Dehydrobufotenin extracted from the Amazonian toad Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) as a prototype molecule for the development of antiplasmodial drugs
Conclusions: Dehydrobufotenin revealed to be a potential oral drug prototype presenting adequate antimalarial activity and absence of cytotoxicity, therefore should be subjected to further studies. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - January 8, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Chronic kidney failure following lancehead bite envenoming: a clinical report from the Amazon region
Conclusion: In Latin America, especially in Brazil, where there is a high prevalence of Bothrops envenoming, it may be relevant to establish long-term outpatient programs. This would reduce late adverse events, such as chronic kidney disease, and optimize public financial resources by avoiding hemodialysis and consequently kidney transplantation. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Bothrops moojeni L-amino acid oxidase induces apoptosis and epigenetic modulation on Bcr-Abl+ cells
Conclusion: BmooLAAO-I exerts selective antitumor action mediated by H2O2 release and induces apoptosis, and alterations in epigenetic mechanisms. These results support future investigations on the effect of BmooLAAO-I on in vivo models to determine its potential in CML therapy. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Hello, kitty: could cat allergy be a form of intoxication?
Conclusions: Fel d 1 functions beyond allergy are discussed, considering the great conservation of felid orthologs of this protein. Reasons for toxicity being found only in domestic cats are proposed in the context of domestication. The combination of the literature review, genome-derived sequence data, and comparisons with the venomous primate slow loris may point to domestic cats as potentially poisonous mammals. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of Bitis gabonica and Dendroaspis angusticeps snake venoms on apoptosis-related genes in human thymic epithelial cells
Conclusion: The observed apoptotic environment suggests that pyroptosis may be the dominant pathway through which B. gabonica and D. angusticeps snake venoms trigger thymic epithelial apoptosis following envenomation. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Acute kidney failure following severe viper envenomation: clinical, biological and ultrasonographic aspects
Conclusion: AKI is a common complication of severe snakebite envenomation. Resulting from inflammatory and hemorrhagic disorders, AKI may prove to be a short-term life-threatening factor. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 7, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Role of crotoxin in coagulation: novel insights into anticoagulant mechanisms and impairment of inflammation-induced coagulation
Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study recognize the toxin as a novel medicinal candidate to be applied in inflammatory diseases with coagulation disorders. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - November 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Chicken antibodies against venom proteins of Trimeresurus stejnegeri in Taiwan
Conclusion: Chickens were excellent hosts for the production of neutralization antibodies at low cost. Phage display technology is available for generation of monoclonal antibodies against snake venom proteins. These antibodies could be applied in the development of diagnostic kits or as an alternative for snakebite envenomation treatment in the near future. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - November 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Zika virus serological diagnosis: commercial tests and monoclonal antibodies as tools
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the Flaviviridae family, is a current issue worldwide, particularly because of the congenital and neurological syndromes associated with infection by this virus. As the initial clinical symptoms of all diseases caused by this group are very similar, clinical diagnosis is difficult. Furthermore, laboratory diagnostic efforts have failed to identify specific and accurate tests for each virus of the Flaviviridae family due to the cross-reactivity of these viruses in serum samples. This situation has resulted in underreporting of the diseases caused b...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - November 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Erratum: Immunohistochemical investigation of neuronal injury in cerebral cortex of cobra-envenomed rats
ABSTRACT Background: Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor with a mortality rate of 40% in the most aggressive cases. Tumor microenvironment components as immune cells contribute to the tumor progression; thereby, the modulation of immune cells to a pro-inflammatory and antitumoral profile could potentialize the immunotherapy, a suggested approach for high-risk patients. Preview studies showed the antitumoral potential of BJcuL, a C- type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom. It was able to induce immunomodulatory responses, promoting the rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the activation of neutrophils. Methods...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - November 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Antifungal activity of liriodenine on agents of systemic mycoses, with emphasis on the genus Paracoccidioides
Conclusion: Our results indicate that liriodenine is a promising fungicidal compound that should undergo further investigation with some chemical modifications. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

In-depth transcriptome reveals the potential biotechnological application of Bothrops jararaca venom gland
Conclusion: It is believed that the application of deep sequencing to the analysis of snake venom transcriptomes may represent invaluable insight on their biotechnological potential focusing on candidate molecules. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in detoxification systems of snake venom-induced toxicity
