Assessment of a 10-year dog deworming programme on the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan communities in Sichuan Province, China.
Abstract Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is considered a neglected zoonotic disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). The causative pathogen, Echinococcus multilocularis, lives as an adult tapeworm in the intestinal tract of canines. AE was identified as an emerging public health issue in Tibetan communities of Shiqu County 20 years ago. On St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (USA), in the 1980s peri-domestic transmission of E. multilocularis was controlled by regular deworming of owned dogs over a 10-year period. In Tibetan communities, on the Tibetan Plateau, control of E. multilocularis transmission is challen...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - November 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Qian W, Bo Z, Wenjie Y, Guangjia Z, Budke CM, Sha L, Wei H, Fan C, Kejun X, Fei X, Zeli D, Qi W, Liu Y, Yan H, Ruirui L, Renxing Y, Giraudoux P, Craig PS Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Genetic epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis in American Samoa after mass drug administration.
This study is the first step towards investigating how parasite population structure might inform strategies to manage resurgence and elimination of LF. PMID: 33166540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - November 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hedtke SM, Zendejas-Heredia PA, Graves PM, Sheridan S, Sheel M, Fuimaono S, Lau CL, Grant WN Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Microhabitat distributions and species interactions of ectoparasites on the gills of cichlid fish in lake victoria, tanzania.
Abstract Heterogeneous exposure to parasites may contribute to host species differentiation. Hosts often harbour multiple parasite species which may interact and thus modify each other's effects on host fitness. Antagonistic or synergistic interactions between parasites may be detectable as niche segregation within hosts. Consequently, the within-host distribution of different parasite taxa may constitute an important axis of infection variation among host populations and species. We investigated the microhabitat distributions and species interactions of gill parasites (four genera) infecting 14 sympatric cichlid ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - November 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gobbin TP, Vanhove MPM, Seehausen O, Maan ME Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Association of the invasive Haemaphysalis longicornis tick with vertebrate hosts, other native tick vectors, and tick-borne pathogens in New York City, USA.
Abstract Haemaphysalis longicornis, the Asian longhorned tick, is an invasive ixodid tick that has rapidly spread across the northeastern and southeastern regions of the United States since first reported in 2017. The emergence of H. longicornis presents a potential threat for livestock, wildlife, and human health as the host associations and vector potential of this invasive pest in the United States are poorly understood. Previous field data from the United States has shown that H. longicornis was not associated with natural populations of small mammals or birds, but they show a preference for medium sized mamma...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - October 29, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tufts DM, Goodman LB, Benedict MC, Davis AD, VanAcker MC, Diuk-Wasser M Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Update on the treatment and prevention of ocular thelaziosis (Thelazia callipaeda) in naturally infected dogs from Spain.
In conclusion, products containing moxidectin were highly efficacious both in treating and preventing canine thelaziosis. Milbemycin also emerged as a good option. However, the off-label use of topical or subcutaneous ivermectin should be avoided due to possible adverse reactions such as pruritus, irritation or redness. In endemic areas, monthly prophylaxis to limit the spread of T. callipaeda to new areas across Europe and reduce zoonotic risks is essential. PMID: 33091413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - October 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Marino V, Gálvez R, Mascuñán C, Domínguez I, Sarquis J, Montoya A, Pedro Barrera J, Zenker C, Checa R, Hernández M, Miró G Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of gene expression between Babesia bovis blood stages and kinetes allowed by improved genome annotation.
Abstract Throughout their life cycle, Babesia parasites alternate between a mammalian host, where they cause babesiosis, and the tick vector. Transition between hosts results in distinct environmental signals that influence patterns of gene expression, consistent with the morphological and functional changes operating in the parasites during their life stages. In addition,comparing differential patterns of gene expression among mammalian and tick parasite stages can provide clues for developing improved methods of control. Hereby, we upgraded the genome assembly of Babesia bovis, a bovine hemoparasite, closing a 1...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - October 15, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ueti MW, Johnson WC, Kappmeyer LS, Herndon DR, Mousel MR, Reif KE, Taus NS, Ifeonu OO, Silva JC, Suarez CE, Brayton KA Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Influence of land use and host species on parasite richness, prevalence and co-infection patterns.
