Zika virus proteins at an atomic scale: how does structural biology help us to understand and develop vaccines and drugs against Zika virus infection?
Abstract In Brazil and in other tropical areas Zika virus infection was directly associated with clinical complications as microcephaly in newborn children whose mothers were infected during pregnancy and the Guillain-Barr é syndrome in adults. Recently, research has been focused on developing new vaccines and drug candidates against Zika virus infection since none of those are available. In order to contribute to vaccine and drug development efforts, it becomes important the understanding of the molecular basis of t he Zika virus recognition, infection and blockade. To this purpose, it is essential the structural d...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 30, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Protein identification from the parotoid macrogland secretion of Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Conclusions: Proper sample preparation allowed the proteomic and de novo identification of different proteins in the D. melanostictus parotoid macrogland secretion. These results may increase the knowledge about the universe of molecules that compose amphibian skin secretion, as well as to understand their biological/physiological role in the granular gland. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 20, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Antileishmanial activity and immunomodulatory effect of secosubamolide, a butanolide isolated from Nectandra oppositifolia (Lauraceae)
This study showed the antileishmanial activity of compounds 1 and 2 isolated from N. oppositifolia. Furthermore, compound 2 demonstrated an antileishmanial activity towards amastigotes associated to an immunomodulatory effect. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 20, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Antinociceptive effect of PnTx4(5-5), a peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom, in rat models and the involvement of glutamatergic system
Conclusion: The antinociceptive effect for PnTx4(5-5) was demonstrated against different rat pain models, i.e. induced by PGE2, carrageenan or glutamate. We suggest that the antinociceptive effect of PnTx4(5-5) may be related to an inhibitory activity on the glutamatergic system. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 13, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Ethnomedicinal plants used for snakebite treatments in Ethiopia: a comprehensive overview
Abstract Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of people living in rural parts of Ethiopia. Despite the fact that Ethiopia has a long history of using traditional medicinal plants as an alternative medicine source, there is no checklist compiling these plants used for snakebite treatment. This review collected and compiled available knowledge on and practical usage of such plants in the country. A literature review on medicinal plants used to treat snakebites was conducted from 67 journal articles, PhD dissertation and MSc theses available online. Data that summarize scientific and folk names, adm...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 6, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

BthTX-I from Bothrops jararacussu induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines and decreases cancer stem cell subpopulation
Conclusions: BthTX-I induces apoptosis and autophagy in all breast cancer cell lines tested and also reduces CSC s subpopulation, which makes it a promising therapeutic alternative for breast cancer. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - July 30, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Is the cat an important reservoir host for visceral leishmaniasis? A systematic review with meta-analysis
Abstract In recent years feline leishmanial infections (FLI) have been studied more than ever before in various parts of the world. However, evidence-based knowledge on FLI has remained unavailable. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the status of felines infected by Leishmania spp. worldwide. Data were extracted from 10 available databases over the period of 1982 to 2017. Overall, 78 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used for data extraction in this systematic review. The overall FLI prevalence by both serological and molecular methods was estimated at 10% (95% CI: 8%-14%). In Italy, bo...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - June 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Using prodigiosin against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and Trypanosoma cruzi
Conclusions: This work demonstrates the potential usefulness of prodigiosin against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and Trypanosoma cruzi although further studie s must be done in order to assess its value as a candidate molecule. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - June 3, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Spider venom peptides as potential drug candidates due to their anticancer and antinociceptive activities
Abstract Spider venoms are known to contain proteins and polypeptides that perform various functions including antimicrobial, neurotoxic, analgesic, cytotoxic, necrotic, and hemagglutinic activities. Currently, several classes of natural molecules from spider venoms are potential sources of chemotherapeutics against tumor cells. Some of the spider peptide toxins produce lethal effects on tumor cells by regulating the cell cycle, activating caspase pathway or inactivating mitochondria. Some of them also target the various types of ion channels (including voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-gated sodium channels, and aci...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - June 3, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Divergences between the Brazilian national information systems for recording deaths from venomous animals
