Mitochondrial activity disruption and local muscle damage induced in mice by Scolopendra polymorpha venom

Conclusion: Our results suggest a different biochemical composition of S. polymorpha venom, based on the different effects of four venom fractions on the cells tested, according to statistical evidence. Fractions F6 and F7 caused the most important alterations.
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

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Senolytic drugs that destroy senescent cells, and later on, other senotherapies that either prevent senescence or block the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), are going to be very important in the treatment of aging. Senescent cells accumulate with age and are highly damaging to tissues. Via the SASP, even comparatively small numbers of lingering senescent cells actively disrupt health and tissue function, driving age-related disease and mortality. Removing these errant cells causes quite rapid rejuvenation in animal studies, meaningfully reversing the progression of numerous age-related conditions. Other ap...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Researchers have discovered a number of mitochondrial peptides that influence cell and tissue health. Here, it is demonstrated that upregulation of humanin is sufficient to extend life in nematode worms. Since humanin levels decrease with age, and since long-lived families tend to have higher levels of humanin, it is hoped that upregulation can be the basis for therapies to modestly slow the progression of aging. There has been a fair amount of research along these lines in recent years, such as showing that delivery of humanin improves cognition in aged mice. It is an interesting part of the field. Humanin is a m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
In this study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon- γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)/interleukin-13 (IL-13) were used to induce different phenotypes of BV2 microglial cells. We observed that mitochondrial content and function were enhanced in IL-4-/IL-13-stimulated microglia. In vitro, mitochondria treatment conferred neuroprotection by enhancing microglial polarization from the M1 phenotype to the M2 phenotype and suppressing microglial-derived inflammatory cytokine release. Furthermore, microglial phenotypes and behavior tests were assessed after mice were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The levels and composition of sphingolipids and related metabolites are altered in aging and in common disorders such as diabetes and cancers, as well as in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. Changes in sphingolipids have been implicated as being an essential step in mitochondria-driven cell death. However, little is known about the precise sphingolipid composition and modulation in mitochondria or related organelles. Here, we used LC-MS/MS to analyze the presence of key components of the ceramide metabolic pathway in vivo and in vitro in purified ER, mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), and ...
Source: The Journal of Lipid Research - Category: Lipidology Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Every cell contains a herd of hundreds of mitochondria, bacterial-like structures that contain a small circular genome, the mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria replicate to make up their numbers, and are culled by the quality control mechanism of mitophagy when damaged. Their primary task is to conduct the energetic chemistry that packages the energy store molecule adenosine triphosphate, used to power cellular processes. Mitochondrial function declines with age for reasons that are still comparatively poorly understood; damage to mitochondrial DNA is involved, as are changes in the expression of proteins necessary for mitopha...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Abnormally low level of interstitial oxygen, or hypoxia, is a hallmark of tumor microenvironment and a known promoter of cancer chemoresistance. Inside a solid tumor mass, the hypoxia stems largely from inadequate supply of oxygenated blood through sparse or misshapen tumor vasculature whilst oxygen utilization rates are low in typical tumor's glycolytic metabolism. In acute leukemias, however, markers of intracellular hypoxia such as increased pimonidazole adduct staining and HIF-1α stabilization are observed in advanced leukemic bone marrows (BM) despite an increase in BM vasculogenesis. We utilized intravital fast...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Macrophages are key components of innate immunity, and they play critical roles in heart health and diseases. Following acute myocardial infarction (MI), infiltrating macrophages undergo drastic phenotypic transition from pro-inflammatory in the early stage to pro-healing in the late stage. Transcriptome analyses of macrophage in the infarct zone show a time-dependent reprogramming of mitochondrial and metabolic functions, which parallels the changes of macrophage function. These observations suggest that mitochondrial and metabolic targets could be exploited for therapeutic opportunities. In this article, we reviewed the ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: SMN prevents hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis through inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and thereby exerts a protective effect on H9c2 cardiomyocytes. PMID: 32603518 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Source Type: research
Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies the etiology of a broad spectrum of diseases including heart disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and the general aging process. Therapeutics that restore healthy mitochondrial function hold promise for treatment of these conditions. The synthetic tetrapeptide, elamipretide (SS-31), improves mitochondrial function, but mechanistic details of its pharmacological effects...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
ConclusionThese findings demonstrate an unrecognized connection between EV ‐encapsulated mtDNA, clinical outcomes, and intracellular DNA‐sensing PRR activation in SSc‐ILD. Further study of these interactions could catalyze novel mechanistic and therapeutic insights into SSc‐ILD and related disorders.
Source: Arthritis and Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: FULL LENGTH Source Type: research
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