Abstract Tropical forests are experiencing increasing impacts from a multitude of anthropogenic activities such as logging and conversion to agricultural use. These perturbations are expected to have strong impacts on ecological interactions and on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. To date, no clear picture of the effects of deforestation on vector-borne disease transmission has emerged. This is associated with the challenge of studying complex systems where many vertebrate hosts and vectors co-exist. To overcome this problem, we focused on an innately simplified system - a small oceanic island (S&...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - October 9, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Reis S, Melo M, Covas R, Doutrelant C, Pereira H, Lima R, Loiseau C Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Global profiling of lncRNAs-miRNAs-mRNAs reveals differential expression of coding genes and non-coding RNAs in the lung of beagle dogs at different stages of Toxocara canis infection.
In this study, we profiled the expression patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs in the lungs of Beagle dogs infected by T. canis, using high throughput RNA sequencing. At 24 h p.i., 1,012 lncRNAs, 393 mRNAs and 10 miRNAs were differentially expressed (DE). We also identified 883 DElncRNAs, 264 DEmRNAs and 20 DEmiRNAs at 96 h p.i., and 996 DElncRNAs, 342 DEmRNAs and eight DEmiRNAs at 36 days p.i., between infected and control dogs. Significant changes in the levels of expression of transcripts related to immune response and inflammation were associated with the antiparasitic response of t...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zheng WB, Zou Y, He JJ, Elsheikha HM, Liu GH, Hu MH, Wang SL, Zhu XQ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Modelling the potential spread of Hyalomma marginatum ticks in Europe by migratory birds.
This study modelled the probability of introduction of Hyalomma marginatum into Europe by predicting the potential migratory routes of 28 bird species and the probability to carry immatures of the tick. Flyways were modelled as a spatio-temporal feature, at weekly intervals, using satellite-derived data of temperature and vegetal phenology, together with cost surfaces derived from speed and direction of the wind (years 2002-2018). The expected period of activity of tick immatures defined the probability of ticks being carried by birds along the modelled flyways. The probability of moulting of the engorged nymphs was modell...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 25, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Estrada-Peña A, D Amico G, Fernández-Ruiz N Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Potential functions of atypical memory B cells in plasmodium-exposed individuals.
Abstract Protective immunity against clinical malaria is slow to develop, taking years of repeated exposure to parasites to acquire sufficiently broad and potent antibody responses. Increasing evidence suggests that Plasmodium infection and the resulting immune stimulation contribute to changes in the B cell compartment. In particular, accumulation of atypical memory B cells (atMBCs) is common in Plasmodium-exposed individuals. Similarities to cell subsets present in other acute and chronic disease settings have provided insight into the development and potential function of these cells; however, their contributio...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 24, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Braddom AE, Batugedara G, Bol S, Bunnik EM Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Intrigue surrounding the life-cycles of species of Clistobothrium (Cestoda: Phyllobothriidea) parasitising large pelagic sharks.
This study aimed to locate the adults, and thus also the definitive hosts, of three species of marine mammal-parasitising larval cestodes that have molecular affinities with Clistobothrium. New collections led to the discovery of adults of two new species of Clistobothrium, one from the longfin mako shark and one from the salmon shark. New material of Clistobothrium tumidum was collected from the great white shark and new material of a previously reported undescribed species of Clistobothrium was collected from the porbeagle shark. Larvae of Clistobothrium were opportunistically collected from sockeye salmon and four speci...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 22, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Caira JN, Jensen K, Pickering M, Ruhnke TR, Gallagher KA Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Trichinella spiralis infection ameliorated diet-induced obesity model in mice.
Abstract Obesity is an increasingly prevalent disease worldwide, and genetic and environmental factors are known to regulate the development of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Emerging studies indicate that innate and adaptive immune cell responses in adipose tissue play critical roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. Parasitic helminths are the strongest natural inducers of type 2 inflammatory responses, and several studies have revealed that helminth infections inversely correlate with metabolic syndrome. Hence, this study investigated whether helminth infections could have preventative eff...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ae Kang S, Ho Choi J, Baek KW, In Lee D, Jeong MJ, Sun Yu H Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

MicroRNA miR-155-5p knockdown attenuates Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningitis by downregulating MMP9 and TSLP proteins.
