Plasmodium berghei serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP5 plays a critical role in male gamete fertility.
This study elucidated an essential function of PbPP5 during male gamete development and fertility. PMID: 31202684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - June 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zhu X, Sun L, He Y, Wei H, Hong M, Liu F, Liu Q, Cao Y, Cui L Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Generation and functional characterization of Plasmodium yoelii csp deletion mutants using a microhomology-based CRISPR/Cas9 method.
This study develops a useful technique to efficiently generate mutant parasites with deletions or insertions, and shows that the CSP-CRR plays a role in parasite development in mosquito. PMID: 31202685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - June 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Xu R, Liu Y, Fan R, Liang R, Yue L, Liu S, Su XZ, Li J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Schistosoma mansoni does not and cannot oxidize fatty acids, but these are used for biosynthetic purposes instead.
Abstract Adult schistosomes, parasitic flatworms that cause the tropical disease schistosomiasis, have always been considered to be homolactic fermenters and, in their energy metabolism, strictly dependent on carbohydrates. However, more recent studies suggested that fatty acid β-oxidation is essential for egg production by adult female Schistosoma mansoni. To address this conundrum, we performed a comprehensive study on the lipid metabolism of S. mansoni. Incubations with [14C]-labelled fatty acids demonstrated that adults, eggs and miracidia of S. mansoni did not oxidize fatty acids, as no 14CO2 production ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - June 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bexkens ML, Mebius MM, Houweling M, Brouwers JF, Tielens AGM, van Hellemond JJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The levels of natural Nosema spp. infection in Apis mellifera iberiensis brood stages.
tín-Hernández R Abstract Nosema ceranae is the most prevalent endoparasite of Apis mellifera iberiensis and it is a major health problem for bees worldwide. The infective capacity of N. ceranae has been demonstrated experimentally in honey bee brood, however no data are available about its prevalence in brood under natural conditions. Thus, brood combs from 10 different hives were analyzed over two consecutive years, taking samples before and after winter. A total of 1,433 larvae/pupae were analyzed individually and N. ceranae (3.53%) was the microsporidian most frequently detected, as opposed to Nos...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - June 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Urbieta-Magro A, Higes M, Meana A, Gómez-Moracho T, Rodríguez-García C, Barrios L, Martín-Hernández R Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Trypanosomatid parasites infecting managed honeybees and wild solitary bees.
ann P Abstract The parasite Crithidia mellificae (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) infects honeybees, Apis mellifera. No pathogenic effects have been found in individual hosts, despite positive correlations between infections and colony mortalities. The solitary bee Osmia cornuta might constitute a host, but controlled infections are lacking to date. Here, we challenged male and female O.cornuta and honeybee workers in laboratory cages with C. mellificae. No parasite cells were found in any control. Parasite numbers increased 6.6 fold in honeybees between days 6 and 19 p.i. and significantly reduced survival. In O...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Strobl V, Yañez O, Straub L, Albrecht M, Neumann P Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Evolutionary sex allocation theory explains sex ratios in natural Plasmodium falciparum infections.
Abstract Malaria transmission is achieved by sexual stages, called gametocytes, and the proportion of gametocytes that are male versus female (sex ratio) influences transmission success. In malaria model systems, variation in gametocyte sex ratios can be explained by the predictions of evolutionary sex allocation theory. We test these predictions using natural Plasmodium falciparum infections. The predicted negative correlation between sex ratio and gametocyte density holds: the sex ratio increases when gametocyte densities decrease, and this is most apparent in single genotype infections and in the dry season. We...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Schneider P, Babiker HA, Gadalla AAH, Reece SE Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

An innovative approach in the detection of Toxocara canis excretory/secretory antigens using specific nanobodies.
Abstract Human toxocariasis is a zoonosis resulting from the migration of larval stages of the dog parasite Toxocara canis into the human paratenic host. Despite its well-known limitations, serology remains the most important tool to diagnose the disease. Our objective was to employ camelid single domain antibody fragments also known as nanobodies (Nbs) for a specific and sensitive detection of Toxocara canis excretory/secretory (TES) antigens. From an alpaca immune Nb library, we retrieved different Nbs with specificity for TES antigens. Based on ELISA experiments, these Nbs did not show any cross-reactivity with...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 28, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Morales-Yanez FJ, Sariego I, Vincke C, Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh G, Polman K, Muyldermans S Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like proteins: phylogenetic relationships, stage-specific transcription and tissue localization as predictors of immunological cross-reactivity.
