Proliferative kidney disease in Alaskan salmonids with evidence that pathogenic myxozoans may be emerging north.
Abstract Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids, a chronic immunopathology caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, is exacerbated by increased water temperatures. PKD causes economic concerns to trout farmers in North America and Europe, contributing to the decline of wild salmonid populations. The parasite occurs as far north as Norway and Iceland in Europe and was confirmed from California to southern British Columbia in the American continent. In mid-September 2011 adult chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) were sampled from Kantishna River, a tributary to Yukon River in Alaska. Clini...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gorgoglione B, Bailey C, Ferguson JA Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Hyperendemic Dirofilaria immitis infection in a sheltered dog population: an expanding threat in the Mediterranean region.
Abstract A study on the occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis and of its vectors was carried out in order to assess the prevalence of the disease in previously non-endemic areas of southern Italy. Blood samples (n = 385) and mosquitoes (n = 1,540) were collected in two dog shelters and analysed by Knott's test and duplex real-time PCR, respectively. Dirofilaria immitis was the most prevalent filarioid (44.2%), while Culex pipiens was the most prevalent mosquito species (68.8%). This high prevalence of D. immitis infection confirms this location as one of the most hyperendemic foci of dirofilariosis in Europe. PMI...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Panarese R, Iatta R, Stefania Latrofa M, Zatelli A, Ignjatović Ćupina A, Montarsi F, Pombi M, Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan J, Beugnet F, Otranto D Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Distinct adaptations of a gametocyte ABC transporter to murine and human Plasmodium parasites and its incompatibility in cross-species complementation.
Abstract Parasites of the genus Plasmodium infect a wide range of mammalian hosts including humans, primates, bats and arboreal rodents. A hallmark of Plasmodium spp. is the very narrow host range, indicative of matching parasite-host coevolution. Accordingly, their respective genomes harbour many unique genes and gene families that typically encode proteins involved in host cell recognition and remodelling. Whether and to what extent conserved proteins that are shared across Plasmodium spp. also exert distinct species-specific roles remains largely untested. Here, we present detailed functional profiling of the f...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kenthirapalan S, Tran PN, Kooij TWA, Ridgway MC, Rauch M, Brown SHJ, Mitchell TW, Matuschewski K, Maier AG Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

First adult cyclophyllidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from teleost fishes: host switching beyond tetrapods in Africa.
Abstract Tapeworms (Cestoda) of the order Cyclophyllidea include over 3,000 species of intestinal parasites of tetrapods, especially birds and mammals including humans. However, adults of cyclophyllideans have never been found in bony fishes, even though hundreds of thousands of these hosts have been examined for parasites globally over more than 250 years. In the present paper, we report on a unique example of host switching of a tapeworm from birds to teleost fish in Africa. A new genus, Ichthyolepis (Cyclophyllidea: Dilepididae), is erected to accommodate Ichthyolepis africana n. sp., which is the first cycloph...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 15, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Scholz T, Tavakol S, Luus-Powell WJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Seasonal dynamics of haemosporidian (Apicomplexa, Haemosporida) parasites in house sparrows Passer domesticus at four European sites: comparison between lineages and the importance of screening methods.
Abstract Infectious diseases often vary seasonally in a predictable manner, and seasonality may be responsible for geographical differences in prevalence. In temperate regions, vector-borne parasites such as malaria are expected to evolve lower virulence and a time-varying strategy to invest more in transmission when vectors are available. A previous model of seasonal variation of avian malaria described a double peak in prevalence of Plasmodium parasites in multiple hosts resulting from spring relapses and transmission to susceptible individuals in summer. However, this model was rejected by a study describing di...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 15, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Manuel Neto J, Mellinger S, Halupka L, Marzal A, Zehtindjiev P, Westerdahl H Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Cell type and species-specific host responses to Toxoplasma gondii and its near relatives.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is remarkably unique in its ability to successfully infect vertebrate hosts from multiple phyla and can successfully infect most cells within these organisms. The infection outcome in each of these species is determined by the complex interaction between parasite and host genotype. As techniques to quantify global changes in cell function become more readily available and precise, new data are coming to light about how i) different host cell types respond to parasitic infection and ii) different parasite species impact the host. Here we focus on recent studies comparing the response to i...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wong ZS, Borrelli SLS, Coyne CC, Boyle JP Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of seasonal dynamics of parasite infections in aquatic ecosystems.