Abstract Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis (EM). Severe cases or cases that involve infants and children present poor prognoses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are important regulators of gene expression in many biological processes, were recently found to be regulators of the host response to infection by parasites; however, their roles in brain inflammation caused by A. cantonensis are still unclear. The current study confirmed that miR-155-5p peaked at 21 days after A. cantonensis infection, and its expression was positively correlated with the concentration of excreto...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 19, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zhou X, Zhang J, Liu J, Guo J, Wei Y, Li J, He P, Lan T, Peng L, Li H Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Characterisation of the secreted apyrase family of Heligmosomoides polygyrus.
Abstract Apyrases are a recurrent feature of secretomes from numerous species of parasitic nematodes. Here we characterise the five apyrases secreted by Heligmosomoides polygyrus, a natural parasite of mice and a widely used laboratory model for intestinal nematode infection. All five enzymes are closely related to soluble calcium-activated nucleotidases described in a variety of organisms, and distinct from the CD39 family of ecto-nucleotidases. Expression is maximal in adult worms and restricted to adults and L4s. Recombinant apyrases were produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. The five enzymes showed very ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Berkachy R, Smyth DJ, Schnoeller C, Harcus Y, Maizels RM, Selkirk ME, Gounaris K Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Assessment of the exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis associated with carnivore faeces using real-time quantitative PCR and flotation technique assays.
Abstract The eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis, the infectious stage, are spread into the environment through wild and domestic carnivore faeces. The spatial location of the faeces containing infective E. multilocularis eggs is a key parameter for studying areas of exposure and understanding the transmission processes to the intermediate hosts and humans. Echinococcus multilocularis faecal prevalence is often assessed by detecting E. multilocularis DNA, not necessarily eggs. This work aimed to determine the percentage of faeces containing E. multilocularis eggs in a rural town and its surroundings and whether th...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 3, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Da Silva AM, Courquet S, Raoul F, Rieffel D, Giraudoux P, Millon L, Knapp J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Species-specific patterns in cercarial emergence of Diplostomum spp. from snails Radix lagotis.
ldánová M Abstract The cercarial emergence patterns of three species of Diplostomum (Diplostomum 'mergi', Diplostomum spathaceum and Diplostomum pariventosum) parasitizing freshwater first intermediate host Radix lagotis sampled in Most Lake, Czech Republic, were studied under various experimental conditions, i.e. field, laboratory and incubator, and seasons, i.e. spring, summer and autumn. We discovered unexpected daily periodicity-dependent species-specific emergence patterns among the three Diplostomum spp. depending on experimental conditions. At the same time, the intraspecific variation of D. s...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 3, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Vyhlídalová T, Soldánová M Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

PfKsgA1 functions as a transcription initiation factor and interacts with the N-terminal region of the mitochondrial RNA polymerase of Plasmodium falciparum.
Abstract The small mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of the malaria parasite is known to transcribe its genes polycistonically, although promoter element(s) have not yet been identified. An unusually large Plasmodium falciparum candidate mitochondrial phage-like RNA polymerase (PfmtRNAP) with an extended N-terminal region is encoded by the parasite nuclear genome. Using specific antibodies against the enzyme, we established that PfmtRNAP was targeted exclusively to the mitochondrion and interacted with mtDNA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it is part of a separate apicomplexan clade. A search for PfmtRNAP-associated...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 3, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gupta A, Shrivastava D, Kumar Shakya A, Gupta K, Pratap JV, Habib S Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Editorial.
Authors: PMID: 32900452 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 31, 2020 Category: Parasitology Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The Leishmania donovani species complex: a new insight into taxonomy.
llego M, Muñoz C Abstract Among the 20 or so Leishmania spp. described as pathogenic for humans, those of the Leishmania donovani complex are the exclusive causative agents of systemic and fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Although well studied, the complex is taxonomically controversial, which hampers clinical and epidemiological research. In this work, we analysed 56 Leishmania strains previously identified as L. donovani, Leishmania archibaldi or Leishmania infantum, isolated from humans, dogs and sandfly vectors throughout their distribution area. The strains were submitted to biochemical and genetic analys...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 31, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fernández-Arévalo A, El Baidouri F, Ravel C, Ballart C, Abras A, Lachaud L, Tebar S, Lami P, Pratlong F, Gállego M, Muñoz C Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: another site disrupted during experimental cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA.