Abstract Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like proteins (SmVALs) are part of a diverse protein superfamily partitioned into two groups (group 1 and group 2). Phylogenetic analyses of group 1 SmVALs revealed that members could be segregated into subclades (A-D); these subclades share similar gene expression patterns across the parasite lifecycle and immunological cross-reactivity. Furthermore, whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that the phylogenetically, transcriptionally and immunologically-related SmVAL4, 10, 18 and 19 (subclade C) were all localized to the pre-acetabular glands of immature cercaria...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 25, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Farias LP, Chalmers IW, Perally S, Rofatto HK, Jackson CJ, Brown M, Khouri MI, Barbosa MMF, Hensbergen PJ, Hokke CH, Leite LCC, Hoffmann KF Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Identification of a new panel of reference genes to study pairing-dependent gene expression in Schistosoma mansoni.
Abstract Facilitated by the Schistosomamansoni genome project, multiple transcriptomic studies were performed over the last decade to elucidate gene expression patterns among different developmental stages of the complex schistosome life cycle. While these analyses enable the identification of candidate genes with key functions in schistosome biology, a diverse molecular tool set is needed that allows comprehensive functional characterization at the single gene level. This includes the availability of reliable reference genes to confirm changes in the transcription of genes of interest over different biological sa...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 25, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Haeberlein S, Angrisano A, Quack T, Lu Z, Kellershohn J, Blohm A, Grevelding CG, Hahnel SR Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Major determinants of the occurrence of a globally invasive parasite in riverine fish over large-scale environmental gradients.
Abstract The increased rate of outbreaks of infectious diseases in ecosystems is a dramatic consequence of global change, particularly when outbreaks affect important resources such as freshwater fish. However, the links between disease-inducing epizootics and widespread human impacts, including nutrient pollution and high water conductivity, in freshwater organisms are largely unexplored. We used data from extensive surveys in northeastern Spain (99,700 km2, 15 river catchments, n = 530 sites) to explore the environmental factors that singly, or in combination, are likely to influence the occurrence of the invasi...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Maceda-Veiga A, Nally RM, Green AJ, Poulin R, de Sostoa A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Resistance and tolerance to mixed nematode infections in chicken genotypes with extremely different growth rates.
Abstract Fast growing broilers are less able to cope with fitness related challenges. As the allocation of metabolic resources may be traded off between performance and defence functions in parasitized hosts, we hypothesized that fast growing broilers are more sensitive to mixed nematode infections compared with slower growing genotypes under the same environmental conditions. Therefore, we compared male birds of genotypes selected for either meat production (Ross-308, R) or egg production (Lohmann Brown Plus, LB) or for both purposes (Lohmann Dual, LD), to assess their resistance and tolerance to mixed nematode i...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Stehr M, Zentek J, Vahjen W, Zitnan R, Tuchscherer A, Gauly M, Metges CC, Daş G Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The relationship between the presence of antibodies and direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered calves and cattle in four European countries.
JWB Abstract In cattle, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection are frequently detected, but evidence for the presence of T. gondii tissue cysts in cattle is limited. To study the concordance between the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and viable tissue cysts of T. gondii in cattle, serum, liver and diaphragm samples of 167 veal calves and 235 adult cattle were collected in Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and the United Kingdom. Serum samples were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and p30 immunoblot. Samples from liver were analyzed by mouse bioassay and PCR after trypsin dige...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Opsteegh M, Spano F, Aubert D, Balea A, Burrells A, Cherchi S, Cornelissen JBWJ, Dam-Deisz C, Guitain J, Györke A, Innes EA, Katzer F, Limon G, Possenti A, Pozio E, Schares G, Villena I, Wisselink HJ, van der Giessen JWB Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

A novel multilocus sequence typing scheme identifying genetic diversity amongst Leishmania donovani isolates from a genetically homogeneous population in the Indian subcontinent.