Abstract Seasonal infection dynamics characterize many host-parasite interactions, as abiotic conditions drive fundamental biological processes in both hosts and parasites. The extent to which seasonal cycles in parasite abundance are universal, and whether the same underlying mechanisms are responsible for seasonality across different host-parasite associations, have received little attention to date. Here, global patterns of seasonal infection dynamics are tested using a meta-analysis of 693 seasonal contrasts in the local abundance of metazoan parasites on aquatic vertebrates, representing 343 parasite species ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 4, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Poulin R Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Honey bee survival mechanisms against the parasite Varroa destructor: a systematic review of phenotypic and genomic research efforts.
nte Y Abstract The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is the most significant pathological threat to the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, leading to the death of most colonies if left untreated. An alternative approach to chemical treatments is to selectively enhance heritable honey bee traits of resistance or tolerance to the mite through breeding programs, or select for naturally surviving untreated colonies. We conducted a literature review of all studies documenting traits of A. mellifera populations either selectively bred or naturally selected for resistance and tolerance to mite parasitism. This allowed...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 4, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fanny M, Alexis B, Alison M, Barbara L, Cédric A, Solene B, Bob D, Le Conte Y Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

TgMAP1c is involved in apicoplast biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii.
In this study, we found that the inducible knockdown of each type I TgMAP (TgMAP1a-c) reduced the growth and proliferation of the parasite significantly. Among them, TgMAP1c was found to be localized to the apicoplast of the parasite. Inducible knockdown of TgMAP1c led to a defect in the abundance of apicoplast-encoded transcripts, and a later reduction in the apicoplast genome copy number and loss of the apicoplast structure. This finding indicates that transcription of the apicoplast genome was impaired upon knockdown of TgMAP1c. We also found that the function of TgMAP1c in apicoplast biogenesis depends on its enzymatic...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 4, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zheng J, Su W, Cao S, Zhang Z, Du C, Jia H Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Comparative tachyzoite proteome analyses among six Neospora caninum isolates with different virulence.
;nchez M, Saeij JPJ, Miguel Ortega-Mora L Abstract The biological variability among Neospora caninum isolates has been widely shown, however, the molecular basis that determines this diversity has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. The latest studies have focused on a limited number of isolates. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to compare the proteome of a larger number of N. caninum isolates with different origins and virulence. Label-free LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the tachyzoite proteomic differences among Nc-Bahia, Nc-Spain4H and Nc-Spain7, representing high virulence isolates and Nc-Ger...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rico-San Román L, Horcajo P, Regidor-Cerrillo J, Fernández-Escobar M, Collantes-Fernández E, Gutiérrez-Blázquez D, Luisa Hernáez-Sánchez M, Saeij JPJ, Miguel Ortega-Mora L Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Methods to assess the effect of meat processing on viability of Toxoplasma gondii: towards replacement of mouse bioassay by in vitro testing.
nk HJ Abstract Consumption of meat containing viable tissue cysts is considered one of the main sources of human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. In contrast to fresh meat, raw meat products usually undergo processing, including salting and mixing with other additives such as sodium acetate and sodium lactate, which affects the viability of T. gondii. However, the experiments described in the literature are not always performed in line with the current processing methods applied in industry. It was our goal to study the effect of salting and additives according to the recipes used by industrial producers. Mouse o...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Opsteegh M, Dam-Deisz C, de Boer P, DeCraeye S, Faré A, Hengeveld P, Luiten R, Schares G, van Solt-Smits C, Verhaegen B, Verkleij T, van der Giessen J, Wisselink HJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

A review of the systematics, species identification and diagnostics of the Trypanosomatidae using the maxicircle kinetoplast DNA: from past to present.
Abstract The Trypanosomatid family are a diverse and widespread group of protozoan parasites that belong to the higher order class Kinetoplastida. Containing predominantly monoxenous species (i.e. those having only a single host) that are confined to invertebrate hosts, this class is primarily known for its pathogenic dixenous species (i.e. those that have two hosts), serving as the aetiological agents of the important neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) including leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) and human African trypanosomiasis. Over the past few decades, a multitude of studies have invest...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 22, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kaufer A, Stark D, Ellis J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Weak population structure and expansive demographic history of the monogenean parasite Kapentagyrus spp. infecting clupeid fishes of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa.