Conclusion: Comparative analysis of these databases permits identification of important differences between profiles presented by thes e systems, which have equal relevance for Brazil as a whole and for its regions. These differences may influence the construction of various scenarios. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 21, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Neuroprotective properties of RT10, a fraction isolated from Parawixia bistriata spider venom, against excitotoxicity injury in neuron-glia cultures
Conclusion: RT10 fraction exhibits neuroprotective effects against L-Glu excitotoxicity in neuron-glia c ultured in vitro. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 17, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Traceability of animal protein byproducts in ruminants by multivariate analysis of isotope ratio mass spectrometry to prevent transmission of prion diseases
Conclusions: IRMS is an accurate and sensitive technique for tracing the feeding profile of ruminants through blood analysis, thus enabling investigation of ABP use. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - May 13, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of copaiba oil on dermonecrosis induced by Loxosceles intermedia venom
Conclusions: We conclude that copaiba oil may interfere in the healing process and thus propose it as a possible topical treatment for cutaneous lesions induced by L. intermedia venom. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - April 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Assessment of neuropharmacological potential of low molecular weight components extracted from Rhinella schneideri toad poison
Abstract Background: Studies on toad poison are relevant since they are considered a good source of toxins that act on different biological systems. Among the molecules found in the toad poison, it can be highlighted the cardiotonic heterosides, which have a known mechanism that inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme. However, these poisons have many other molecules that may have important biological actions. Therefore, this work evaluated the action of the low molecular weight components from Rhinella schneideri toad poison on Na+/K+-ATPase and their anticonvulsive and / or neurotoxic effects, in order to detect molecules with acti...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - April 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Proteome of fraction from Tityus serrulatus venom reveals new enzymes and toxins
Conclusions: The combination of a proteomic and biochemical characterization strategies leads us to identify new components in the T. serrulatus scorpion venom. The proteome of venom ´s fraction can provide valuable direction in the obtainment of components in their native forms in order to perform a preliminary characterization and, consequently, to promote advances in biological discoveries in toxinology. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - April 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Subproteome of Lachesis muta rhombeata venom and preliminary studies on LmrSP-4, a novel snake venom serine proteinase
Conclusions: Novel serine proteinase isoforms and a lectin were identified in LmrV. Additionally, a kallikrein-like serine proteinase that might be useful as molecular tool for investigating bradykinin -involving process was isolated and partially characterized. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Scorpion toxins targeting Kv1.3 channels: insights into immunosuppression
Abstract Scorpion venoms are natural sources of molecules that have, in addition to their toxic function, potential therapeutic applications. In this source the neurotoxins can be found especially those that act on potassium channels. Potassium channels are responsible for maintaining the membrane potential in the excitable cells, especially the voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv), including Kv1.3 channels. These channels (Kv1.3) are expressed by various types of tissues and cells, being part of several physiological processes. However, the major studies of Kv1.3 are performed on T cells due its importance on autoimm...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - April 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Functional and biological insights of rCollinein-1, a recombinant serine protease from Crotalus durissus collilineatus
Conclusion: These results suggest that the recombinant enzyme has no potential as a thrombolytic agent but can be applied in the prevention of thrombus formation in some pathological processes and as molecular tools in studies related to hemostasis. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - April 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

BjussuLAAO-II induces cytotoxicity and alters DNA methylation of cell-cycle genes in monocultured/co-cultured HepG2 cells
Abstract Background: The use of animal venoms and their toxins as material sources for biotechnological applications has received much attention from the pharmaceutical industry. L-amino acid oxidases from snake venoms (SV-LAAOs) have demonstrated innumerous biological effects and pharmacological potential against different cancer types. Hepatocellular carcinoma has increased worldwide, and the aberrant DNA methylation of liver cells is a common mechanism to promote hepatic tumorigenesis. Moreover, tumor microenvironment plays a major role in neoplastic transformation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for ...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - March 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate in Leishmania amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice
Conclusions: neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate concentrates in infected footpad, while the infection affects antimony pharmacokinetics. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - March 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Nitro-Heterocyclic compounds induce apoptosis-like effects in Leishmania (L). amazonensis promastigotes
Conclusions: Nitro-heterocyclic compounds have shown activity against promastigotes of L. amazonensis, at lower concentrations. However, improvement of compound scaffolds are needed to assist the elucidation of the mechanism of action and to achieve greater activity. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - March 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

A lung image reconstruction from computed radiography images as a tool to tuberculosis treatment control
Conclusions: The present 3D reconstruction method produced a satisfactory agreement with the acute-phase reaction, most notably a higher significance level with the C-reactive protein. We also found a quite reasonable coincidence between the 3D reconstruction method and the degree of functional lung impairment posttreatment. The performance of the quantification method was satisfactory when comparing the two treatment schemes. Thus, the 3D reconstruction quantification method may be useful tools for monitoring TB treatment. The association with serum indices are not only inexpensive and sensitive but also may be incorporat...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Identification of a pore-forming protein from sea anemone Anthopleura dowii Verrill (1869) venom by mass spectrometry
Conclusion: A. dowii Verrill (1869) venom contains a pore-forming protein suitable for designing new drugs for cancer therapy. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - February 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for the treatment of neglected tropical protozoan diseases
Abstract Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) comprise of a group of seventeen infectious conditions endemic in many developing countries. Among these diseases are three of protozoan origin, namely leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African trypanosomiasis, caused by the parasites Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Trypanosoma brucei respectively. These diseases have their own unique challenges which are associated with the development of effective prevention and treatment methods. Collectively, these parasitic diseases cause more deaths worldwide than all other NTDs combined. Moreover, many current therapies for these ...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - February 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical and laboratory features distinguishing between Deinagkistrodon acutus and Daboia siamensis envenomation
Conclusions: The presentation of moderate to severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Morphometric characteristics and seasonal proximity to water of the Cypriot bluntnosed viper Macrovipera lebetina lebetina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Conclusions: Adult male blunt-nosed vipers exceed adult females in TaL, ToL and HL. Adult females are likely in a more vulnerable body condition in late summer than in spring. Periodic drying out of freshwater bodies in summer probably does not affect the species ’ occurrence. Educational workshops and habitat conservation are recommended for reducing human-viper conflict. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Next-generation sequencing analysis reveals high bacterial diversity in wild venomous and non-venomous snakes from India
Conclusion: The present study would provide a foundation for further research on snakes to recognize the potential drugs/antibiotics for the different infectious diseases. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic action of MjTX-I, a phospholipase A2 isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, towards leukemic cells
Conclusion: The antitumor effect of MjTX-I is associated with its potential to induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in Bcr-Abl positive cell lines sensitive and resistant to imatinib mesylate, indicating that MjTX-I is a promising candidate drug to upgrade the CML therapy. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Immunotherapeutic potential of Crotoxin: anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties
Abstract For the past 80 years, Crotoxin has become one of the most investigated isolated toxins from snake venoms, partially due to its major role as the main toxic component in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. However, in the past decades, progressive studies have led researchers to shift their focus on Crotoxin, opening novel perspectives and applications as a therapeutic approach. Although this toxin acts on a wide variety of biological events, the modulation of immune responses is considered as one of its most relevant behaviors. Therefore, the present review describes the scie...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Kn-Ba: a novel serine protease isolated from Bitis arietans snake venom with fibrinogenolytic and kinin-releasing activities
Conclusions: The in vitro activities of Kn-Ba can be correlated with the capacity of the venom to provoke bleeding and clotting disorders as well as hypotension, which are common symptoms presented by envenomed victims. Obtaining satisfactory Kn-Ba inhibition through the experimental antivenom is important, given the WHO's recommendation of immunotherapy in cases of human accidents with venomous snakes. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Kinetic investigations and stability studies of two Bothrops L-amino acid oxidases