Abstract Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe pathologies of malaria; it induces neuro-cognitive sequelae and has a high mortality rate. Although many factors involved in the development of CM have been discovered, its pathogenic mechanisms are still not completely understood. Most studies on CM have focused on the blood-brain barrier (BBB), despite the importance of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which protects the brain from peripheral inflammation. Consequently, the pathological role of the BCSFB in CM is currently unknown. To examine the status of the BCSFB in CM and malaria without ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ngo-Thanh H, Sasaki T, Suzue K, Yokoo H, Isoda K, Kamitani W, Shimokawa C, Hisaeda H, Imai T Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

During host cell traversal and cell-to-cell passage, toxoplasma gondii sporozoites inhabit the parasitophorous vacuole and posteriorly release dense granule protein-associated membranous trails.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution and infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Ingestion of the environmentally resistant oocyst stage, excreted only in the feces of cats, is central to transmission of this apicomplexan parasite. There is vast literature on the host and T. gondii tachyzoite (proliferative stage of the parasite) but little is known of the host-parasite interaction and conversion of the free-living stage (sporozoite inside the oocyst) to the parasitic stage. Here, we present events that follow invasion of host cells with T. gondii sporozoites by using immun...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tartarelli I, Tinari A, Possenti A, Cherchi S, Falchi M, Dubey JP, Spano F Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Dynamics of blood stage and sporozoite-induced malarial infections in experimentally infected passerines.
Abstract Complex experimental studies of vertebrate host, vector, and parasite interactions are essential in understanding virulence, but are difficult or impossible to conduct if vector species are unknown. Subinoculation of erythrocytic meronts of avian malarial parasites into susceptible hosts can avoid this problem, but this approach omits early exoerythrocytic stages, e.g. cryptozoites and metacryptozoites, that normally develop from sporozoites. A fundamental question that has remained unanswered is whether blood stage and sporozoite-induced malarial infections lead to differences in the dynamics of parasite...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Palinauskas V, Platonova E, Žiegytė R, Mukhin A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Temperature-parasite interaction: do trematode infections protect against heat stress?
en KN Abstract Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are important ecosystem engineers along Atlantic coastlines, where they are regularly subjected to rapid changes in temperature during the transition between tides. Global climate change and more frequent extreme weather events are expected to intensify this thermal stress even further. These increases in temperatures will not only affect intertidal mussels directly but also increase transmission dynamics of their parasites. Together, the effects of rises in temperature and parasitism will likely result in higher pressure on M. edulis and their ability to perform vital ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 27, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Selbach C, Barsøe M, Vogensen TK, Samsing AB, Mouritsen KN Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Characterization of a phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator homologue of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus and its immunomodulatory effect on goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.
Abstract Suppression and modulation of the host immune response to parasitic nematodes have been extensively studied. In the present study, we cloned and produced recombinant phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator (PTPA) protein from Haemonchus contortus (rHCPTPA), a parasitic nematode of small ruminants, and studied the effect of this protein on modulating the immune response of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Enzymatic assays revealed that rHCPTPA enhanced the p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) phosphatase activity of bovine PP2A1. Immunohistochemical tests verified that the HCPTPA protein was localize...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 27, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wang Y, Wang W, Ehsan M, Zhang Y, Yan R, Song X, Xu L, Zhang X, Li X Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Impact of geography and time on genetic clusters of Opisthorchis viverrini identified by microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analysis.
In this study, we re-examined population genetic structure and genetic diversity of O. viverrini using extensive samples of the parasite collected over 15 years from 12 geographical localities in Thailand and eight localities in Lao PDR. Parasite life-cycle stages of 721 individuals of O. viverrini (91 cercariae, 230 metacercariae and 400 adult worms) were genotyped using 12 microsatellite loci. Metacercariae exhibited genetic diversity comparable with that of experimentally raised adults: metacercariae can therefore be used to represent O. viverrini populations without the need for laboratory definitive hosts. Data obtain...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 27, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Namsanor J, Pitaksakulrat O, Kopolrat K, Kiatsopit N, Webster BL, Gower CM, Webster JP, Laha T, Saijuntha W, Laoprom N, Andrews RH, Petney TN, Blair D, Sithithaworn P Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Population- and age-specific patterns of haemosporidian assemblages and infection levels in European Bee-eaters (Merops apiaster).