We examined the monogeneans Kapentagyrus limnotrissae and Kapentagyrus tanganicanus (Dactylogyridae) infecting these clupeids to explore the parasites' lake-wide population structure and patterns of demographic history. Samples were collected at seven sites distributed across three sub-basins of the lake. Intraspecific morphological variation of the monogeneans (n = 380) was analysed using morphometrics and geomorphometrics of sclerotised structures. Genetic population structure of both parasite species (n = 246) was assessed based on a 415 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Overall...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kmentová N, Koblmüller S, Van Steenberge M, Raeymaekers JAM, Artois T, De Keyzer ELR, Milec L, Muterezi Bukinga F, Mulimbwa N'sibula T, Masilya Mulungula P, Ntakimazi G, Volckaert FAM, Gelnar M, Vanhove MPM Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Long-term production effects of clinical cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves.
This study measured the long-term growth rate of beef calves on farm by comparing groups of animals that had suffered differing degrees of clinical severity of cryptosporidiosis as neonates. A group of 27 beef calves were enrolled in the study and monitored from birth to 6 months of age. The calves were scored for severity of cryptosporidiosis and weighed at regular intervals. The average difference in weight gain, at 6 months, between a group of calves that had severe cryptosporidiosis as neonates and a group of calves with no clinical signs of infection was 34 kg. Those calves that had experienced severe cryptosporidiosi...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shaw HJ, Innes EA, Morrison LJ, Katzer F, Wells B Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Odds ratios and hurdle models: a long-term analysis of parasite infection patterns in endangered young-of-the-year suckers from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA.
Abstract We used odds ratios and a hurdle model to analyze parasite co-infections over 25 years on>20,000 young-of-the year of endangered Shortnose and Lost River Suckers. Host ecologies differed as did parasite infections. Shortnose Suckers were more likely to be caught inshore and 3 - 5 times more likely to have Bolbophorus spp. and Contracaecum sp. infections, and Lost River Suckers were more likely to be caught offshore and approximately three times more likely to have Lernaea cyprinacea infections. An observed peak shift seems likely to be due to a lower host size limit for Bolbophorus spp. (13.6 mm) compa...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Markle DF, Janik A, Peterson JT, Choudhury A, Simon DC, Tkach VV, Terwilliger MR, Sanders JL, Kent ML Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Bumped Kinase Inhibitors as therapy for apicomplexan parasitic diseases: lessons learned.
e Hostos EL, Maly DJ, Fan E, Ojo KK, Van Voorhis WC Abstract Bumped Kinase Inhibitors (BKIs), targeting Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase 1 (CDPK1) in apicomplexan parasites with a glycine gatekeeper, are promising new therapeutics for apicomplexan diseases. Here we will review advances, as well as challenges and lessons learned regarding efficacy, safety, and pharmacology, that have shaped our selection of pre-clinical candidates. PMID: 32224121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Choi R, Hulverson MA, Huang W, Vidadala RSR, Whitman GR, Barrett LK, Schaefer DA, Betzer DP, Riggs MW, Stone Doggett J, Hemphill A, Miguel Ortega-Mora L, McCloskey MC, Arnold SLM, Hackman RC, Marsh KC, Lynch JJ, Freiberg GM, Leroy BE, Kempf DJ, Choy RKM, Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Drivers of compositional turnover are related to species' commonness in flea assemblages from four biogeographic realms: zeta diversity and Multi-Site Generalised Dissimilarity Modelling.
Abstract We investigated drivers of species turnover in fleas parasitic on small mammals in four biogeographic realms using novel methodology (zeta diversity, and Multi-Site Generalised Dissimilarity Modelling (MS-GDM)). We asked whether (i) flea turnover was better explained by host turnover or environmental variables; (ii) different factors drive the turnover of rare and widespread fleas; (iii) the factors affecting the turnover of rare or widespread fleas differ between realms; and (iv) environmental variables drive flea turnover directly or via their effects on hosts. Dissimilarity in host species composition ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Krasnov BR, Shenbrot GI, van der Mescht L, Khokhlova IS Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Forest edges affect ectoparasite infestation patterns of small mammalian hosts in fragmented forests in Madagascar.
This study aims to investigate if and how habitat fragmentation affects the composition of ectoparasite communities on small mammalian hosts in two networks of dry deciduous forest fragments in northwestern Madagascar. Forest sites differing in size, proportion of edge habitat and host density were studied in the Ankarafantsika National Park and in the Mariarano region. A total of 924 individuals of two mouse lemur species, Microcebus murinus (n=200) and Microcebus ravelobensis (n=426), and two rodent species, endemic Eliurus myoxinus (n=114) and introduced Rattus rattus (n=184), were captured to assess ectoparasite infest...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kiene F, Andriatsitohaina B, Ramsay MS, Rakotondramanana H, Rakotondravony R, Radespiel U, Strube C Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Friend or foe? The apparent benefits of gregarine (Apicomplexa: Sporozoa) infection in the European earwig.
