Short Vi-polysaccharide abrogates T-independent immune response and hyporesponsiveness elicited by long Vi-CRM197 conjugate vaccine Microbiology

Polysaccharide-protein conjugates have been developed to overcome the T-independent response, hyporesponsiveness to repeated vaccination, and poor immunogenicity in infants of polysaccharides. To address the impact of polysaccharide length, typhoid conjugates made with short- and long-chain fractions of Vi polysaccharide with average sizes of 9.5, 22.8, 42.7, 82.0, and 165 kDa...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

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In this study, we performed a joint analysis of two distinct Ethiopian indigenous chicken ecotypes to investigate the genomic architecture of important health and productivity traits and explore the feasibility of conducting genomic selection across-ecotype. Phenotypic traits considered were antibody response to Infectious Bursal Disease (IBDV), Marek’s Disease (MDV), Fowl Cholera (PM) and Fowl Typhoid (SG), resistance to Eimeria and cestode parasitism, and productivity [body weight and body condition score (BCS)]. Combined data from the two chicken ecotypes, Horro (n = 384) and Jarso (n = 376), were jointly analyzed...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
PMID: 33008669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract Understanding patterns and trends of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhi can guide empiric treatment recommendations and contribute to country decisions about typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) introduction. We systematically reviewed PubMed and Web of Science for articles reporting the proportion of Salmonella Typhi isolates resistant to individual antimicrobials worldwide from any time period. Isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR), and isolates that were MDR plus resistant to a fluoroquinolone and a t...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract U.S. residents traveling internationally to regions with increased risk of infectious diseases infrequently seek pretravel health care. First- and second-generation immigrants traveling to their countries of origin and visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) have increased risk of certain infectious diseases and are more likely to participate in high-risk activities. In an online survey of 994 U.S. residents with two foreign-born parents who went on at least one international trip to an at-risk country (defined as having a typhoid vaccine recommendation) in the prior 3 years, respondents were questioned abo...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
(International Vaccine Institute) A new study conducted by IVI in collaboration with SK bioscience shows that single-dose and two-dose regimens of Vi-DT typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) are safe and immunogenic in children 6-23 months of age, a group with high rates of typhoid fever in resource-limited settings.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
This study revealed that seasonal influenza circulates with co-morbidities in pregnant women in Lagos. This may exacerbate their immunosuppressed state and lead to complication in pregnancy. Apt treatment of influenza-like illness should be considered in such women. Furthermore, there is need for enhanced surveillance including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of influenza to the foetus and newborns. We therefore recommend sturdy advocacy on preventing exposure to influenza virus, its optimal early diagnosis, vaccination and disease management in pregnancy. PMID: 32920577 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
Abstract Infection is the predominant cause of mortality in early life, and immunization is the most promising biomedical intervention to reduce this burden. However, very young infants fail to respond optimally to most vaccines currently in use, especially neonates. In 2005, Stanley Plotkin proposed that new delivery systems would spur a new revolution in pediatric vaccinology, just as attenuation, inactivation, cell culture of viruses, genetic engineering, and adjuvantation had done in preceding decades. Recent advances in the field of immunoengineering, which is evolving alongside vaccinology, have begun to inc...
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
r U Abstract Children and adults with rheumatic diseases (RD) have a higher risk to contract infections due to the underlying disease and the frequently necessary immunosuppressive treatment (IT). The quality of life of the majority of patients with RD has remarkably improved due to IT-related reduction of inflammation. Therefore, RD patients usually have an international travel behavior similar to healthy individuals. An investigation indicated that patients with RD and IT have lower travel vaccination rates and are often less well-prepared for their trip in comparison to healthy travelers, even when visitin...
Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Z Rheumatol Source Type: research
This study takes advantage of multi-year follow-up of a population with endemic typhoid participating in a cluster-randomized control trial of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in Kolkata, India. A population of 70,566 individuals, of whom 37,673 were vaccinated with one dose of either Vi vaccine or a control (Hepatitis A) vaccine, were observed for four years. Surveillance detected 315 first typhoid visits, among whom 4 developed su bsequent typhoid, 3 due to reinfection, defined using genomic criteria and corresponding to -124% (95% CI: -599, 28) protection by the initial illness. Point estimates of protection c...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
August is National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM) and this year vaccines and immunology are probably on many more people’s minds than usual – for obvious reasons. While medical professionals and researchers work tirelessly on developing and testing a COVID-19 vaccine (amongst others), let’s briefly remind ourselves how far we have come in such a brief segment of human history. 224 years, 40 vaccines The first vaccine, developed in 1796 for smallpox, was not put into mass production until many years later – but was a monumental breakthrough in Medicine. It took almost another 100 years before th...
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: News Source Type: blogs
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