Conclusions: Our results show that the pathways of snake venom-induced toxicity may form a protein network of antioxidant defense by regulating oxidative stress through interaction with hydrogen peroxide. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 19, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Venom complexity of Bothrops atrox (common lancehead) siblings
Conclusion: Although differences between female and male venoms were observed, our results show that individual variations are significant even between siblings, highlighting that biological activities of venoms and its composition are influenced by other factors beyond gender. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Erratum: Streamlined downstream process for efficient and sustainable F(ab')2 antivenom preparation
ABSTRACT Background: Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor with a mortality rate of 40% in the most aggressive cases. Tumor microenvironment components as immune cells contribute to the tumor progression; thereby, the modulation of immune cells to a pro-inflammatory and antitumoral profile could potentialize the immunotherapy, a suggested approach for high-risk patients. Preview studies showed the antitumoral potential of BJcuL, a C- type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom. It was able to induce immunomodulatory responses, promoting the rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the activation of neutrophils. Methods...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The coevolution between telson morphology and venom glands in scorpions (Arachnida)
Abstract As in previous contributions to the JVATiTD, the aim of this note is to bring some general information on a particular aspect of the scorpion biology. An attempt is made to explain the possible coevolution of telson morphology and venom glands, which took place during several hundred million years and in particular since scorpions migrated from aquatic to terrestrial environments. Three components can be directly associated with predation and defensive behaviours: (1) morphology of the chelae and structure of the chelae fingers granulations; (2) morphology of the metasoma and in particular of the telson; (3) evolu...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

A Kunitz-type peptide from Dendroaspis polylepis venom as a simultaneous inhibitor of serine and cysteine proteases
Conclusion: This work describes a Kunitz-type peptide toxin presenting inhibitory potential over serine and cysteine proteases, and this could contribute to further understand the envenomation process by D. polylepis. In addition, the PEP2 inhibits the cathepsin L activity with a low inhibition constant. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 7, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Comparative gender peptidomics of Bothrops atrox venoms: are there differences between them?
Conclusion: The venom peptidomes of male and female specimens of B. atrox were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based approaches in this work. The study points to differences in disintegrin levels in the venoms of females that may result in distinct pathophysiology of envenomation. Further research is required to explore the potential biological implications of this finding. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 7, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Spider bites of medical significance in the Mediterranean area: misdiagnosis, clinical features and management
Abstract Despite the disrepute spiders have had for centuries, their bite is a rare occurrence. In the Mediterranean area, only two of the numerous known species are considered of medical significance: Latrodectus tredecimguttatus and Loxosceles rufescens. Spider bites have no pathognomonic signs or symptoms, therefore most diagnoses are presumptive; a spider bite can only be diagnosed when a spider (seen at the time of the bite) is collected and identified by an expert, since most physicians and patients are unable to recognize a certain spider species or distinguish spiders from other arthropods. Skin lesions of uncertai...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 2, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Intravitreal injection of peptides PnPa11 and PnPa13, derivatives of Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom, prevents retinal damage
Conclusions: The intraocular administration of these peptides was well tolerated and presented protective activity against retinal degeneration, suggesting the potential use of these peptides as neuroprotectors in the ophthalmological field. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Envenomation by Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri: clinical manifestations, treatment and associated factors for wound necrosis
Conclusions: The main effects of T. s. stejnegeri envenomation are tissue swelling, pain, and local ecchymosis. We do not recommend the use of cold packs during first aid to reduce wound pain, as this may be a risk factor for wound necrosis. In addition, patients with bulla or blister formation should be carefully examined for subsequent wound necrosis. Antiplatelet use may worsen systemic bleeding. No severe rhabdomyolysis or renal failure was observed in this large case series, we therefore considered that they were not prominent effects of T. s. stejnegeri bite. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Pediatric scorpionism in northern Amazonia: a 16-year study on epidemiological, environmental and clinical aspects
Conclusion: Pediatric scorpionism in French Guiana is closely associated with child activities and climatic conditions. Severe envenomation presented most of the time with cardiac, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal symptoms. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Inflammatory lesions and brain tumors: is it possible to differentiate them based on texture features in magnetic resonance imaging?