In this study, we addressed this gap in knowledge by investigating the prevalence of natural infections by the gregarine Gregarina ovata and testing how these infections shape a large set of morphological, behavioural and physiological traits in the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Our results first show that G. ovata was present in 76.8% of 573 field-sampled earwigs, and that its prevalence was both higher in males compared with females and increased between July and September. The load of G. ovata in the infected individuals was higher in males than females, but this sex difference vanished during the season. Our e...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Arcila F, Meunier J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Cryptosporidium hominis infections in non-human animal species: revisiting the concept of host specificity.
a D Abstract Parasites in the genus Cryptosporidium, phylum Apicomplexa, are found worldwide in the intestinal tract of many vertebrate species and in the environment. Driven by sensitive PCR methods, and the availability of abundant sequence data and reference genomes, the taxonomic complexity of the genus has steadily increased; 38 species have been named to date. Due to its public health importance, Cryptosporidium hominis has long attracted the interest of the research community. This species was initially described as infectious to humans only. This perception has persisted in spite of an increasing number of...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Widmer G, Köster PC, Carmena D Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Giardia spp. promote the production of antimicrobial peptides and attenuate disease severity induced by attaching and effacing enteropathogens via the induction of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Abstract Polymicrobial infections of the gastro-intestinal tract are common in areas with poor sanitation. Disease outcome is the result of complex interactions between the host and pathogens. Such interactions lie at the core of future management strategies of enteric diseases. In developed countries of the world, Giardia duodenalis is a common cause of diarrheal disease. In contrast, giardiasis appears to protect children against diarrhea in countries with poor sanitation, via obscure mechanisms. We hypothesized that Giardia may protect its host from disease induced by a co-infecting pathogen such as attaching a...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 14, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Manko-Prykhoda A, Allain T, Motta JP, Cotton JA, Feener T, Oyeyemi A, Bindra S, Vallance BA, Wallace JL, Beck P, Buret AG Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Characterisation of serum IgG(T) responses to potential diagnostic antigens for equine cyathostominosis.
Abstract Cyathostomins are ubiquitous parasitic nematodes of horses. These worms spend substantial periods as intestinal wall stage encysted larvae, which can comprise up to 90% of the total burden. Several million larvae have been reported in individuals. Emergence of these larvae from the gut wall can lead to life-threatening colitis. Faecal egg count tests, increasingly used by horse owners to inform anthelmintic treatments, do not correlate with the intra-host burden of cyathostomins; this represents a key gap in the diagnostic toolbox. Previously, a cyathostomin Gut Associated Larval Antigen (Cy-GALA) was ide...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tzelos T, Geyer KK, Mitchell MC, Mcwilliam HEG, Kharchenko VO, Burgess STG, Matthews JB Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Hiding in plain sight: discovery and phylogeography of a cryptic species of Trichinella (Nematoda: Trichinellidae) in wolverine (Gulo gulo).
Abstract Understanding parasite diversity and distribution is essential in managing the potential impact of parasitic diseases in animals and people. Imperfect diagnostic methods, however, may conceal cryptic species. Here, we report the discovery and phylogeography of a previously unrecognized species of Trichinella in wolverine (Gulo gulo) from northwestern Canada that was indistinguishable from T. nativa using the standard multiplex PCR assay based on the expansion segment 5 (ESV) of ribosomal DNA. The novel genotype, designated as T13, was discovered when sequencing the mitochondrial genome. Phylogenetic analy...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sharma R, Thompson P, Hoberg EP, Brad Scandrett W, Konecsni K, Jane Harms N, Kukka PM, Jung TS, Elkin B, Mulders R, Larter NC, Branigan M, Pongracz J, Wagner B, Kafle P, Lobanov VA, Rosenthal BM, Jenkins EJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

First highly sensitive and specific competitive ELISA for detection of bovine besnoitiosis with potential as a multi-species test.
In conclusion, the novel Besnoitia-cELISA represents a valuable tool for the diagnosis and control of bovine besnoitiosis and for studies on the epidemiology of Besnoitia infections in a variety of host species, including naturally exposed wildlife and experimental hosts. PMID: 32169472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 10, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Schares G, Nascimento D, Bärwald A, Jutras C, Rivard S, Brodeur V, DeNotta SL, Basso W, Conraths FJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The state of fish parasite discovery and taxonomy: a critical assessment and a look forward.