Conclusions: Our results showed that, when stored properly , BjussuLAAO-II and BmooLAAO-I present enzymatic stability over a long time period, which is very important to allow the use of these enzymes in pharmacological studies of great impact in the medical field. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - January 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Antivenomic approach of different Crotalus durissus collilineatus venoms
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the Brazilian anticrotalic serum recognizes all the different twenty-two venoms of C. d. collilineatus and their fractions, although in a quantitatively different way, which may impact the effectiveness of the antivenom therapy. These results confirm the need to use a pool of venoms with the greatest possible variability in the preparation of antivenoms, in order to improve their effectiveness. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 17, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Deep sequencing analysis of toad Rhinella schneideri skin glands and partial biochemical characterization of its cutaneous secretion
Conclusions: We identified novel toxins and proteins from R. schneideri mucous glands. Besides, this is a pioneer study that presented the in depth characterization of protein molecules richness from this toad secretion. The results obtained herein showed evidence of novel AMP and enzymes that need to be further explored. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 17, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Second-generation pterocarpanquinones: synthesis and antileishmanial activity
Conclusions: The data presented indicate that the pterocarpanoquinones are promising compounds for the development of new leishmanicidal agents. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 17, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Cytotoxic and inflammatory potential of a phospholipase A2 from Bothrops jararaca snake venom
Conclusions: BJ-PLA2-I was characterized as an acidic Asp49 PLA2 that induces acute local inflammation and low cytotoxicity. These results should contribute to elucidate the action mechanisms of snake venom PLA2s. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 17, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Purification and enzymatic characterization of a novel metalloprotease from Lachesis muta rhombeata snake venom
Conclusion: The purification procedure achieved a novel pure highly active metalloprotease from LmrV. This new molecule can help to understand the metalloproteases mechanisms of action, the Lachesis envenoming, as well as to open new perspectives for its use as therapeutic tools. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 17, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Intravitreal injection of the synthetic peptide LyeTx I b, derived from a spider toxin, into the rabbit eye is safe and prevents neovascularization in a chorioallantoic membrane model
Conclusions: Intravitreal injection of LyeTx I b is safe for use in the rabbit eye and prevents neovascularization in the CAM model, at Bevacizumab levels. These findings support intravitreal LyeTx l b as a good candidate to develop future alternative treatment for the retina in neovascularization diseases. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 17, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of sertraline against Trypanosoma cruzi: an in vitro and in silico study
Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that sertraline had a lethal effect on different forms and strains of T. cruzi, by affecting the bioenergetic metabolism of the parasite. These findings provide a starting point for future experimental assays and may contribute to the development of new compounds. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 13, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Activity of the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone against Leishmania (L.) infantum: an in vitro and in vivo approach
Conclusions: Our findings may help further drug design studies seeking new AMD derivatives that may provide new candidates with an in vitro selectivity close to or even greater than that observed in the prototype delivering effectiveness in the experimental model of VL. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 13, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Cell migration inhibition activity of a non-RGD disintegrin from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom
Abstract Background: In recent decades, snake venom disintegrins have received special attention due to their potential use in anticancer therapy. Disintegrins are small and cysteine-rich proteins present in snake venoms and can interact with specific integrins to inhibit their activities in cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. These molecules, known to inhibit platelet aggregation, are also capable of interacting with certain cancer-related integrins, and may interfere in important processes involved in carcinogenesis. Therefore, disintegrin from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom was isolated, structurally characteriz...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - December 13, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Neolignans isolated from twigs of Nectandra leucantha Ness & Mart (Lauraceae) displayed in vitro antileishmanial activity
Conclusion: This study highlights compound 6 against L. (L.) infantum amastigotes as a scaffold for future design of new compounds for drug treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 18, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

