Typhoid Trump: A Public Health Threat
by Stephen P. Wood, MS,ACNP Mary Mallon, better known as Typhoid Mary, was an asymptomatic carrier of Salmonella typhi, the organism known to cause typhoid fever. Mallon worked as a cook for eight different families in and around New York city, infecting seven of the families she worked for. There were a number of deaths in these families as typhoid had a 10% mortality rate at the time. George Soper, a sanitary engineer enlisted by one of the families affected, is credited with discovering Mallon as the source of this outbreak and he followed her around, collecting samples of her urine and fecal matter for testing. …
In this study, we consider an alternative design where we recruit among all individuals, symptomatic and asymptomatic, being tested for the virus in addition to population controls. We define a regression parameter related to a prospective risk factor analysis and investigate its identifiability under the two study designs. We review the difference between the prospective risk factor parameter and the parameter targeted in the typical TND where only symptomatic and tested people are recruited. Using missing data directed acyclic graphs, we provide conditions and required data collection under which identifiability of the p...
Conclusion: Pathogen genomics enhance identifiability of VEI, but imperfect transmission network reconstruction biases estimate toward the null and limits our ability to detect VEI. Given the consistent direction of the bias, estimates obtained from trials using these methods will provide lower bounds on the true VEI. A combination of sequence and epidemiologic data results in the most accurate estimates, underscoring the importance of contact tracing.
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Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first individual-level US-based study with repeated union-membership measurements to analyze the union–mortality relationship. We estimated a protective union–mortality association, but found little evidence declining union density has exacerbated mortality inequities; importantly, we did not incorporate contextual-level effects. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B839.
Conclusions: Comprehensive handheld bans were associated with fewer driver fatalities.
State ’s Delta cluster rises to 47, with nine of the new cases in school students and exposure sites in three major Brisbane hospitalsFollow our Covid live blog for the latest updatesMost Australians comfortable with vaccination passports for domestic travel and venues, poll revealsSome Australians turned away from getting Covid vaccine because of register errorsQld hotspots;Queensland Covid restrictionsVaccine rollout tracker;get our free news app;get our morning email briefingMore than 400 health workers are among thousands currently in isolation in Queensland, placing pressure on hospitals as the state ’s Co...
COVID-19 exerted a profound psychologic impact on the world and the medical community. The Ethics Committee of the Association for Academic Surgery (AAS) saw an opportunity to offer our members a means to express their feelings and emotions through art with respect to this pandemic.