Abstract Efforts to find and characterise new parasite species in fish hosts are crucial not just to complete our inventory of Earth's biodiversity, but also to monitor and mitigate disease threats in fisheries and aquaculture in the face of global climate change. Here, we review recent quantitative assessments of research efforts into fish parasite discovery and taxonomy. We address broad questions including: Are efforts aimed at finding new parasite species targeted at geographical hotspots of fish biodiversity, where there should be more parasite species to be found? Is the application of molecular tools to stu...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Poulin R, Presswell B, Jorge F Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Screening the Medicines for Malaria Venture Pathogen Box for invasion and egress inhibitors of the blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum reveals several inhibitory compounds.
Abstract With emerging resistance to frontline treatments, it is vital that new drugs are identified to target Plasmodium falciparum. One of the most critical processes during the parasites' asexual lifecycle is the invasion and subsequent egress of red blood cells (RBCs). Many unique parasite ligands, receptors and enzymes are employed during egress and invasion that are essential for parasite proliferation and survival, therefore making these processes druggable targets. To identify potential inhibitors of egress and invasion, we screened the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Pathogen Box, a 400 compound libra...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dans MG, Weiss GE, Wilson DW, Sleebs BE, Crabb BS, de Koning-Ward TF, Gilson PR Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Helminths, polyparasitism, and the gut microbiome in the Philippines.
Abstract Polyparasitism, involving soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma blood flukes, is common in low to middle income countries. These helminths impact on the gut environment and can cause changes to the gut microbiome composition. Here we examined the gut microbiome in individuals with polyparasitism from two human cohorts in the Philippines utilising DNA sequencing-based profiling. Multiple helminth species infections were high with 70.3% of study participants harbouring at least two parasite species, and 16% harbouring at least five species. Increased numbers of helminth co-infections, in particul...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gordon CA, Krause L, McManus DP, Morrison M, Weerakoon KG, Connor MC, Olveda RM, Ross AG, Gobert GN Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Clustering of cryptosporidiosis in queensland, australia, is not defined temporally or by spatial diversity.
This study evaluated the spatial and temporal patterns of clusters of notified cases of cryptosporidiosis in the north-eastern Australian state of Queensland, which has the highest average notified cases nationally. A spatiotemporal analysis in SaTScan of 12,263 notified cases from mid 2001 to mid 2015 identified 79 statistically significant disease clusters (P
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Greenwood KP, Reid SA Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Vaccination against canine leishmaniasis in brazil.
a CHN Abstract Prevention of canine Leishmania infantum infection is critical to management of visceral leishmaniasis in people living in endemic areas of Brazil. A bill (PL 1738/11), currently under consideration, proposes to establish a national vaccination policy against canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. However, there is no solid scientific evidence supporting the idea that this could reduce transmission from infected vaccinated dogs to sand flies to a level that would significantly reduce the risk of L. infantum infection or visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Thus, we advocate that insecticide-impregnated collar...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dantas-Torres F, Dos Santos Nogueira F, Menz I, Tabanez P, da Silva SM, Ribeiro VM, Miró G, Cardoso L, Petersen C, Baneth G, Oliva G, Solano-Gallego L, Ferrer L, Pennisi MG, Bourdeau P, Maia C, Otranto D, Gradoni L, Courtenay O, Costa CHN Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing of a feline strain of Tritrichomonas foetus reveals massive genetic differences to bovine and porcine isolates.
r N Abstract Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that colonizes the reproductive tract of cattle as well as the gastrointestinal tract of cats. Bovine tritrichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease whereas feline tritrichomonosis is thought to be transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Furthermore, T. foetus is known as an essentially apathogenic commensal located in the nasal cavity of pigs. Transmission of T. foetus between the different hosts has to be considered a realistic scenario that may have important implications for the epidemiology of infections and disease. In our study, we generated whole ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dąbrowska J, Keller I, Karamon J, Kochanowski M, Gottstein B, Cencek T, Frey CF, Müller N Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

New insights into the Manila clam - Perkinsus olseni interaction based on gene expression analysis of clam hemocytes and parasite trophozoites through in vitro challenges.
ba A, Martínez P Abstract The Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is the bivalve species with the highest global production from both fisheries and aquaculture, but its production is seriously threatened by perkinsosis, a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying R. philippinarum-P. olseni interactions, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of in vitro challenged clam hemocytes and P. olseni trophozoites, using two oligo-microarray platforms, one previously validated for R. philippinarum hemocytes and a new one developed and validated i...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Farah Md Hasanuzzaman A, Cao A, Ronza P, Fernández-Boo S, Andrés Rubiolo J, Robledo D, Gómez-Tato A, Antonio Alvarez-Dios J, Pardo BG, Villalba A, Martínez P Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Neofoleyellides boerewors n. gen. n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) parasitising common toads and mosquito vectors: morphology, life history, experimental transmission and host-vector interaction in situ.
