dose rate through concrete by on average a factor of 2 with secondary barriers and maze entrance doses having much better agreement. Use of contemporary beam data in Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical equation yielded TVL values much closer to the measured values compared to NCRP 151. The TVL data... (Source: Journal of Ra...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 18, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: J Rijken, S Towns and B Healy Source Type: research

Conversion coefficients from absorbed dose to tissue to the newly proposed ICRU/ICRP operational quantities for radiation protection for beta reference radiation qualities
The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has, jointly with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), recently proposed a set of new operational quantities for radiation protection in ICRU report 95. ICRU/ICRP supplied conversion coefficients for mono-energetic betas but not for beta reference radiation qualities defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in ISO 6980. Therefore, in this work, conversion coefficients from absorbed dose to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm in a slab phantom to the newly proposed operational quantities are determine...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 18, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Rolf Behrens Source Type: research

Characteristic evaluation of a simple hand-made semiconductor dosimeter for mammography
Daily quality control of mammography equipment is important for providing optimal images and determining appropriate doses. To popularise dosimeters, the Measurement Division, the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology hold a seminar on making simple dosimeters. At this seminar, a hand-made dosimeter for mammography (HD-M) can be made at low cost. However, HD-Ms employ semiconductors, and their energy responses are subject to significant variations. This investigation involved the determination of precautions when using HD-Ms, examining their energy response characteristics and measurable energy ranges. HD-M has...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 15, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Erika Nakajima, Hiromi Yamashita and Hitoshi Sato Source Type: research

Adjustment of the iodine ICRP population pharmacokinetic model for the use in thyroid cancer patients after thyroidectomy
Biokinetic models developed for healthy humans are not appropriate to describe biokinetics in thyroid cancer patients following thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to adjust the population model for iodine proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the use in these patients. Rate constants of the ICRP publication 128 model for iodine were adjusted using the population modelling software package Monolix to describe activity retention in whole-body, thyroid, blood and protein-bound iodine observed in 23 patients. The new set of rate constants was compared to the four uptake scen...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 15, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Jan Taprogge, Lily Carnegie-Peake, Iain Murray, Jonathan I Gear and Glenn D Flux Source Type: research

A biokinetic model for systemic sodium
This paper describes an updated biokinetic model for systemic sodium (Na), developed for use in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on occupational intake of radionuclides. In contrast to the ICRP ’s previous model for intake of radio-sodium by workers, the updated model depicts realistic directions of movement of Na in the body including recycling of activity between blood and tissues. The updated model structure facilitates extension of the baseline transfer coefficients for adults to different age groups and to special exposure scenarios such as transfer of r...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 15, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Caleigh Samuels and Rich Leggett Source Type: research

Estimation of the historical radiation dose of Korean radiation workers, 1961 –1983
This study aimed to estimate the historical radiation dose before 1984 for radiation workers in Korea based on dose reconstruction models. The dose reconstruction models were derived from the nationwide self-administered questionnaire survey and the personal badge doses for workers in the cohort of the Korean Radiation Worker Study. The mean estimated annual doses between 1984 and 2016 from the dose reconstruction model were 4.67 –0.6 mSv, which closely matched the reported doses of 4.51 –0.43 mSv. The mean estimated annual doses between 1961 and 1983 based on the exposure scenarios developed by factors a...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - November 15, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Dalnim Lee, Won Jin Lee, Young Woo Jin, Jiyeong Kim, Soojin Park, Sunhoo Park and Songwon Seo Source Type: research

An excess of riches: the Bernard Wheatley Award for 2020
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - September 5, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: M C Thorne Source Type: research

Could imaging with monochromatic x-ray beams become a reality in all our hospitals?
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - September 5, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Colin J Martin Source Type: research

Optimisation of the management and regulatory supervision of nuclear decommissioning, legacy sites and radioactively contaminated land
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Radiological Protection)
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - August 23, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Malgorzata Sneve, Nataliya Shandala and Patrica Worthington Source Type: research

Building optimization into the process for decommissioning, remediation of legacy sites and facilities, and management of the wastes arising: results of an international workshop
The coordinated organisation of decommissioning, remediation of legacy sites and facilities and management of the resultant waste materials has long been recognized as complex, involving technical challenges, safety and security issues, and a wide range of stakeholder interests. To help address these matters, an international workshop was held in November 2019 in Troms ø, jointly organized by the Norwegian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority and the Nuclear Energy Agency, in cooperation with the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The workshop was ...
Source: Journal of Radiological Protection - August 23, 2021 Category: Physics Authors: Malgorzata Sneve and Per Strand Source Type: research