South Africa: In-Depth - Landmark Moment As Ai Beats Humans in Reading X-Rays for TB

[spotlight] In 1997, the then reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov lost a six-game series to a chess-playing computer programme called Deep Blue. Deep Blue's victory was seen as emblematic of the growing power of computers to do things once thought primarily the domain of human brains.
Source: AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

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J Family Med Prim Care. 2021 Sep;10(9):3343-3347. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_87_21. Epub 2021 Sep 30.ABSTRACTCONTEXT: A total of 20% of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) patients are non-smokers due to preventable causes, such as biomass fuel exposure, post tuberculous sequelae, occupational exposure, air pollution, persistent chronic asthma, and genetic predisposition.AIMS: To compare smokers and non-smokers with COPD.SETTINGS AND DESIGN: An observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital on 60 patients diagnosed with COPD, (GOLD criteria), who were divided into smoker and non-smoker groups.SUBJECTS ...
Source: Primary Care - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
by Narendran Gopalan, Vignes Anand Srinivasalu, Ponnuraja Chinnayan, Banurekha Velayutham, Adhin Bhaskar, Ramesh Santhanakrishnan, Thirumaran Senguttuvan, Sridhar Rathinam, Mahilmaran Ayyamperumal, Kumar Satagopan, Dhanalakshmi Rajendran, Tamizhselvan Manoharan, Sekar Lakshmanan, Paulkumaran Paramasivam, Dhanalakshmi Angamuthu, Mangalambal Ganesan, John Washington Easudoss Arockia, Ramesh Babu Venkatesan, Venkatesan Lakshmipathy, Shivakumar Shanmugham, Balaji Subramanyam, Shakila Shankar, Jawahar Mohideen Shaheed, Baskaran Dhanaraj, Narayanan Paranji Ramiyengar, Soumya Swaminathan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran Introduc...
Source: PLoS One - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
J Xray Sci Technol. 2021 Aug 26. doi: 10.3233/XST-210976. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWorld-Health-Organization (WHO) has listed Tuberculosis (TB) as one among the top 10 reasons for death and an early diagnosis will help to cure the patient by giving suitable treatment. TB usually affects the lungs and an accurate bio-imaging scheme will be apt to diagnose the infection. This research aims to implement an automated scheme to detect TB infection in chest radiographs (X-ray) using a chosen Deep-Learning (DL) approach. The primary objective of the proposed scheme is to attain better classification accuracy while detecting ...
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Each day, approximately 27,000 people become ill with tuberculosis (TB), and 4,000 die from this disease. Pulmonary TB is the main clinical form of TB, and affects the lungs with a considerably heterogeneous manifestation among patients. Immunomodulation by an interplay of host-, environment-, and pathogen-associated factors partially explains such heterogeneity. Microbial communities residing in the host's airways have immunomodulatory effects, but it is unclear if the inter-individual variability of these microbial communities is associated with the heterogeneity of pulmonary TB. Here, we investigated this possibility by...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
An artificial intelligence (AI) model can accurately distinguish between activ...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: KA Imaging, STC to bring portable x-ray to Pakistan VinBrain highlights TB screening role for AI in Vietnam WHO recommends CAD with chest x-rays to fight tuberculosis New algorithm can detect TB using a phone GE launches AI software for chest x-ray
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2021 Aug 2. doi: 10.4081/monaldi.2021.1814. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTreating tuberculosis (TB) is not the end of the disease because of the wide spectrum of post TB sequelae associated with the disease. There is insufficient data on post TB radiological sequelae. The aim of this study is to evaluate the post TB radiological sequelae on chest x-rays in patients who had completed the treatment for pulmonary and pleural TB at a tertiary care hospital of a high TB burden country. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted on patients treated for pulmonary and pleural TB. Adult patient...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Chest. 2021 Jul 28:S0012-3692(21)01490-2. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.07.041. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Post-tuberculous lung disease confers significant morbidity. However, the determinants of persistent lung damage in tuberculosis are not well established. We investigated associations between tuberculosis-associated radiological changes and socio-demographic factors, surrogates of bacillary burden and blood inflammatory markers at initiation of therapy and after 1 month.RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the predictors of radiological severity at the end of tuberculosis treatment for tuberculosis?STUDY DESIGN AND ...
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we apply an automated detection (AI) system to screen a large population in an underdeveloped area and evaluate feasibility and contribution of apply AI to help local radiologists detect and diagnose TB using chest X-ray (CXR) images. First, we divide image data into one training dataset including 2627 TB-positive cases and 7375 TB-negative cases and one testing dataset containing 276 TB-positive cases and 619 TB-negative cases, respectively. Next, in building AI system, the experiment includes image labeling and preprocessing, model training and testing. A segmentation model named TB-UNet is also built to d...
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
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