Abstract Anuran filarial nematodes are restricted to two comparatively small subfamilies (Icosiellinae and Waltonellinae) of the filariae that currently comprise six genera and 41 recognised species. However, the life histories of only five anuran filarial nematodes, proposed as an ancestral group based on molecular phylogenetic studies, have been elucidated. Furthermore, data on the natural vectors (in situ) and parasite transmission is limited. In the current study we elucidate the life history of Neofoleyellides boerewors n. gen. n. sp. parasitising the guttural toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis and the mosquito vec...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Netherlands EC, Svitin R, Cook CA, Smit NJ, Brendonck L, Vanhove MPM, Du Preez LH Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Effect of cleaner fish on sea lice in Norwegian salmon aquaculture: a national scale data analysis.
Abstract The salmon aquaculture industry has adopted the use of invertivorous 'cleaner fishes' (CF) for biological control of sea louse infestations on farmed salmon. At present, ∼50 million CF are used annually in Norway alone, with variable success in experimental and industrial contexts. We used a national scale database of louse counts, delousing treatments and CF stocking events on Norwegian salmon farms to test for evidence of CF efficacy at 488 sites that completed a grow-out cycle within 2016-2018. Our analysis revealed that sites using more CF over the duration of a grow-out cycle did not have fewer l...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Barrett LT, Overton K, Stien LH, Oppedal F, Dempster T Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Theileria parva: a parasite of African buffalo, which has adapted to infect and undergo transmission in cattle.
Abstract The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes an acute, often fatal disease in cattle throughout a large part of eastern and southern Africa. Infection of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also widespread in this region but does not cause clinical disease in this species. This difference most likely reflects the evolutionary history of the parasites in these species, in that cattle were only introduced into Africa within the last 8,000 years. In both hosts, T. parva establishes a carrier state, involving persistence of small numbers of parasites for many months following the acute phase of i...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 4, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ivan Morrison W, Hemmink JD, Toye PG Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Which species is in the faeces at a time of global livestock movements: single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays for the differentiation of Fasciola spp.
eta J Abstract Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a globally distributed zoonotic disease of livestock. While F. hepatica and F. gigantica have temperate and tropical distributions, respectively, parasite sympatry occurs in parts of Asia and Africa. A growing protein demand has the potential to facilitate the translocation of parasites from endemic to non-endemic areas, via associated international livestock movements. Such is the case in Southeast Asia, where livestock trade from F. hepatica-endemic countries into China and Vietnam may account for detection of F. hepatica hybrid/i...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Eliza Davies Calvani N, Ichikawa-Seki M, David Bush R, Khounsy S, Šlapeta J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Enhanced neutrophil functions during Opisthorchis viverrini infections and correlation with advanced periductal fibrosis.
Abstract Millions of people are infected with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (OV), but only ∼25% of those infected develop liver disease and even fewer develop cholangiocarcinoma. The reasons for these differential outcomes following infection are unknown but it has been proposed that differential immune responses to the parasite may play a role. We therefore measured granulocyte (neutrophil) function in OV-infected individuals, with and without advanced periductal fibrosis (APF), to determine if these cells have a "pro-inflammatory" phenotype that may contribute to liver disease post-infect...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Salao K, Spofford EM, Price C, Mairiang E, Suttiprapa S, Wright HL, Sripa B, Edwards SW Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Long-term follow-up of owned, free-roaming dogs in South Africa naturally exposed to Babesia rossi.
Abstract Babesia rossi is an important, tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite; however, its natural history and epidemiology is poorly understood. Babesia rossi is the most virulent Babesia sp. in domestic dogs and is generally considered to cause severe babesiosis, which is fatal if left untreated. However, subclinical infections and mild disease from B. rossi have been reported, although the clinical progression of these cases was not reported. Therefore, to better understand B. rossi under field conditions, we evaluated its clinical progression and seroprevalence in an owned, free-roaming dog populati...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Morters MK, Archer J, Ma D, Matthee O, Goddard A, Leisewitz AL, Matjila PT, Wood JLN, Schoeman JP Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in freeze tolerance and its implications for parasite dynamics in a changing world: the case of Marshallagia marshalli.
