Special Topics Seminar Series: Glycosylation in Human Health and Disease early day 1

This special topics lecture series will provide an overview of the fundamental facts, concepts, and methods concerning glycosylation with an emphasis on aspects relevant to human health and disease. Glycosylation mediates a wide variety of cellular functions and all multicellular organisms utilize glycans as biosignals in normal physiology. Most mammalian proteins contain sugar chains (referred to as glycans). These glycoproteins are formed as secondary gene products by the concerted action o f glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and high-energy sugar nucleotides. Therefore, the biosynthesis of glycans is not controlled by an interventional template, and the structures of glycans are much less rigidly defined than those of proteins and nucleic acids. This means that glycans are dynamic a nd can be altered by the cellular microenvironment. Researchers can now routinely assess how the glycosylation of secreted and cell-surface molecules reflects the overall cellular status in health and disease. Changes in glycosylation, for example, can modulate inflammatory responses, enable viral i mmune escape, promote cancer cell progression, or regulate apoptosis. New insights into the structure and function of glycosylated molecules (glycoconjugates) can now be applied to therapy development and may improve our ability to fine-tune immunological responses and inflammation, optimize the per formance of therapeutic antibodies, and boost immune responses to cancer.Air date: 8/16/2021 9:00...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video

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Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common form of differentiated thyroid cancer in the pediatric population and represents the second most common malignancy in adolescent females. Historically, PTC has been classified on the basis of histology, however, accumulating data indicate that molecular subtyping based on somatic oncogenic alterations along with gene expression profiling can better predict clinical behavior and may provide opportunities to incorporate oncogene-specific inhibitory therapy to improve the response to radioactive iodine (RAI). In this issue of the JCI, Y.A. Lee, H. Lee, and colleagues showed th...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
BACKGROUND Molecular characterization in pediatric papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), distinct from adult PTC, is important for developing molecularly targeted therapies for progressive radioiodine-refractory (131I-refractory) PTC.METHODS PTC samples from 106 pediatric patients (age range: 4.3–19.8 years; n = 84 girls, n = 22 boys) who were admitted to SNUH (January 1983–March 2020) were available for genomic profiling. Previous transcriptomic data from 125 adult PTC samples were used for comparison.RESULTS We identified genetic drivers in 80 tumors: 31 with fusion oncogenes (RET in 21 patients, ALK in 6 patients,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Herculean efforts by the Wellcome Sanger Institute, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Human Genome Research Institute to sequence thousands of tumors representing all major cancer types have yielded more than 700 genes that contribute to neoplastic growth when mutated, amplified, or deleted. While some of these genes (now included in the COSMIC Cancer Gene Census) encode proteins previously identified in hypothesis-driven experiments (oncogenic transcription factors, protein kinases, etc.), additional classes of cancer drivers have emerged, perhaps none more surprisingly than RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Over...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Intratumoral T cells that might otherwise control tumors are often identified in an “exhausted” state, defined by specific epigenetic modifications and upregulation of genes such as CD38, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein 4 (CTLA4), and programmed cell death 1 (PD1). Although the term might imply inactivity, there has been little study of this state at the phenotypic level in tumors to understand the extent of their incapacitation. Starting with the observation that T cells move more quickly through mouse tumors the longer they reside there and progress toward exhaustion, we developed a nonstimula...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
BACKGROUND Germline mutations in telomerase and other telomere maintenance genes manifest in the premature aging short telomere syndromes. Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) account for 75% of associated malignancies, but how these cancers overcome the inherited telomere defect is unknown.METHODS We used ultra-deep targeted sequencing to detect somatic reversion mutations in 17 candidate telomere lengthening genes among controls and patients with short telomere syndromes with and without MDS/AML, and we tested the functional significance of these mutations.RESULTS While no controls carried somat...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
OBJECTIVES: Sexual trauma poses a significant concern and is associated with heightened stress, negative health repercussions, and adverse economic effects. A history of abuse may increase a woman's risk of developing cancer, in particular cervical cancer....
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
I was looking through ASCO and ACS with regards to any information pertaining to surveillance imaging recommendations for various cancer types after treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy). I understand that factors such as location and cell type or other markers complicate this and therefore each cancer type is unique. I was able to only find a few guideline articles listed as "current" for maybe 4 or 5 frequently diagnosed cancers. I was curious if any single organization or... Read more
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Hematology / Oncology Source Type: forums
The Maple Grove-based company is using the funds to develop its cancer treatment through FDA 510(k) approval, which will include a clinic study for the management of prostate cancer.
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsModel 1 provided with both better predictive accuracy and clinical usage compared with those of model 2 and might be able to predict the survival probability of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients visually and accurately with a higher net benefit.
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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