We describe and compare the composition of their parasite fauna as well as host population-, age- and sex-specific patterns in the frequency and intensity of infections. We found haemosporidian prevalence to be higher in Portugal compared with Germany and the prevalence generally increased with host age in both populations. Bee-eaters breeding in Portugal and wintering in western Africa mostly hosted parasites of the genus Haemoproteus, while Plasmodium lineages prevailed in birds breeding in Germany and wintering in central Africa. We found 18 genetic lineages, of which nine uniquely occurred in Germany, three uniquely in...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 27, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Emmenegger T, Alves JA, Rocha AD, Santos Costa J, Schmid R, Schulze M, Hahn S Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Functional characterization of a novel gene, Hc-dhs-28 and its role in protecting the host after Haemonchus contortus infection through regulation of diapause formation.
In conclusion, Hc-DHS-28 is most likely involved in the peroxisome fatty acid β-oxidation as the third 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase to regulate the production of diapause-related pheromones, and then influence the formation of diapause in H. contortus. PMID: 32858035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 24, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Yang Y, Guo X, Chen X, Zhou J, Wu F, Huang Y, Shi H, Du A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

CREditing: a tool for gene tuning in Trypanosoma cruzi.
ant R, DaRocha WD Abstract The genetic manipulation of Trypanosoma cruzi continues to be a challenge, mainly due to the lack of available and efficient molecular tools. The CRE-lox recombination system is a site-specific recombinase technology, widely used method of achieving conditional targeted deletions, inversions, insertions, gene activation, translocation, and other modifications in chromosomal or episomal DNA. In the present study, the CRE-lox system was adapted to expand the current genetic toolbox for this hard-to-manipulate parasite. For this, evaluations of whether direct protein delivery of CRE recombi...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 24, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pacheco-Lugo LA, Sáenz-García JL, Díaz-Olmos Y, Netto-Costa R, S C Brant R, DaRocha WD Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

A class I histone deacetylase is implicated in the encystation of Entamoeba invadens.
In this study, we found that E. invadens histone H4 is acetylated in both stages of the parasite and is more highly acetylated during the trophozoite stage than in the cyst. Histone hyperacetylation induced by Trichostatin A negatively affects the encystation of E. invadens, and this inhibition is associated with the downregulation of the expression of genes implicated in the synthesis of chitin, polyamines, gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways and cyst wall proteins, all of which are important in the formation of cysts. Finally, in silico analysis and activity assays suggest that a class I histone deacetylase (EiHDAC3) could ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lozano-Amado D, Antonio Ávila-López P, Hernández-Montes G, Briseño-Díaz P, Vargas M, Lopez-Rubio JJ, César Carrero J, Hernández-Rivas R Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Endocytosis, signal transduction and proteolytic cleaving of human holotransferrin in Entamoeba histolytica.
In this study, it was found that EhTfR phosphorylation is required for human holoTf endocytosis by E. histolytica. Once this complex is endocytosed, human holoTf could be degraded with a nutritional purpose by cysteine proteases. HoloTf endocytosis initiates the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and focal adhesion kinase(FAK) pathways, which induce cell proliferation with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) and Ca2+ involvement. In the first minutes after holoTf is endocytosed, several proteins are phosphorylated including transketolase, enolase, L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase and phosphoglucom...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Reyes-López M, Piña-Vázquez C, Pérez-Salazar E, de la Garza M Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Experimental evidence of harmful effects of Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim on honey bees.
acute;a Alunda J, Martín-Hernández R, Higes M Abstract The trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim are very prevalent in honey bee colonies and potentially contribute to colony losses that currently represent a serious threat to honey bees. However, potential pathogenicity of these trypanosomatids remains unclear and since studies of infection are scarce, there is little information about the virulence of their different morphotypes. Hence, we first cultured C. mellificae and L. passim (ATCC reference strains) in six different culture media to analyse their growth rates and to obtain...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gómez-Moracho T, Buendía-Abad M, Benito M, García-Palencia P, Barrios L, Bartolomé C, Maside X, Meana A, Dolores Jiménez-Antón M, Isabel Olías-Molero A, María Alunda J, Martín-Hernández R, Higes M Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles produced by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis contain a preferential cargo of tRNA-derived small RNAs.
Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonas vaginalis releases extracellular vesicles (EVs) that play a role in parasite:parasite and parasite:host interactions. The aim of this study was to characterize the RNA cargo of these vesicles. Trichomonas vaginalis EVs were found to encapsulate a cargo of RNAs of small size. RNA-seq analysis showed that tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs), mostly 5' tRNA halves, are the main type of small RNA in these vesicles. The tsRNAs in T. vaginalis EVs were shown t...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 17, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Artuyants A, Campos TL, Kumar Rai A, Johnson PJ, Dauros-Singorenko P, Phillips A, Simoes-Barbosa A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Patterns of monogenean abundance in native and invasive populations of Planiliza haematocheila (Teleostei: Mugilidae): interactions between climate and host defence mechanisms explain parasite release.
Sarabeev V Abstract One of the most intriguing questions in invasive biology is how an introduced species changes its population parameters in a new environment. Translocation of free-living species commonly results in co-introduction of their parasites. The current study focuses on the abundance pattern of the monogenean parasite Ligophorus llewellyni of the pacific so-iuy mullet, Planiliza haematocheila, across the native and introduced distribution ranges. We evaluated parasite release by the so-iuy mullet by comparing abundance patterns of L. llewellyni under effects of the host length, water temperature and ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 12, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shvydka S, Cadarso-Suárez C, Ballová D, Sarabeev V Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Assembly rules of helminth parasite communities in grey mullets: combining components of diversity.
Abstract Organisms aggregate in ecological communities. It has been widely debated whether these associations are explained by deterministic or, in contrast, random processes. The answer may vary, depending on the level of an organisational scale (α, β and γ) and the facet of diversity considered: taxonomic (TD), functional (FD) and phylogenetic (PD). Diversity at the level of a sampling unit (i.e. host individual) is the α diversity; β diversity represents the extent of dissimilarity in diversity among sampling units (within a level of an organisational scale, β1; between levels o...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 31, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Llopis-Belenguer C, Pavoine S, Blasco-Costa I, Antonio Balbuena J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Review of the global distribution and hosts of the economically important fish parasitic isopod genus ceratothoa (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), including the description of ceratothoa springbok n. sp. from south africa.
Abstract Fish parasites from the isopod family Cymothoidae have, in recent years, received increased global attention due to both their ecological and economic importance. This is particularly true for the buccal inhabiting genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852, whose members have been implicated in negatively impacting the health of both farmed and wild-caught fishes. As research on this group increases, so does our understanding of their host specificity and distribution. The aims of this paper were thus to review the current distribution and host records of Ceratothoa and describe a new species, Ceratothoa springbok n. s...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 31, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hadfield KA, Smit NJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Helminth extracellular vesicles: great balls of wonder.
PMID: 32771117 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 31, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hoffmann KF, Hokke CH, Loukas A, Buck AH Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Identification of critical enzymes in the salmon louse chitin synthesis pathway as revealed by RNA interference-mediated abrogation of infectivity.
Abstract Treatment of infestation by the ectoparasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis relies on a small number of chemotherapeutant treatments that currently meet with limited success. Drugs targeting chitin synthesis have been largely successful against terrestrial parasites where the pathway is well characterized. However, a comparable approach against salmon lice has been, until recently, less successful, likely due to a poor understanding of the chitin synthesis pathway. Post-transcriptional silencing of genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful method for evaluation of protein function in non-model organisms and...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 30, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Braden L, Michaud D, Igboeli OO, Dondrup M, Hamre L, Dalvin S, Purcell SL, Kongshaug H, Eichner C, Nilsen F, Fast MD Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

A comparison of the structure and function of nematocysts in free-living and parasitic cnidarians (Myxozoa).
Abstract Myxozoans are obligate parasites that have complex life cycles requiring alternate vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, with transmission via microscopic waterborne spores. Unusually for parasites, they belong to the phylum Cnidaria, alongside thousands of free-living corals, sea anemones, jellyfish and hydrozoans. Their cnidarian affinity is affirmed by genetic relatedness and the presence of nematocysts, historically called "polar capsules" in myxozoan research. Free-living cnidarians utilize this cellular weaponry for defense, predation and adhesion, whereas myxozoans use it to anchor to their ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Americus B, Lotan T, Bartholomew JL, Atkinson SD Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Diversity of monogeneans and tapeworms in cypriniform fishes across two continents.
