Characterizing Norovirus Transmission from Outbreak Data, United States.

Characterizing Norovirus Transmission from Outbreak Data, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;26(8):1818-1825 Authors: Steele MK, Wikswo ME, Hall AJ, Koelle K, Handel A, Levy K, Waller LA, Lopman BA Abstract Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. We estimated the basic (R0) and effective (Re) reproduction numbers for 7,094 norovirus outbreaks reported to the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) during 2009-2017 and used regression models to assess whether transmission varied by outbreak setting. The median R0 was 2.75 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.38-3.65), and median Re was 1.29 (IQR 1.12-1.74). Long-term care and assisted living facilities had an R0 of 3.35 (95% CI 3.26-3.45), but R0 did not differ substantially for outbreaks in other settings, except for outbreaks in schools, colleges, and universities, which had an R0 of 2.92 (95% CI 2.82-3.03). Seasonally, R0 was lowest (3.11 [95% CI 2.97-3.25]) in summer and peaked in fall and winter. Overall, we saw little variability in transmission across different outbreaks settings in the United States. PMID: 32687043 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

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Abstract Norovirus (NoV) is the main cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Although NoV spreads mainly from person to person, it is estimated that a large proportion of NoV outbreaks are caused by foodborne transmission. Bivalve mollusks are one of the most important foods involved in NoV transmission to humans. Little is known about NoV prevalence in shellfish harvested and commercialized in Brazil. The aim of this study was to map, for the first time, the distribution of NoV contamination in oysters and mussels harvested and commercialized in the coast of Pernambuco state, northeast Brazil. A total of 38...
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 989: Bile Facilitates Human Norovirus Interactions with Diverse Histoblood Group Antigens, Compensating for Capsid Microvariation Observed in 2016–2017 GII.2 Strains Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12090989 Authors: Michael L. Mallory Lisa C. Lindesmith Paul D. Brewer-Jensen Rachel L. Graham Ralph S. Baric Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of global infectious acute gastroenteritis, causing ~20% of reported diarrheal episodes. Typically, GII.4 strains cause 50–70% of yearly outbreaks, and pandemic waves of disease approximately every 2–7 years due to rapid ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
S. Le Guyader Human noroviruses (NoV) cause epidemics of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated foods. Fresh products such as shellfish can be contaminated by human sewage during production, which results in the presence of multiple virus strains, at very low concentrations. Here, we tested a targeted metagenomics approach by deep-sequencing PCR amplicons of the capsid (VP1) and polymerase (RdRp) viral genes, on a set of artificial samples and on shellfish samples associated to AGE outbreaks, to evaluate its advantages and limitations in the identification of s...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Soon after its identification, norovirus (NoV) has been indicated as one of the most common causes of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and sporadic acute diarrhea episodes in subjects of any age. In 2016 the World Health Organization stated that the development of a NoV vaccine should be considered an absolute priority. Unfortunately, the development of an effective NoV vaccine has proven extremely difficult, and only in recent years, some preparations have been tested in humans in advanced clinical trials. In this paper, reasons that justify efforts to develop a NoV vaccine, difficulties encountered during NoV vac...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractThe molecular detection of Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII in the Tunisian industrial wastewater treatment plant of Charguia I was conducted to test the effectiveness of secondary biological treatment using the activated sludge procedure and the UV-C254 tertiary treatment radiation using a UV disinfection prototype to upgrade the quality of the purified wastewater. A total of 140 sewage samples were collected from the two lines of sewage treatment procedures. Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII have been found and quantified using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) in 66.4 and 86.4% of th...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In conclusion, temperature-optimized MDCK cells can be used as a convenient culture model for HuNoV replication by inhibiting FOXO1, providing adaptability to different genotypes. PMID: 32522961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
By ANISH MEHTA, MD My practice received its first question about coronavirus from a patient on January 28, 2020. Though there were over 200 deaths reported in China by that time, no one could have imagined how drastically this would come to disrupt our lives at home. Thankfully, I had a head start. As a doctor at an integrated telemedicine and primary care practice in New York City, nearly two out of every three of my medical encounters that month was already virtual. I spent much of January caring for patients who had contracted seasonal viruses, like influenza or norovirus (i.e. the stomach flu). My patients ...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: blogs
a D, Lewis L Abstract The Camp Fire, California's deadliest wildfire, began November 8, 2018, and was extinguished November 25 (1). Approximately 1,100 evacuees from the fire sought emergency shelter. On November 10, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) was reported in two evacuation shelters; norovirus illness was suspected, because it is commonly detected in shelter-associated AGE outbreaks. Norovirus is highly contagious and resistant to several disinfectants. Butte County Public Health Department (BCPHD), assisted by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), initiated active surveillance to identify cases, con...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
ConclusionsEmployees in hospitals and community facilities seem quantitatively to be most vulnerable towards NoV epidemics. Therefore, high quality of prevention measures in these settings, respective compliance with prevention strategies should have the highest priority. The disease can be considered as an occupational disease, even regularly without long-term consequences. Following work safety rules, a vaccination for vulnerable groups should be recommended if the vaccine development turns out to be successful.
Source: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
This investigation highlights the importance of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) surveillance at sea to identify contaminated foods at sea not yet implicated on land and to prevent transmission of AGE illness through U.S. ports.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Foodborne Disease MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Norovirus Infection Source Type: news
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