e R Abstract In the Indian subcontinent, infection with Leishmania donovani can cause fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Genetic variation in L. donovani is believed to occur rapidly from environmental changes and through selective drug pressures, thereby allowing continued disease occurrence in this region. All previous molecular markers that are commonly in use Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST)), were monomorphic in L. donovani originating from the Indian subcontinent (with only a few exceptions) and hence are not suitable for this region. An MLST scheme consisting of ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Banu SS, Meyer W, Ferreira-Paim K, Wang Q, Kuhls K, Cupolillo E, Schönian G, Lee R Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Phylogeny of Myxobolidae (Myxozoa) and the evolution of myxospore appendages in the Myxobolus clade.
a I Abstract Genera Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 and Henneguya Thélohan, 1892 (Myxobolidae) are specious myxozoan genera. They comprise nearly half of overall known myxozoan species diversity. A typical spore feature of Henneguya is the presence of two caudal appendages of the spore valves, which distinguishes them from species of the genus Myxobolus. Several Myxobolus spp., however, were reported to show aberrant spores with Henneguya-like caudal appendages. We found such aberrant spores in Myxobolus tsangwuensis and Myxobolus wulii. We studied the ultrastructure of M. wulii and Myxobolus oralis spores wi...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 8, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Liu Y, Lövy A, Gu Z, Fiala I Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Transcriptome and histone epigenome of Plasmodium vivax salivary-gland sporozoites point to tight regulatory control and mechanisms for liver-stage differentiation in relapsing malaria.
Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the key obstacle to malaria elimination in Asia and Latin America, largely attributed to its ability to form resilient hypnozoites (sleeper cells) in the host liver that escape treatment and cause relapsing infections. The decision to form hypnozoites is made early in the liver infection and may already be set in sporozoites prior to invasion. To better understand these early stages of infection, we undertook a comprehensive transcriptomic and histone epigenetic characterization of P. vivax sporozoites. Through comparisons with recently published proteomic data for the P. vivax sporozo...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 6, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Vivax Sporozoite Consortium Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIdA19G1 in neonatal calves on a dairy farm in China.
In this study, 18 fecal specimens were collected from seriously ill calves on this farm during the diarrhea outbreak, and analyzed for common enteropathogens by enzymatic immunoassay (EIA). In a post-outbreak investigation, 418 and 1,372 specimens collected from animals of various age groups were further analyzed for rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. by EIA and PCR, respectively, to assess their roles in the occurrence of diarrhea on the farm. Cryptosporidium spp. were genotyped using established techniques. Initial EIA tests showed that 15/18 seriously ill calves during the outbreak were positive for Cryptosporidium parv...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 6, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Li N, Wang R, Cai M, Jiang W, Feng Y, Xiao L Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Systematic review of exposure to albendazole or mebendazole during pregnancy and effects on maternal and child outcomes, with particular reference to exposure in the first trimester.
Abstract Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections cause an important burden of morbidity worldwide, primarily from blood loss and malabsorption of nutrients. Where STH endemicity ≥ 20%, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends preventive chemotherapy with single dose anthelminthic drugs: albendazole or mebendazole. Although WHO recommends that women of reproductive age, including pregnant women after the first trimester, be included in large-scale deworming programs, there are concerns related to the use of anthelminthic drugs during pregnancy, especially inadvertent use in the first few weeks when the ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - May 6, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gyorkos TW, St-Denis K Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Mating barriers between genetically divergent strains of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus suggest incipient speciation.
Abstract Haemonchus contortus, in common with many nematode species, has extremely high levels of genetic variation within and between field populations derived from distant geographical locations. MHco10(CAVR), MHco3(ISE) and MHco4(WRS) are genetically divergent H. contortus strains, originally derived from Australia, Kenya and South Africa, respectively, that have been maintained by numerous rounds of in vivo experimental infection of sheep. In order to explore potential pre-zygotic competition or post-zygotic incompatibility between the strains, we have investigated the ability of MHco10(CAVR) to interbreed wit...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 26, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sargison ND, Redman E, Morrison AA, Bartley DJ, Jackson F, Hoberg E, Gilleard JS Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Removal of adult cyathostomins alters faecal microbiota and promotes an inflammatory phenotype in horses.