Abstract Marshallagia marshalli is a multi-host gastrointestinal nematode that infects a variety of artiodactyl species from temperate to Arctic latitudes. Eggs of Marshallagia are passed in host feces and develop through three larval stages (L1, L2, and L3) in the environment. Although eggs normally hatch as L1s, they can also hatch as L3s. We hypothesized that this phenotypic plasticity in hatching behaviour may improve fitness in subzero and highly variable environments, and this may constitute an evolutionary advantage under current climate change scenarios. To test this, we first determined if the freeze tole...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 28, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Alejandro Aleuy O, Peacock S, Hoberg EP, Ruckstuhl KE, Brooks T, Aranas M, Kutz S Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Effects of temperature and viscosity on miracidial and cercarial movement of Schistosoma mansoni: ramifications for disease transmission.
Abstract Parasites with complex life cycles can be susceptible to temperature shifts associated with seasonal changes, especially as free-living larvae that depend on a fixed energy reserve to survive outside the host. The life cycle of Schistosoma, a trematode genus containing some species that cause human schistosomiasis, has free-living, aquatic miracidial and cercarial larval stages that swim using cilia or a forked tail, respectively. The small size of these swimmers (150-350 µm) dictates that their propulsion is dominated by viscous forces. Given that viscosity inhibits the swimming ability of small or...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nguyen KH, Gemmell BJ, Rohr JR Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

GLOWORM-PARA: a flexible framework to simulate the population dynamics of the parasitic phase of gastrointestinal nematodes infecting grazing livestock.
Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are a significant threat to the economic and environmental sustainability of keeping livestock, as adequate control becomes increasingly difficult due to the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in some systems and climate-driven changes to infection dynamics. To mitigate any negative impacts of climate on GI nematode epidemiology and slow AR development, there is a need to develop effective, targeted control strategies that minimise the unnecessary use of anthelmintic drugs and incorporate alternative strategies such as vaccination and evasive grazing. However, the ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 22, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rose Vineer H, Verschave SH, Claerebout E, Vercruysse J, Shaw DJ, Charlier J, Morgan ER Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The hidden faces of a biological invasion: parasite dynamics of invaders and natives.
This study used the Irish M. glareolus model to conduct a spatiotemporal study analysing the parasite dynamics of native and invasive species throughout their range. Myodes glareolus and native Apodemus sylvaticus were trapped in woodlands across Ireland and surveyed for their helminth parasites. Myodes glareolus in Ireland were found to have lower parasite diversity in comparison to records of M. glareolus from across Europe and A. sylvaticus in Ireland. Increased density of M. glareolus resulted in a dilution effect, with significantly lower levels of parasitism overall in native hosts, where M. glareolus has been establ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 22, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Stuart P, Paredis L, Henttonen H, Lawton C, Ochoa Torres CA, Holland CV Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Compilation of 29 years of postmortem examinations identifies major shifts in equine parasite prevalence from 2000 onwards.
ier C Abstract Horses are infected by a wide range of parasite species that form complex communities. Parasite control imposes significant constraints on parasite communities whose monitoring remains, however, difficult to track through time. Postmortem examination is a reliable method to quantify parasite communities. Here, we compiled 1,673 necropsy reports accumulated over 29 years, in the reference necropsy centre from Normandy (France). The burden of non-strongylid species was quantified and the presence of strongylid species was noted. Details of horse deworming history and the cause of death were registered...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 22, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sallé G, Guillot J, Tapprest J, Foucher N, Sevin C, Laugier C Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Effect of land use change on mosquito abundance and prevalence of avian haemosporidian parasites in a tropical rainforest of cameroon.
This study highlights the importance of host and mosquito determinants in the transmission dynamics of avian Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infections following habitat changes. Selective logging and young palm oil plantation positively affected the prevalence of Plasmodium. On the other hand, selective logging positively affected the prevalence of Haemoproteus and negatively affected the abundance of mosquitoes, while young palm oil plantation negatively affected this prevalence. Species feeding behavior is also an important determinant to consider for a better understanding of patterns of parasite infections in a changing e...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - December 19, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tchoumbou MA, Mayi MPA, Malange ENF, Foncha FD, Kowo C, Fru-Cho J, Tchuinkam T, Awah-Ndukum J, Dorazio R, Anong D, Cornel AJ, Sehgal RNM Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in oral fluid from pigs.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii-infected pigs play a major role as a source of infection for humans and detection of high-risk herds is essential to implement control measures at the farm level. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral fluid (OF) could be used as a matrix to detect antibodies against T. gondii in infected pigs by immunoblot (IB). For this, OF from experimentally inoculated sows (n=8) (serial samples) and naturally exposed group-housed fatteners (n=42 groups, one sample/group) were analysed for IgG and IgA against T. gondii-SAG1 antigen by IB. Simultaneously, each animal was serologically tes...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - December 19, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Campero LM, Schott F, Gottstein B, Deplazes P, Sidler X, Basso W Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Stray dogs in the tropical state of Chiapas, Mexico, harbour atypical and novel genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii.
