PET imaging in urology: a rapidly growing successful collaboration

Purpose of review To discuss and highlight the recent findings in urological oncology focusing on nuclear medicine advances on imaging and therapy. Recent findings Testicular tumors: 18F-FDG as the standard positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with proven good accuracy in detecting metastatic testicular cancer; urothelial cancer: good accuracy of 18F-FDG PET in detecting distant metastases but poor results in detecting local disease; prostate cancer: prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising target for imaging prostate cancer with unprecedented accuracy in both staging and restaging and prospective studies were recently published. In castration-resistant prostate cancer, PSMA-targeting radionuclide therapy is showing potential as a curative possibility (e.g. using 177Lu-PSMA); renal cell cancer (RCC): besides FDG other PET radiotracers are under clinical evaluation (e.g. antibody-based molecular imaging, metabolic radiotracers and PSMA-based tracers). PSMA-based imaging may have applications in staging clear-cell RCC and in the selection and in the antiangiogenic treatment's response assessment. Possible role of PSMA-targeting radionuclide therapy? Summary In urological oncology, the use of 18F-FDG has been limited by a generally low tumor uptake and physiological 18F-FDG excretion by the urinary system. Other radiotracers are increasing the urologist's portfolio allowing imaging of several biochemical pathways. Theragnostic possibilities are also ...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. Murphy Source Type: research

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A. Calin Available systemic treatment options for cancers of the genitourinary system have experienced great progress in the last decade. However, a large proportion of patients eventually develop resistance to treatment, resulting in disease progression and shorter overall survival. Biomarkers indicating the increasing resistance to cancer therapies are yet to enter clinical routine. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) are non-protein coding RNA transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that exert multiple types of regulatory functions of all known cellular processes. Increasing evidence supports the role of lncRNAs in cance...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, we collected a comprehensive multi-dimensional data from GWAS, gene expression, and methylation studies and generated transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) data to further interpret the GWAS association results. We applied our previously developed method called mega-analysis of Odds Ratio (MegaOR) to prioritize CD candidate genes (CDgenes). As a result, we identified consensus sets of CDgenes (62–235 genes) based on the evidence matrix. We demonstrated that these CDgenes were significantly more frequently interact with each other than randomly expected. Functional annotation of these genes highli...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe role of the microbiome in genitourinary cancer is an emerging field that merits further studies. Translating microbiome research into clinical action will require incorporation of microbiome surveillance into ongoing and future clinical trials as well as expansion of studies to include metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics.Patient summaryThis review covers recent evidence that microbial populations that reside in the genitourinary tract—and were previously not known to exist—may influence the development of genitourinary malignancies including bladder, kidney, and prostate cancers. Furthermore,...
Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Conclusions Immunosuppression after renal transplantation does not affect the outcomes and natural history of low-risk renal cell carcinomas and prostate cancer. Therefore, the waiting time from successful treatment for these cancers to transplantation could be reduced. Except in the particular situation of aristolochic acid nephropathy, more studies are needed to standardise the waiting period after UC owing to the paucity of data. Patient summary Renal transplantation does not appear to increase the risk of recurrence of renal carcinoma or the recurrence of low-risk prostate cancer compared with dialysis. More reliable e...
Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Application of appropriate indication for transplantectomy relies on benefit-risk balance between the interruption of immunosuppressive agents versus survival and quality of life impairment after returning to dialysis. No robust recommendation exists regarding switch of immunosuppressive drugs. Cancer predictive factors and access to a subsequent transplantation are key decisive elements. PMID: 27665407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Progres en Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Prog Urol Source Type: research
Cancer remains to be the second most common cause of death, and its incidence and mortality rates are increasing in China. According to the 2015 National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China, the incidence of bladder cancer and prostate cancer ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, in male cancers. The majority of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is the main treatment for localized prostate cancer, and a comprehensive therapy based on androgen deprivation...
Source: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Mini-Review Source Type: research
Conclusion The different primaries seem to metastasize in different frequencies to the head and neck area. The relatively common prostate cancer rarely seems to produce metastases in the head and neck area compared to cancers arising in the kidneys. In case of a malignant tumour of unknown primary, osseous metastases most often are caused by breast or lung cancer or renal cell carcinoma. Soft tissue metastases are most often caused by breast cancer.
Source: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
att R Abstract Although the association between blood pressure, serum lipids and cancer risk has been investigated, the results are controversial. The aim of this literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence and provide overview of the association between blood pressure, serum lipids and cancer risk. The arterial hypertension is closely linked with renal cell cancer development. Risk of renal cell cancer was 2-4 times higher for persons with arterial hypertension, independently of sex. In some studies arterial hypertension as one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, was associated with a h...
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Medicina Author(s): Ričardas Radišauskas, Irena Kuzmickienė, Eglė Milinavičienė, Rūta Everatt Although the association between blood pressure, serum lipids and cancer risk has been investigated, the results are controversial. The aim of this literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence and provide overview of the association between blood pressure, serum lipids and cancer risk. The arterial hypertension is closely linked with renal cell cancer development. Risk of renal cell cancer was 2–4 times higher for persons with arteria...
Source: Medicina - Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research
Abstract The role of metastasectomy on survival in advanced/urologic malignancies still remains unclear. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common solid tumor within the kidney. 25–30 % of patients have metastases at manifestation. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) consists of bladder carcinoma, upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma and urethral carcinoma. Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer worldwide. Half of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer have lymph node or distant metastases. In metastatic disease first-line treatment is multi-agent platinum-based systemic chemotherap...
Source: International Urology and Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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