Abstract The interactions between parasitic helminths and gut microbiota are considered to be an important, although as yet incompletely understood, factor in the regulation of immunity, inflammation and a range of diseases. Infection with intestinal helminths is ubiquitous in grazing horses, with cyathostomins (about 50 species of which are recorded) predominating. Consequences of infection include both chronic effects, and an acute inflammatory syndrome, acute larval cyathostominosis (ALC), which sometimes follows removal of adult helminths by administration of anthelmintic drugs. The presence of cyathostomins a...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Walshe N, Duggan V, Cabrera-Rubio R, Crispie F, Cotter P, Feehan O, Mulcahy G Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Effects of maternal and grandmaternal flea infestation on offspring quality and quantity in a desert rodent: evidence for parasite-mediated transgenerational phenotypic plasticity.
Abstract Parasites can cause a broad range of sublethal fitness effects across a wide variety of host taxa. However, a host's efforts to compensate for possible parasite-induced fitness effects are less well-known. Parental effects may beneficially alter the offspring phenotype if parental environments sufficiently predict the offspring environment. Parasitism is a common stressor across generations; therefore, parental infestation could reliably predict the likelihood of infestation for offspring. However, little is known about relationships between parasitism and transgenerational phenotypic plasticity. Thus, we...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Warburton EM, Khokhlova IS, van der Mescht L, Downs CJ, Dlugosz EM, Krasnov BR Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Highly heterogeneous residual malaria risk in western Thailand.
Abstract Over the past decades, the malaria burden in Thailand has substantially declined. Most infections now originate from the national border regions. In these areas, the prevalence of asymptomatic infections is still substantial and poses a challenge for the national malaria elimination program. To determine epidemiological parameters as well as risk factors for malaria infection in western Thailand, we carried out a cohort study in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi provinces on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Blood samples from 999 local participants were examined for malaria infection every 4 weeks between May 2013 ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - April 4, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nguitragool W, Karl S, White M, Koepfli C, Felger I, Singhasivanon P, Mueller I, Sattabongkot J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Laboratory transmission of an Asian strain of Leishmania tropica by the bite of the southern European sand fly Phlebotomus perniciosus.
Abstract Imported cases of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica are increasingly documented in Europe. We investigated the ability of Phlebotomus perniciosus, a competent vector of Leishmania infantum widespread in southwestern Europe, to support the growth and transmissibility of an Asian strain of L. tropica recently isolated from a refugee. Parasite growth behavior was investigated in laboratory-reared sand flies fed artificially with promastigotes as well as in sand flies infected after biting on footpad lesions induced in hamsters by promastigote inoculation. The evolution of infect...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bongiorno G, Muccio TD, Bianchi R, Gramiccia M, Gradoni L Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Intracellular iron availability modulates the requirement for Leishmania Iron Regulator 1 (LIR1) during macrophage infections.
Abstract The Leishmania plasma membrane transporter Leishmania Iron Regulator 1 (LIR1) facilitates iron export and is required for parasite virulence. By modulating macrophage iron content, we investigated the host site where LIR1 regulates Leishmania amazonensis infectivity. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, LIR1 null mutants demonstrated a paradoxical increase in virulence during infections in heme-depleted media, while wild-type growth was inhibited under the same conditions. Loading the endocytic pathway of macrophages with cationized ferritin prior to infection reversed the effect of heme depletion on both ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sarkar A, Andrews NW, Laranjeira-Silva MF Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Unequal distribution of genes and chromosomes refers to nuclear diversification in the binucleated Giardia intestinalis.
F, Nohýnková E Abstract The single-celled parasite Giardia intestinalis (Diplomonadida) has two equally sized nuclei in one cell. The nuclei have been considered identical. We have previously shown that they contain different chromosomal sets and proceed through the cell cycle with some asynchrony. Here, we demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization that several genes from chromosome 5 are lost in one of the two nuclei of the WBc6 Giardia line. The missing segment stretches over at least 50 kb near the 5́ chromosome end. In both WB and WBc6 Giardia cell lines, chromosome 5 is trisomic in one...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tůmová P, Dluhošová J, Weisz F, Nohýnková E Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Ecology, not distance, explains community composition in parasites of sky-island Audubon's Warblers.