Conclusion: The algorithm obtained textures capable of differentiating brain tumors from inflammatory lesions, on T1-weghted images without contrast medium using the Random Forest machine learning classifier. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluating Journal Impact Factor: a systematic survey of the pros and cons, and overview of alternative measures
Conclusion: JIF has many disadvantages and is applied beyond its original intent, leading to inaccurate information. Several metrics have been identified to improve on certain disadvantages of JIF. Integrated Impact Indicator (I3) shows great promise as an alternative to JIF. However, further scientometric analysis is needed to assess its properties. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Geographic variation of individual venom profile of Crotalus durissus snakes
Conclusions: The results highlighted the individual variability among the venoms of C. durissus ssp. specimens. Importantly, our data point to a geographical variation of C. durissus ssp. venom profile, regardless of the subspecies, as evidenced by PLA2 isoforms complexity, which may explain the increase in venom neurotoxicity from Northeastern through Southern Brazil reported for the species. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of laryngeal sequelae on voice- and swallowing-related outcomes in paracoccidioidomycosis
Conclusion: There were no dysphagia complaints and only a few mild changes were found on the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, suggesting that this evaluation should be performed only in specific cases. Patients with laryngeal involvement presented worse V-RQOL and self-assessment voice quality. This study contributes to the current knowledge of the functional assessment of the larynx affected by PCM and the impact of dysphonia on quality of life. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Venom peptides in association with standard drugs: a novel strategy for combating antibiotic resistance - an overview
Abstract Development of antibiotic resistance that leads to resurgence of bacterial infections poses a threat to disease-free existence for humankind and is a challenge for the welfare of the society at large. Despite research efforts directed towards treatment of pathogens, antibiotics within new improved classes have not emerged for years, a fact largely attributable to the pharmacological necessities compelling drug development. Recent reversion to the use of natural products alone or in combination with standard drugs has opened up new vistas for alternative therapeutics. The success of this strategy is evident in the ...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Production of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins for vaccines and directed binding of immunoliposomes to specific cell types
Conclusions: Proteins are very effectively associated with liposomes via a GPI -anchor to form proteoliposome particles and these are useful for a variety of applications including vaccines and antibody-mediated targeting of liposomes. Importantly, the CHO-cell and GPI-tagged produced PfRH5 elicited invasion-blocking antibodies qualitatively comparable to other approaches. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Phlogiellus bundokalbo spider venom: cytotoxic fractions against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells
Conclusion: The venom of P. bundokalbo spider, an endemic tarantula species in the Philippines, contains components that were able to induce either apoptosis or necrosis in A549 cells. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Streamlined downstream process for efficient and sustainable (Fab')2 antivenom preparation
Conclusion: A highly streamlined mode for production of equine F(ab')2 antivenom was engi neered. In addition to preservation of the highest process yield and fulfillment of the regulatory demands, performance simplicity and rapidity in the laboratory setting were demonstrated. Suitability for large-scale manufacturing appears promising. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - July 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Cytotoxic and anticancer properties of the Malaysian mangrove pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) venom and its disintegrin (purpureomaculin)
Conclusion: Taken together, the findings revealed the potent and selective cytotoxicity of a disintegrin protein isolated from the Malaysian T. purpureomaculatus venom and suggested its anticancer potential in dru g discovery. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Suppression of cardiomyocyte functions by β-CTX isolated from the Thai king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom via an alternative method
Conclusion: We present an alternative purification method for β -CTX from king cobra venom. We reveal cytotoxicity towards smooth muscle and depression of cardiac contractility by this protein. These data are useful to aid future development of pharmacological agents derived from β -CTX. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Erratum: Antiproliferative activity of marine stingray Dasyatis sephen venom on human cervical carcinoma cell line