ma Jesus Pena H, Caballero-Ortega H Abstract Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii remains a relevant topic of study, since genotypes can be related to the presentation and severity of toxoplasmosis. To date, 292 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotypes have been described around the world. Serosurveys in southeastern Mexico have documented exposure in over 70% of people and certain animals. Recently, we have described new genotypes and mixed infections in feral cats from Quintana Roo. Thus, the aim of this study was to genotype T. gondii and to describe its genetic variability, from naturally infected ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - December 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno L, Patricia Rico-Torres C, Cedillo-Peláez C, Luna-Pastén H, Teresa Méndez-Cruz S, Eréndira Reyes-García M, Correa D, Farias Alves B, Fátima Jesus Pena H, Caballero-Ortega H Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Genetic structure and geographical variation of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos sensu lato (Gastropoda: Bithyniidae), the snail intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (Digenea: Opisthorchiidae) in the Lower Mekong Basin revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences.
This study explores the genetic structure and geographical variation of B. s. goniomphalos from eight previously studied catchments and eight new catchments. These catchments belong to five previously studied catchment systems and one new catchment system (Tonlesap) in the Lower Mekong Basin. Two new catchment systems, Prachin Buri and Bang Pakong from eastern and central Thailand, respectively, were also examined. We collected 289 specimens of B. s. goniomphalos from 15 previously studied localities and 18 new localities in Thailand, Lao PDR (People's Democratic Republic), and Cambodia. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxid...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - December 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tantrawatpan C, Saijuntha W, Bunchom N, Suksavate W, Pilap W, Walalite T, Agatsuma T, Tawong W, Sithithaworn P, Andrews RH, Petney TN Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Detecting sequence variants in clinically important protozoan parasites.
Abstract Second and third generation sequencing methods are crucial for population genetic studies, and variant detection is a popular approach for exploiting this sequence data. While mini- and microsatellites are historically useful markers for studying important protozoa such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium spp., detecting non-repetitive variants such as those found in genes can be fundamental to investigating a pathogen's biology. These variants, namely single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (indels), can help elucidate the genetic basis of an organism's pathogenicity, identify select...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - December 16, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Calarco L, Barratt J, Ellis J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Comparison of viability and phagocytic responses of hemocytes withdrawn from the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dreissena polymorpha, and exposed to human parasitic protozoa.
We report, for the first known time, the interactions between protozoa and hemocytes of mussels from different aquatic environments. Zebra mussel hemocytes showed a decrease in phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads after exposure to both protozoa, while blue mussel hemocytes reacted only to T. gondii oocysts. These decreases in the ingestion of microbeads can be caused by competition between beads and oocysts and can be influenced by the size of the oocysts. New characterisations of their immune capacities, including aggregation, remain to be developed to understand the specificities of both mussels. PMID: 31857073 [...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - December 16, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Le Guernic A, Geffard A, Le Foll F, Palos Ladeiro M Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Characterizing interactions between co-infecting parasites using age-intensity profiles.
Abstract Interactions between co-infecting parasite species can impact transmission. Whether co-infection is beneficial or detrimental to a target parasite, and whether the mechanism involves changes in host susceptibility or parasite clearance, can be difficult to assess. We demonstrate the potential for host age-parasite intensity curves to allow assessment of these factors. A model is developed to generate predictions and test these predictions using helminth parasites of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We identify three beneficial interactions involving five helminth species, including susceptibili...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - December 14, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Park AW, Ezenwa VO Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The changing profile of schistosomiasis in a changing urban landscape.
Blanton RE Abstract Since 2007, most of humanity resides in urban areas, a trend which continues worldwide. Diseases usually associated with rural contexts are now emerging or newly recognized in cities. In the neighborhood of São Bartolomeu in Salvador, Brazil, the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in 2011 was>20%. Following enrollment and treatment of a portion of the community, ∼25% of the area underwent urban renewal. In 2015, we returned to enroll individuals who had previously participated and a cohort that had not taken part in 2011. Thus, infected individuals in one group experience...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - November 26, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Silva LK, Barbosa LM, Kovach JD, Dos Santos Teixeira R, Soares ÊS, Cardoso CW, Marques RVM, Dos Santos TP, Galvão Reis M, Blanton RE Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research