Abstract Haemosporidian parasites of birds are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems, but their coevolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood. If species turnover in parasites occurs at a finer scale than turnover in hosts, widespread hosts would encounter diverse parasites, potentially diversifying as a result. Previous studies have shown that some wide-ranging hosts encounter varied haemosporidian communities throughout their range, and vice-versa. More surveys are needed to elucidate mechanisms that underpin spatial patterns of diversity in this complex multi-host multi-parasite system. We sought to understan...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Williamson JL, Wolf CJ, Barrow LN, Baumann MJ, Galen SC, Jonathan Schmitt C, Schmitt DC, Winter AS, Witt CC Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Shedding of feline lungworm larvae and their infectivity to snail intermediate hosts after anthelmintic treatment.
Abstract Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are snail-transmitted helminths causing respiratory diseases in infected cats. The shedding of feline lungworm L1s and their infectivity to the snail intermediate host, after administration of anthelminthic products to cats, are poorly documented. To assess the efficacy of 8.3% fipronil, 10% (S)-methoprene, 0.4% eprinomectin and 8.3% praziquantel (i.e., eprinomectin formulation) and 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin (i.e., moxidectin formulation) against these nematodes and to determine the number of days post-treatment until viable L1s are released in ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cavalera MA, Colella V, Napoli E, Arfuso F, Panarese R, Brianti E, Otranto D Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Long-term prevalence data reveals spillover dynamics in a multi-host (Artemia), multi-parasite (Microsporidia) community.
This study supports the importance of studying the community context of multi-host parasites, and demonstrates that in appropriate multi-host systems, sampling across a range of conditions and host communities can lead to clear conclusions about the drivers of parasite persistence. PMID: 30904622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lievens EJP, Rode NO, Landes J, Segard A, Jabbour-Zahab R, Michalakis Y, Lenormand T Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Chance or choice? Understanding parasite selection and infection in multi-host communities.
Abstract Ongoing debate over the relationship between biodiversity and disease risk underscores the need to develop a more mechanistic understanding of how changes in host community composition influence parasite transmission, particularly in complex communities with multiple hosts. A key challenge involves determining how motile parasites select among potential hosts and the degree to which this process shifts with community composition. Focusing on interactions between larval amphibians and the pathogenic trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae, we designed a novel, large-volume set of choice chambers to assess how the sel...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Johnson PTJ, Calhoun DM, Riepe TB, Koprivnikar J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Out-of-Africa, human-mediated dispersal of the common cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis: the hitchhiker's guide to world domination.
This study defines the global distribution, African origin and phylogenetic relationships of global Ctenocephalides fleas, whilst resolving the taxonomy of the C. felis subspecies and related taxa. We show that humans have inadvertently precipitated the expansion of C. felis throughout the world, promoting diverse population structure and bioclimatic plasticity. By demonstrating the link between the global cat flea communities and their affinity for specific bioclimatic niches, we reveal the drivers behind the establishment and success of the cat flea as a global parasite. PMID: 30858050 [PubMed - as supplied by publi...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 8, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lawrence AL, Webb CE, Clark NJ, Halajian A, Mihalca AD, Miret J, D'Amico G, Brown G, Kumsa B, Modrý D, Šlapeta J Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Risk factors for infection with soil-transmitted helminths during an integrated community level water, sanitation, and hygiene and deworming intervention in Timor-Leste.
In this study, we assessed associations between individual- and household-level WASH variables and STH infections, using data collected during the 2 year follow-up study period of the WASH for WORMS randomised controlled trial in Timor-Leste. Data were collected across four surveys, conducted at 6 monthly intervals in 23 communities. We analysed WASH and sociodemographic variables as risk factors for infection with Necator americanus, Ascaris spp., and undifferentiated STH infection, using generalised linear mixed models to account for clustering at community, household and participant levels. WASH risk factors were examin...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: V Nery S, Clarke NE, Richardson A, Traub R, McCarthy JS, Gray DJ, Vallely AJ, Williams GM, Andrews RM, Campbell SJ, C A Clements A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

14-3-3 protein and ubiquitin C acting as SjIAP interaction partners facilitate tegumental integrity in Schistosoma japonicum.
