South Africa: How Changing Vaccine Schedules Can Save Costs and Lives

[The Conversation Africa] In 2005, before most low- and middle-income countries started vaccinating children routinely for pneumococcal disease, it caused approximately 1.5 million deaths worldwide annually. About 700,000 to 1 million of these deaths were in children under five years. Pneumococcal disease occurs when Streptococcus pneumoniae invades a normally sterile area of the body, causing meningitis, pneumonia, septicaemia or other disease syndromes. Case fatality rates are very high for septicaemia (>20%) and meningitis (&
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news

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Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
yar T Abstract Anatipestifer disease is a contagious disease caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, affecting primarily ducks, geese and turkeys, and characterised by listlessness, diarrhoea, sneezing, nasal discharge, and nervous signs. Sporadically, it occurs in a wide range of other domesticated and wild birds as well. The incidence and characteristics of the disease seen in the three main host species are summarised based on birds submitted for routine laboratory investigation in Hungary over the period 2010-2014. The infection was diagnosed in a higher percentage in geese (9.9%) and ducks (7.5%). It occurred in ...
Source: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Acta Vet Hung Source Type: research
ConclusionSerotype data from this study helped in accurate estimation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-23 protective coverage against serotypes causing IPD in India as 58.7% (95% CI: 53.8, 63.4) and 67.4% (95% CI: 62.7, 71.8) respectively. Penicillin non-susceptibility in meningeal IPD cases is 27.4%. Empirical therapy for meningeal IPD must be cephalosporin in combination with vancomycin since cefotaxime non-susceptibility in meningeal IPD is 9.9%
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Serotype data from this study helped in accurate estimation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-23 protective coverage against serotypes causing IPD in India as 58.7% (95% CI: 53.8, 63.4) and 67.4% (95% CI: 62.7, 71.8) respectively. Penicillin non-susceptibility in meningeal IPD cases is 27.4%. Empirical therapy for meningeal IPD must be cephalosporin in combination with vancomycin since cefotaxime non-susceptibility in meningeal IPD is 9.9. PMID: 29884448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Although invasive Hia disease can be found globally, the current epidemiological data suggest that this infection predominantly affects Indigenous communities in North America. The clinical disease of Hia and the clonal nature of the bacteria resemble that of Hib. The high incidence of invasive Hia disease in Indigenous communities, along with potential fatality and severe sequelae causing long-term disability in survivors, may support the development of a new Hia conjugate vaccine for protection against this infection similar in design to the one introduced in the 1990s to control invasive Hib disease. PM...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
This study aims to compare pneumococcal disease hospitalisation rates between Period 1 (2007–2009), when 7-valent (PCV7) vaccine was available, and Period 2 (2011–2013), after the change to 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine in Spain. Data on hospitalisations were obtained from the National Registry of Hospitalisations. We calculated hospitalisation rates (HRs) and hospitalisation rate ratios (HRRs) among periods by age group and autonomous community, for all and by clinical presenta tion. From 138,361 patients hospitalised, 83,528 (60.4 %) were males. The median age was 73.8 years. The most common clinical present...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: April–June 2016 Source:Pediatric Infectious Disease, Volume 8, Issue 2 Author(s): Asad Ali, Sara Husain, Atif Riaz, Huma Khawar Streptococcus pneumoniae infection causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from acute otitis media to Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) presenting as pneumonia, meningitis, joint effusions, bacteraemia and septicaemia. Pakistan was the first country in the South Asian region to introduce PCV-10 within the routine immunisation program. Government of Pakistan, with support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and other partners, introduced PCV-10 in phased manner, starting O...
Source: Pediatric Infectious Disease - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
The effects of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) need to be investigated. In Stockholm County, Sweden, PCV7 was introduced in the childhood immunisation programme in 2007 and changed to PCV13 in 2010. Over 90% of all invasive isolates during 2005–2014 (n=2336) and carriage isolates, 260 before and 647 after vaccine introduction, were characterised by serotyping, molecular typing and antibiotic susceptibility, and serotype diversity was calculated. Clinical information was collected for children and adults with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The IPD incidence decreased post-PCV7, but not post-PCV13, in vac...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
Authors: Ingels HA Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is still a leading cause of septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in young children world-wide with over half a million children dying annually from pneumococcal disease.  Some children are prone to repeated episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) because of an underlying predisposing disease. Recurrent IPD (rIPD) is a rarity and published reports on rIPD are limited by having few children included, selected groups of patients or short follow-up periods. Deficiencies in the innate or adaptive immune system have been described in children with rIPD, b...
Source: Danish Medical Journal - Category: Journals (General) Tags: Dan Med J Source Type: research
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