Šimková A Abstract Cypriniformes, which exhibit a wide geographical distribution, are the most species-rich group of freshwater fishes. Despite considerable research on their parasites, no reliable estimates of their parasite diversity on a large geographical scale are available. In the present review, we analyse species richness of two parasitic flatworm groups (monogeneans and tapeworms) reported from cypriniform fishes in the two most intensively studied parts of the Holarctic region, Europe and North America. We also review knowledge on parasite speciation and host-parasite coevolution, and empha...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kuchta R, Řehulková E, Francová K, Scholz T, Morand S, Šimková A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Morphological and molecular characterization of an African freshwater fish trypanosome, including its development in a leech vector.
Abstract Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of fishes and at least 16 species were originally described infecting African freshwater fishes. This number was later reduced to six and in the late 1990s it was proposed that most records of freshwater fish trypanosomes across Africa are Trypanosoma mukasai Hoare, 1932. Recently, results from a molecular analysis of fish trypanosomes from the Okavango Delta, Botswana, reported the presence of at least two genotypic groups and concluded that the identification of T. mukasai remains problematic. The aims of the present study were thus to elucidate the life cycle...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Smit NJ, Joubert A, Lawton SP, Hayes PM, Cook CA Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Contracaecum osculatum (sensu lato) infection of Gadus morhua in the Baltic Sea: inter- and intraspecific interactions.
We present an overall frequency distribution analysis of worms in 166 cod (body length 30-49 cm) collected in the spawning area over the last 5 years. It shows a fit to the negative binomial distribution, a prevalence of infection of 89.8%, a mean intensity of 29.3 parasites per fish (range 1-377) and a variance/mean ratio of 59.2 (>>1), indicating overdispersion. We present measurements of the adult Contracaecum osculatum (s.l.) specimens in the seal stomach and show that the parasites reach a maximum length of 6.6 cm (females) and 5.8 cm (males). L3s in sprat have a total length from 1-11 mm whereas the larvae in c...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 14, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mohamed A, Zuo S, Karami AM, Marnis H, Setyawan A, Mehrdana F, Kirkeby C, Kania P, Buchmann K Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

High Plasmodium infection intensity in naturally infected malaria vectors in Africa.
;vre T, Churcher TS, Cohuet A Abstract The population dynamics of human to mosquito malaria transmission in the field has important implications for the genetics, epidemiology and control of malaria. The number of oocysts in oocyst-positive mosquitoes developing from a single, naturally acquired infectious blood meal (herein referred to as a single-feed infection load) greatly influences the efficacy of transmission blocking interventions but still remains poorly documented. During a year-long analysis of malaria parasite transmission in Burkina Faso we caught and dissected wild malaria vectors to assess Plasmodiu...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 14, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bompard A, Da DF, Yerbanga SR, Morlais I, Awono-Ambéné PH, Dabiré RK, Bosco Ouédraogo J, Lefèvre T, Churcher TS, Cohuet A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Serpins in Fasciola hepatica: insights into host-parasite interactions.
In this study, we characterised four serpins from F. hepatica (FhS-1 - FhS-4). Biochemical characterisation revealed that recombinant FhS-2 (rFhS) inhibits the activity of human neutrophil cathepsin G, while rFhS-4 inhibits the activity of bovine pancreatic chymotrypsin and cathepsin G. Consistent with inhibitor function profiling data, rFhS-4 inhibited cathepsin G-activated platelet aggregation in a dose-responsive manner.Similar to other serpins, rFhS2 and rFhS-4 bind to heparin with high affinity. Tissue localisation demonstrated that these serpins have different spatial distributions. FhS-2 is localised in the ovary, w...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sánchez Di Maggio L, Tirloni L, Uhl M, Carmona C, Logullo C, Mulenga A, da Silva Vaz I, Berasain P Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Temperature alters reproduction and maternal provisioning in a fish ectoparasite.
This study quantified the effects of temperature on reproduction and maternal provisioning of the ectoparasite, Neobenedenia girellae (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea), a species known to cause detrimental impacts to aquaculture fishes in tropical and subtropical environments worldwide. At 20 and 25 °C, parasites exhibited relatively slower production of larger eggs that were energy-dense. In contrast, parasites at 30 °C attained sexual maturity faster, were reproductively active over a shorter period, grew to a smaller size and laid smaller, less energy-rich eggs at a faster rate. As such, parasites exhibited two disti...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 10, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Brazenor AK, Francis DS, Conlan JA, Carton AG, Hutson KS Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

First elucidation of the life cycle in the family Brachycladiidae (Digenea), parasites of marine mammals.