Abstract Schistosomiasis, caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, remains an important public health issue. Adult schistosomes can survive in the definitive host for several decades, although they are subject to the host immune response. Consequently, understanding the mechanism underlying worm survival in the definitive hosts could aid in developing novel strategies against schistosomiasis. We previously found that an inhibitor of apoptosis in Schistosoma japonicum (SjIAP) could negatively regulate apoptosis by inhibiting caspase activity, which plays a critical role in maintaining tegument integrity. The ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 21, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Liu J, Giri BR, Chen Y, Cheng G Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Taxonomic and geographic bias in the genetic study of helminth parasites.
Abstract The use of genetic information is now fundamental in parasite taxonomy and systematics, for resolving parasite phylogenies, discovering cryptic species, and elucidating patterns of gene flow among parasite populations. The accumulation of available gene sequences per geographical area or per parasite taxonomic group is likely proportional to species richness, but not without some biases. Certain areas and certain taxonomic groups receive more research effort than others, possibly causing a deficit in the relative number of parasite species being characterized genetically in some areas or taxonomic groups....
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 21, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Poulin R, Hay E, Jorge F Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

A novel Kunitz protein with proposed dual function from Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea) impairs haemostasis and action of complement in vitro.
This study presents, to our knowledge, the first characterisation of a Kunitz protein from monogeneans and the first example of a parasite Kunitz inhibitor that impairs the function of the complement. PMID: 30796952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jedličková L, Dvořák J, Hrachovinová I, Ulrychová L, Kašný M, Mikeš L Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Next generation sequencing from Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Coccidia: Adeleorina): complete apicoplast genome and multiple mitochondrion-associated sequences.
G, Barta JR Abstract Extrachromosomal genomes of the adeleorinid parasite Hepatozoon canis infecting an Israeli dog were investigated using next-generation (NGS) and standard sequencing technologies. A complete apicoplast genome and several mitochondrion-associated sequences were generated. The apicoplast genome (31,869 bp) possessed two copies of both large subunit (23S) and small subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) within an inverted repeat (IR) region, as well as 22 protein-coding sequences (CDS), 25 transfer RNA genes (tDNA) and seven open reading frames (ORF) of unknown function. Although circular-mappin...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Léveillé AN, Baneth G, Barta JR Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Neither Diplectanum nor specific: a dramatic twist to the taxonomic framework of Diplectanum (Monogenea: Diplectanidae).
sta I Abstract The taxonomy of the genus Diplectanum has been exclusively based on morphological features, with 28 nominal species parasitic on perciform fishes recognised. We used molecular data, to our knowledge for the first time, to evaluate the taxonomic framework of Diplectanum, infer the relationships amongst species attributed to this genus, re-assess the degree of host specificity and explore the population genetic structure of Diplectanum spp. parasitising Mediterranean sciaenids, which are potential target fish species for aquaculture diversification in the region. A minimum of 10 specimens of Diplectan...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 15, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Villar-Torres M, Repullés-Albelda A, Esteban Montero F, Antonio Raga J, Blasco-Costa I Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Somatic proteome of Haemonchus contortus.
Abstract Currently, there is a dearth of proteomic data to underpin fundamental investigations of parasites and parasitism at the molecular level. Here, using a high throughput LC-MS/MS-based approach, we undertook the first reported comprehensive, large-scale proteomic investigation of the barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) - one of the most important parasitic nematodes of livestock animals worldwide. In total, 2487 unique H. contortus proteins representing different developmental stages/sexes (i.e. eggs, (L3s and L4s, female (Af) and male (Am) adults) were identified and quantified with high confidence. ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wang T, Ma G, Ang CS, Korhonen PK, Xu R, Nie S, Koehler AV, Simpson RJ, Greening DW, Reid GE, Williamson NA, Gasser RB Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Progenesis and facultative life cycle abbreviation in trematode parasites: are there more constraints than costs?
Abstract Complex life cycles provide advantages to parasites (longer life span, higher fecundity, etc.), but also represent a series of unlikely events for which many adaptations have evolved (asexual multiplication, host finding mechanisms, etc.). Some parasites use a radical strategy where the definitive host is dropped; life cycle abbreviation is most often achieved through progenesis (i.e. early maturation) and reproduction in the second intermediate host. In many progenetic species, both the typical and abbreviated life cycles are maintained. However, conditions that trigger the adoption of one or the other s...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Villa M, Lagrue C Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of a naturally occurring multidrug-resistant strain of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum.