ABSTRACT Background: Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor with a mortality rate of 40% in the most aggressive cases. Tumor microenvironment components as immune cells contribute to the tumor progression; thereby, the modulation of immune cells to a pro-inflammatory and antitumoral profile could potentialize the immunotherapy, a suggested approach for high-risk patients. Preview studies showed the antitumoral potential of BJcuL, a C- type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom. It was able to induce immunomodulatory responses, promoting the rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the activation of neutrophils. Methods...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - July 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical assessment and pathophysiology of Bothrops venom-related acute kidney injury: a scoping review
Abstract Bothrops are one of the most common medically important snakes found in Latin America. Its venom is predominantly hemotoxic and proteolytic, which means that local lesion (edema and redness) and hemorrhagic symptoms are recurrent in envenoming by this snake. Although hemorrhage is usually the major cause of death, snakebite-related acute kidney injury is another potentially fatal clinical complication that may lead to chronic kidney disease. The present review highlights the main studies on Bothrops venom-related acute kidney injury, including observational, cross-sectional, case-control and cohort human studies a...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - July 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Toxicological effects of bioactive peptide fractions obtained from Bothrops jararaca snake venom on the structure and function of mouse seminiferous epithelium
Conclusions: The major finding of the present study was that the LMWF inhibited spermatozoa production; principally in the spermiogenesis stage without altering claudin-1 distribution in the basal compartment. Moreover, NO increased by LMWF induce open of complexes junctions and release the germ cells of the adluminal compartment to the seminiferous tubule. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - June 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Chronic venous ulcers: a review on treatment with fibrin sealant and prognostic advances using proteomic strategies
Abstract Venous ulcers are the main causes of chronic lower-limb ulcers. The healing difficulties encourage the research and development of new products in order to achieve better therapeutic results. Fibrin sealant is one of these alternatives. Besides being a validated scaffold and drug delivery system, it possesses excellent healing properties. This review covered the last 25 years of the literature and showed that the fibrin sealant is used in various clinical situations to promote the healing of different types of ulcers, especially chronic ones. These are mostly venous in origin and usually does not respond to conven...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - June 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Recombinant antibodies against Iranian cobra venom as a new emerging therapy by phage display technology
Conclusion: Therefore, phage display is believed to have a good potential as an approach to the development of snake antivenom. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - June 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Why does the number of dangerous species of scorpions increase? The particular case of the genus Leiurus Ehrenberg (Buthidae) in Africa
Abstract The aim of this contribution is to bring some precise information on the reasons why the number of noxious scorpion species is constantly growing. This fact is directly associated with the zoological research on the domains generally defined as systematics and taxonomy. The classification of any zoological group is in most cases a source of problem for most biologists not directly involved with this almost confidential aspect of the zoological research. Much information has been gathered and published over two centuries on the classification but it is remains poorly accessible and too technical for non-experts. Th...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - June 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Mitochondrial activity disruption and local muscle damage induced in mice by Scolopendra polymorpha venom
Conclusion: Our results suggest a different biochemical composition of S. polymorpha venom, based on the different effects of four venom fractions on the cells tested, according to statistical evidence. Fractions F6 and F7 caused the most important alterations. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Jingzhaotoxin-X, a gating modifier of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 potassium channels purified from the venom of the Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao
Conclusions: JZTX-X selectively suppresses Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 potassium channe l activity in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner and causes long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles in infectious diseases caused by protozoan parasites in buffaloes