Abstract Digeneans of the family Brachycladiidae are cosmopolitan parasites restricted to marine mammals. Their life cycles are unknown. Phylogenetically, Brachycladiidae are closely related to Acanthocolpidae, parasites of marine teleost fishes. Acanthocolpida typically possess three-host life cycles with gastropods of the superfamily Buccinoidea acting as the first intermediate hosts for most species, and either fishes or bivalves acting as the second intermediate hosts. A few species previously identified as Neophasis differ from other Acanthocolpidae in having naticid gastropods as first intermediate hosts, an...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 10, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kremnev G, Gonchar A, Krapivin V, Knyazeva O, Krupenko D Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles from Heligmosomoides bakeri and Trichuris muris contain distinct microRNA families and small RNAs that could underpin different functions in the host.
Abstract Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a ubiquitous component of helminth excretory-secretory products that can deliver parasite molecules to host cells to elicit immunomodulatory effects. RNAs are one type of cargo molecule that can underpin EV functions, hence there is extensive interest in characterising the RNAs that are present in EVs from different helminth species. Here we outline methods for identifying all of the small RNAs (sRNA) in helminth EVs and address how different methodologies may influence the sRNAs detected. We show that different EV purification methods introduce relatively litt...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 9, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: White R, Kumar S, Chow FW, Robertson E, Hayes KS, Grencis RK, Duque-Correa MA, Buck A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Development of caecaloids to study host-pathogen interactions: new insights into immunoregulatory functions of Trichuris muris extracellular vesicles in the caecum.
Abstract The caecum, an intestinal appendage in the junction of the small and large intestines, displays a unique epithelium that serves as an exclusive niche for a range of pathogens including whipworms (Trichuris spp.). While protocols to grow organoids from small intestine (enteroids) and colon (colonoids) exist, the conditions to culture organoids from the caecum have yet to be described. Here, we report methods to grow, differentiate and characterise mouse adult stem cell-derived caecal organoids, termed caecaloids. We compare the cellular composition of caecaloids with that of enteroids, identifying differen...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 9, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Duque-Correa MA, Schreiber F, Rodgers FH, Goulding D, Forrest S, White R, Buck A, Grencis RK, Berriman M Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles: new targets for vaccines against helminth parasites.
Abstract The hunt for effective vaccines against the major helminth diseases of humans has yet to bear fruit despite much effort over several decades. No individual parasite antigen has proved to elicit full protective immunity, suggesting that combinatorial strategies may be required. Recently it has been discovered that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasitic helminths contain multiple potential immune modulators, which could together be targeted by a future vaccine. Increasing knowledge of helminth EV components, both enclosed by and exposed on the membrane, will open up a new field of targets for an...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 9, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Drurey C, Coakley G, Maizels RM Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The protein and microRNA cargo of extracellular vesicles from parasitic helminths - current status and research priorities.
Abstract Helminth parasites have a remarkable ability to persist within their mammalian hosts, which is largely due to their secretion of molecules with immunomodulatory properties. Although the soluble components of helminth secretions have been extensively studied, the discovery that helminths release extracellular vesicles (EVs) has added further complexity to the host-parasite interaction. Whilst several studies have begun to characterize the molecules carried by helminth EVs, work aimed at investigating their biological functions has been hindered by a lack of helminth-specific EV markers. To begin to address...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 7, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sotillo J, Robinson MW, Kimber MJ, Cucher M, Eugenia Ancarola M, Nejsum P, Marcilla A, Eichenberger RM, Tritten L Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Parasites under pressure: salmon lice have the capacity to adapt to depth-based preventions in aquaculture.
Abstract The evolution of pesticide resistance has driven renewed interest in non-chemical pest controls in agriculture. Spatial manipulations (physical barriers and fallowing, for example) can be an effective method of prevention, but these too might impose selection and cause rapid adaptation in pests. In salmon aquaculture, various non-chemical approaches have emerged to combat parasitic salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) - a major pest with clear signs of evolved chemical resistance. 'Depth-based' preventions, now widely implemented, reduce infestation rates by physically segregating salmon from lice in the...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - July 7, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Andrew Coates A, Phillips BL, Oppedal F, Bui S, Overton K, Dempster T Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research