Abstract Soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) infect over a billion people and place several billion more at risk of infection. Hookworm disease is the most significant of these STNs, with over 500 million people infected. Hookworm infection can result in debilitating and sometimes fatal iron-deficiency anemia, which is particularly devastating in children and pregnant women. Currently, hookworms and other soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by administration of a single dose of a benzimidazole to targeted populations in endemic areas. While effective, people are quickly re-infected, necessitating freque...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kitchen S, Ratnappan R, Han S, Leasure C, Grill E, Iqbal Z, Granger O, O'Halloran DM, Hawdon JM Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Local host-tick coextinction in neotropical forest fragments.
Abstract Ticks are obligatory parasites with complex life cycles that often depend on larger bodied vertebrates as final hosts. These traits make them particularly sensitive to local coextinction with their host. Loss of wildlife abundance and diversity should thus lead to loss of tick abundance and diversity to the point where only generalist tick species remain. However, direct empirical tests of these hypotheses are lacking, despite their relevance to our understanding of tick-borne disease emergence in disturbed environments. Here, we compare vertebrate and tick communities across 12 forest islands and peninsu...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 8, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Esser HJ, Allen Herre E, Kays R, Liefting Y, Jansen PA Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Ascaris suum infection was associated with a worm-independent reduction in microbial diversity and altered metabolic potential in the porcine gut microbiome.
Abstract The effect of infection of pigs with Ascaris suum on the microbial composition in the proximal colon and fecal matter was investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The infection significantly decreased various microbial diversity indices including Chao1 richness, but the effect on Chao1 in the colon luminal contents was worm burden-independent. The abundance of 49 genera present in colon contents, such as Prevotella and Faecalibacterium, and 179 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly changed as a result of infection. Notably, infection was also associated with a significant shift in the m...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wang Y, Liu F, Urban F J, Paerewijck O, Geldhof P, Li RW Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Burden of Chagas disease in Brazil, 1990-2016: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
Abstract Chagas disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity, mortality and disability in several Latin American countries including Brazil. Using findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we present years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to Chagas disease in Brazil, by sex, age group, and Brazilian states, from 1990 to 2016. Results are reported in absolute numbers and age-standardized rates (per 100,000 population) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). In 2016, 141,640 DALYs (95% UI: 129,065-155,941) due to ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Martins-Melo FR, Carneiro M, Ribeiro ALP, Bezerra JMT, Werneck GL Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Unravelling the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of bovine babesiosis: is the sky the limit?
Abstract The global impact of bovine babesiosis caused by the tick-borne apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Babesia divergens is vastly underappreciated. These parasites invade and multiply asexually in bovine red blood cells (RBCs), undergo sexual reproduction in their tick vectors (Rhipicephalus spp. for B. bovis and B. bigemina, and Ixodes ricinus for B. divergens) and have a trans-ovarial mode of transmission. Babesia parasites can cause acute and persistent infections to adult naïve cattle that can occur without evident clinical signs, but infections caused by B. bovis are associa...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 25, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Suarez CE, Alzan HF, Silva MG, Rathinasamy V, Poole WA, Cooke BM Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Human babesiosis.
Abstract Babesiosis is a worldwide emerging tick-borne disease that is increasing in frequency and geographic range. It imposes a significant health burden, especially on those who are immunocompromised and those who acquire the infection through blood transfusion. Death from babesiosis occurs in up to 20 percent of these groups. Diagnosis is confirmed with identification of typical intraerythrocytic parasites on a thin blood smear or Babesia DNA using PCR. Treatment consists of atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine, and exchange transfusion in severe cases. Personal and communal protective measur...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 25, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Krause PJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The rational simplification of a recombinant cocktail vaccine to control the parasitic nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta.
Abstract Using data from five independent vaccine trials, which employed a subunit cocktail vaccine containing eight recombinant proteins to protect sheep against Teladorsagia circumcincta, a strategy was developed to simplify antigen complexity of the vaccine. A meta-analysis of data from these five trials demonstrated statistically significant reductions in cumulative faecal egg count (cFEC) and worm burden in vaccinated sheep when compared with those which had received adjuvant only (P = 0.009 and P
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 25, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nisbet AJ, McNeilly TN, Price DRG, Oliver EM, Bartley Y, Mitchell M, Palarea-Albaladejo J, Matthews JB Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Vaccination against babesiosis using recombinant GPI-anchored proteins.