Conclusions: EVs from buffaloes infected with Theileria spp. were successfully isolated and characterized. This is an advance in the knowledge of host-parasite relationship that contributes to the understanding of host immune response and theileriosis evasion mechanisms. These findings may pave the way for searching new EVs candidate-markers for a better production of safe biological products derived from buffaloes. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Neutrophils activated by BJcuL, a C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom, decrease the invasion potential of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells in vitro
ABSTRACT Background: Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor with a mortality rate of 40% in the most aggressive cases. Tumor microenvironment components as immune cells contribute to the tumor progression; thereby, the modulation of immune cells to a pro-inflammatory and antitumoral profile could potentialize the immunotherapy, a suggested approach for high-risk patients. Preview studies showed the antitumoral potential of BJcuL, a C- type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom. It was able to induce immunomodulatory responses, promoting the rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the activation of neutrophils. Methods...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Neuroprotection and immunomodulation by dimethyl fumarate and a heterologous fibrin biopolymer after ventral root avulsion and reimplantation
Conclusion: The pharmacological benefit was further enhanced when associated with root reimplantation with FS, in which animals recovered at least 50% of motor function, showing the efficacy of employing multiple regenerative approaches following spinal cord root injury. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Energetic supplementation for maintenance or development of Apis mellifera L. colonies
Conclusions: Therefore, sugar syrup is concluded to be the best artificial energetic food for use in the supplementation of honeybee colonies. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Neutrophils activated by BJcuL, a C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom, decrease the invasion potential of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells in vitro
ABSTRACT Background: Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor with a mortality rate of 40% in the most aggressive cases. Tumor microenvironment components as immune cells contribute to the tumor progression; thereby, the modulation of immune cells to a pro-inflammatory and antitumoral profile could potentialize the immunotherapy, a suggested approach for high-risk patients. Preview studies showed the antitumoral potential of BJcuL, a C- type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom. It was able to induce immunomodulatory responses, promoting the rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the activation of neutrophils. Methods...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Isolation and structural identification of a new T1-conotoxin with unique disulfide connectivities derived from Conus bandanus
Conclusion: We identified the first T1-conotoxin, denominated Bn5a, isolated from C. bandanus venom. However, Bn5a conotoxin exhibited unique C1-C4/C2-C3 disulfide connectivity, unlike other T1-conotoxins (C1-C3/C2-C4). The structural and homological analyses herein have evidenced novel conotoxin Bn5a that may require further investigation. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Gene sequence analysis of toxins from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer revealed an intronless feature
Conclusions: Despite a few nucleotide substitutions in the genomic regions encoding for the toxin precursors when compared with cDNA sequences, the results of the present work indicate that P. nigriventer toxins do not contain introns in their genes sequences. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 1, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Scorpion stings in pregnancy: an analysis of outcomes in 66 envenomed pregnant patients in Iran
Conclusion: Envenomation significantly contributes to preterm birth. Moreover, the location of bites and the type of scorpion species have a decisive role in the pregnancy outcome of scorpion-envenomed pregnant women. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 1, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Analgesic and side effects of intravenous recombinant Phα1β
Conclusion: Our data suggest that intravenous administration of recombinant Ph α 1 β may be feasible for drug-induced analgesia, without causing any severe side effects. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - April 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Venomics and antivenomics of the poorly studied Brazil’s lancehead, Bothrops brazili (Hoge, 1954), from the Brazilian State of ParĂ¡
Conclusion: The proteomics outcome contribute to a deeper insight into the spectrum of toxins present in the venom of the Brazil ’ s lancehead, and rationalize the pathophysiology underlying this snake bite envenomings. The comparative qualitative and quantitative immunorecognition profile of the Brazilian pentabothropic antivenom toward the venom toxins of B. brazili and B. jararaca (the reference venom for assessing the bothropic antivenom's potency in Brazil), provides clues about the proper use of the Brazilian antibothropic polyvalent antivenom in the treatment of bites by the Brazil ’ s lancehead. (Source...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - April 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research