Friend or foe? The apparent benefits of gregarine (Apicomplexa: Sporozoa) infection in the European earwig.

In this study, we addressed this gap in knowledge by investigating the prevalence of natural infections by the gregarine Gregarina ovata and testing how these infections shape a large set of morphological, behavioural and physiological traits in the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Our results first show that G. ovata was present in 76.8% of 573 field-sampled earwigs, and that its prevalence was both higher in males compared with females and increased between July and September. The load of G. ovata in the infected individuals was higher in males than females, but this sex difference vanished during the season. Our experiments then surprisingly revealed apparent benefits of G. ovata infections. Food-deprived hosts survived longer when they exhibited high compared with low gregarine loads. Moreover, the presence of gregarines was associated with a reduced phenoloxidase activity, indicating a lower immune resistance or a higher immune tolerance of the infected hosts. By contrast, we found no effect of G. ovata presence and number on earwigs' development (eye distance, forceps length), activity, food consumption or resistance against a fungal pathogen. Overall, our findings suggest that G. ovata could be involved in a mutualistic relationship with the European earwig. Given the ubiquitous presence of gregarines among invertebrates, our data also suggest that this common member of insect gut flora could have a broad and positive role in the life history of many host species...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

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Authors: Dubie T, Mohammed Y Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem worldwide and spreads to human via the bite of sand flies during blood meal. Following its inoculation, the promastigotes are immediately taken up by phagocytic cells and these leishmania-infected host cells produce proinflammatory cytokines that activate other immune cells and these infected host cells produce more cytokines and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species for efficient control of leishmania infection. Many experimental studies showed that resistance to infection with leishmania paraites is associated with ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): José Chissiua Dumbo, Beric Michael Gilbert, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Source: Biological Rhythm Research - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
This study aimed to analyze the quality of 18 rivers located in Quito, the capital province of Pichincha, Ecuador, through physico-chemical and microbial parameters. The E. coli and total coliforms assessments were performed by a counting procedure in growth media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was realized to detect several microbial genera, as well as Candida albicans, two parasites (Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp.) and E. coli pathotypes: enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Additionally, physico-chemical parameters and ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Metabolomics, as an emerging technology, has been demonstrated to be a very powerful tool in the study of the host metabolic responses to infections by parasites. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by schistosoma worm via the direct contact with the water containing cercaria, among which Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) is endemic in Asia. In order to characterize the schistosome-induced changes in the host metabolism and further to develop the strategy for early diagnosis of schistosomiasis, we performed comprehensive LC-MS-based metabolomics analysis of serum from mice infected by S. japonicum for 5 week...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study aimed to characterize the populations of natural killer (NK), CD57+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, CD20+ B cells, as well as CD68+ macrophages, in biopsies of ulcerated CL lesions, and quantify the production of perforin+, grazyme B+, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β+) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α+ cells). We then correlated these parameters with necrosis, inflammation and the number of amastigotes. CD4+ T cells were positively correlated to the extent of inflammation, B cells and IL-1β+ were associated with the extent of necrosis, CD68+ macrophages and perforin were correlated with the number of amastigo...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
A Peninsula biotech company is supplying a set of parasite-fighting preclinical compounds to a startup created by one of the scientists who co-founded the company more than two decades ago. Kainomyx Inc. — launched by a Stanford University-connected team including scientist Jim Spudich, a winner of the prestigious Lasker Award — is targeting malaria, leishmaniasis and other parasitic diseases. Spudich was one of the founders of Cytokinetics Inc. (NASDAQ: CYTK), which is taking an equity stake…
Source: Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
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