Abstract The increase in human babesiosis is of major concern to health authorities. In the USA, most of these cases are due to infections with Babesia microti, whereas in Europe B. divergens is the major cause of clinical disease in humans. Here we review the immunological and biological literature of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored merozoite proteins of human Babesia parasites with emphasis on their role in immunity, and provide some new bioinformatical information on B. microti GPI-Anchored Proteins (GPI-AP). Cattle can be vaccinated with soluble parasite antigens (SPA) of Babesia divergens that are...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 23, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nathaly Wieser S, Schnittger L, Florin-Christensen M, Delbecq S, Schetters T Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Identification and expression profiling of microRNAs in Hymenolepis.
This study provides a valuable resource for further experimental research in cestode biology that might lead to improved detection and control of these neglected parasites. The comprehensive identification and expression analysis of Hymenolepis miRNAs can help to identify novel biomarkers for diagnosis and/or novel therapeutic targets for the control of hymenolepiasis. PMID: 30677390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal for Parasitology)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 21, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Macchiaroli N, Cucher M, Kamenetzky L, Yones C, Bugnon L, Berriman M, Olson P, Rosenzvit M Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The leucokinin-like peptide receptor from the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is localized in the midgut periphery and receptor silencing with validated double-stranded RNAs causes a reproductive fitness cost.
, Pietrantonio PV Abstract The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a one-host tick that infests primarily cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. This species transmits deadly cattle pathogens, especially Babesia spp., for which a recombinant vaccine is not available. Therefore, disease control depends on tick vector control. Although R. microplus was eradicated in the USA, tick populations in Mexico and South America have acquired resistance to many of the applied acaricides. Recent acaricide-resistant tick reintroductions detected in the U.S. underscore...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Brock CM, Temeyer KB, Tidwell J, Yang Y, Blandon MA, Carreón-Camacho D, Longnecker MT, Almazán C, de León AAP, Pietrantonio PV Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Parasites in space and time: a case study of haemosporidian spatiotemporal prevalence in urban birds.
Renner S Abstract Prevalence responses to anthropic factors differ across hosts and parasite species. We here analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of avian haemosporidian prevalence in bird assemblages of the Mooswald forest (i.e., urban greenspace; Freiburg, Germany), in response to local environmental features (e.g., water sources, human presence (visited)/absence (unvisited)) and bird-level traits (e.g., body condition, age, sex) in 2 years. We used a nested PCR protocol (mitochondrial (mt)DNA cytochrome b (cyt b) gene) and microscopy to determine haemosporidian infections. Prevalence was analyzed using a gen...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Santiago-Alarcon D, MacGregor-Fors I, Falfán I, Lüdtke B, Segelbacher G, Schaefer HM, Renner S Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Identifying 'firebreaks' to fragment dispersal networks of a marine parasite.
Abstract Marine ecosystems are beset by disease outbreaks, and efficient strategies to control dispersal of pathogens are scarce. We tested whether introducing no-farming areas or 'firebreaks' could disconnect dispersal networks of a parasitic disease affecting the world's largest marine fish farming industry (∼1000 farms). Larval salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) are released from and transported among salmon farms by ocean currents, creating inter-farm networks of louse dispersal. We used a state-of-the-art biophysical model to predict louse movement along the Norwegian coastline and network analysis to ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Samsing F, Johnsen I, Treml EA, Dempster T Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii strains shaped by commensal communities of small mammals.
In this study, we took advantage of an extensive survey of commensal small mammals in three coastal localities of Senegal, with a species assemblage constituted of both native African species and invasive species. We tested 828 individuals for T. gondii chronic infection using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for antibody detection in serum samples and a quantitative PCR assay for detection of T. gondii DNA in brain samples. The infecting T. gondii strains were genotyped whenever possible by the analysis of 15 microsatellite markers. We found (i) a very poor concordance between molecular detection and serology in the ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - December 19, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Galal L, Schares G, Stragier C, Vignoles P, Brouat C, Cuny T, Dubois C, Rohart T, Glodas C, Dardé ML, Kane M, Niang Y, Diallo M, Sow A, Aubert D, Hamidović A, Ajzenberg D, Mercier A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research