4-Phenyl-1,3-thiazole-2-amines as scaffolds for new antileishmanial agents
Conclusions: This study shows that 4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-amines could be good scaffolds to the development of new antileishmanial agents. The S-methyl-5-thioadenosine phosphorylase could be one of the macromolecular targets involved in the action. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - October 18, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of autologous whole blood administration upon experimental mouse models of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection
Abstract Background: Autologous whole blood (AWB) administration is described as alternative/complementary medical practice widely employed in medical and veterinary therapy against infections, chronic pathologies and neoplasias. Our aim is to investigate in vivo biological effect of AWB using healthy murine models under the course of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Methods: The first set of studies consisted of injecting different volumes of AWB and saline (SAL) into the posterior region of quadriceps muscle of healthy male Swiss mice under distinct therapeutic schemes evaluating: animal behavior, body and organ weight...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding for SpCTx: a lethal factor from scorpionfish venom ( Scorpaena plumieri )
Conclusion: The study identified a putative toxin protein whose primary structure is similar to other fish toxins and with potential for production of antivenom against scorpionfish envenomation in Brazil. As a prelude to structure-function studies, we propose that the toxin is structurally related to pore-forming marine toxins. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Identification, expression and characterization of the recombinant Sol g 4.1 protein from the venom of the tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata
Conclusions: The primary structure of Sol g 4.1 showed high similarity to that of venom proteins in the Solenopsis 2 and 4 family. Those proteins are life-threatening and produce IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. The possible function of this protein is the binding of the interior hydrophobic pockets with piperidine alkaloids, as determined by the analysis of the structural model and PD50 test. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacological characterization of cnidarian extracts from the Caribbean Sea: evaluation of anti-snake venom and antitumor properties
Conclusion: The cnidarian extracts analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms; these results may contribute to elucidate the possible mechanisms of interaction between cnidarian extracts and snake venoms. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of phospholipase A2 inhibitors during infection caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis
Conclusions: Results presented herein suggested that PLA2 inhibitors altered L. (L.) amazonensis viability. In spite of liver toxicity, treatment with BEL was the most selective compound in vitro, as well in vivo, resulting in lower skin parasitism in the infected mice. These findings corroborate the role of PLA2 in parasite virulence and maintenance in vertebrate hosts, and suggest that molecules structurally related to BEL should be considered when planning compounds against Leishmania sp. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Yellow fever in Africa and the Americas: a historical and epidemiological perspective
Abstract Yellow fever was transported during the slave trade in the 15th and 16th centuries from Africa to the Americas where the virus encountered favorable ecological conditions that allowed creation of a sustainable sylvatic cycle. Despite effective vector control and immunization programs for nearly a century, yellow fever epidemics reemerged in many Latin American countries, particularly Brazil. The emergence or reemergence of vector-borne diseases encompasses many intricate factors. Yellow fever outbreaks occur if at least three conditions are fulfilled: the introduction of the virus into a non-immune human community...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Scorpions and life-history strategies: from evolutionary dynamics toward the scorpionism problem
Abstract This work aims to contribute to the general information on scorpion reproductive patterns in general including species that can be noxious to humans. Scorpions are unusual among terrestrial arthropods in several of their life-history traits since in many aspects their reproductive strategies are more similar to those of superior vertebrates than to those of arthropods in general. This communication focuses mainly on the aspects concerning embryonic and post-embryonic developments since these are quite peculiar in scorpions and can be directly connected to the scorpionism problem. As in previous similar contributio...
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - September 21, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Heterophilic antibodies in sera from individuals without loxoscelism cross-react with phospholipase D from the venom of Loxosceles and Sicarius spiders
Conclusions People without contact with the spider venom produced heterophilic antibodies capable of generating a cross-reaction against the venom of L. laeta and Sicarius spiders. Their presence and possible interference should be considered in the development of immunoassays for Loxosceles venom detection. (Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases)
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - August 13, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research