The Role of Oral Administration of Immunoglobulin in Managing Diarrheal Illness in Immunocompromised Children

ConclusionOral administration of human serum immunoglobulin in immunocompromised children presenting with acute and chronic diarrheal illness appeared helpful in reducing stool output by 50% in the majority of patients.
Source: Pediatric Drugs - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

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In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis in Shenzhen, southern China, with an emphasis on PeV-A infections. A total of 1220 stool specimens from 1220 outpatient children under 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis were collected from January 2016 to December 2018. Viral RNA was detected by a real-time RT-PCR and PCR method. The PeV-A isolates were genotyped by sequencing the VP3/VP1 region. Of 1220 specimens, 148 (12.1%) were positive for PeV-A. The predominant genotype was PeV-A 1B (68.9%), followed by PeV-A 4 (12.2%), PeV-A 14 (6.1%), PeV-A 1A (5.4%), PeV-A 6 (2.7%), PeV-A 3 (2....
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Oral administration of human serum immunoglobulin in immunocompromised children presenting with acute and chronic diarrheal illness appeared helpful in reducing stool output by 50% in the majority of patients. PMID: 32180169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Paediatric Drugs - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research
This study investigated the frequency, incidence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in a cohort of rotavirus A vaccinated children in association to the host HBGA (Secretor/Lewis) genetic susceptibility profile. Norovirus genogroups I and II (GI/GII) were screened by RT-qPCR in 569 stool samples from 132 children followed-up from birth to 11 months of age during 2014-2018. Noroviruses were identified in 21.2% of children enrolled in this study, with a norovirus detection rate of 5.6% (32/569), in 17.1% and 4.7% of acute diarrheic episodes (ADE) and non-ADE, respectively. The norovirus incidence was 5.8 infections per 1...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Shalini Goldar, Gitika Rajbongshi, Kailash Chamuah, Syed Tanwir Alam, Ajanta SharmaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2019 37(3):415-417 Viral gastroenteritis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children under 5 years of age. Many a time, these cases go unnoticed causing immense scarcity of data on viral diarrhoea. The study aimed to determine the occurrence of viral gastroenteritis among children below 5 years and the aetiological viral agents. Stool samples were collected from patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was done for detection of rotavirus, adeno...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractTogether, norovirus and rotavirus are responsible for the majority of gastroenteritis cases worldwide, leading to a large number of deaths of children in low-income countries. Both attach to glycans of the histo-blood group antigen type (HBGAs) widely expressed in the digestive tract of vertebrates, albeit with interspecies differences. In humans, their synthesis is performed by glycosyltransferases encoded by the highly polymorphicABO,FUT2 andFUT3 genes that are under long-term balanced selection. The combination of functional and null or weak alleles at these loci provides a diversity of glycan structures that de...
Source: Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
AbstractIn acute gastroenteritis (AGE), identification of the infectious agent is important for patient management. Since symptoms do not reliably identify the agent, microbiological diagnostics are important. Conventional methods lack sensitivity and often take days. Multiplex PCR panels offer fast and sensitive alternatives. Our aim was to assess the performance of the new QIAstat Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) detecting 24 different gastroenteric pathogens from stool in Cary-Blair transport medium (Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Rotavirus A, Sapovirus,Campylobacter spp.,Clostridium difficile,Plesiomonas...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is the most common causative pathogen of health care-associated gastrointestinal infections; however, due to the overlap of clinical symptoms with those of other causes of acute gastroenteritis, the selection of the most appropriate laboratory test is difficult. From April to October 2018, 640 stool samples requested for CDI testing were examined using the mariPOC CDI and Gastro test (ArcDia), which allows the detection of C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B, norovirus genogroups GI and GII.4, rotavirus, adenovirus, and Campylobacter spp. In parall...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research
Purpose of review Gastroenteritis results in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children in low-and-middle-income settings. Rotavirus and norovirus are the leading causes of viral gastroenteritis. Although introduction of rotavirus vaccines into childhood immunization programmes has reduced disease burden, vaccine effectiveness remains low in developing countries. Norovirus is replacing rotavirus as the most common cause of diarrhea hospitalization in settings where rotavirus vaccines are highly effective. Genetically determined host factors, such as expression of histo blood group antigen...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Gagandeep Kang and Eric R. Houpt Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the BD Max enteric viral panel (Max EVP) assay for identification of viral pathogens in stool specimens from individuals with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, enteritis, or colitis. Prospective and archival stool specimens from adult and pediatric patients with diarrhea were collected in Cary-Blair medium or unpreserved containers. The results for specimens tested by the Max EVP (on the BD Max platform) were compared to those obtained by the reference method (alternate PCR assays, followed by bidirectional sequencing). Positive percent agreement (PPA) and neg...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
In conclusion, common enteric viruses may be frequently found in children with undiagnosed gastroenteritis, indicating the need to implement more sensitive diagnostic methods. Novel astroviruses circulate in the community and could be the cause of gastroenteritis among young children.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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