Temporal decline in diarrhea episodes and mortality in Kiribati children two years following rotavirus vaccine introduction, despite high malnutrition rates: a retrospective review

Kiribati introduced rotavirus vaccine in 2015. To estimate the impact of rotavirus vaccine on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) among children under 5 in Kiribati, a retrospective...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research

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The objectives were to evaluate vaccine efficacy (VE) against RVGE of any-severity, severe RVGE (sRVGE) and inpatient caused by rotavirus serotypes contained in the vaccine and not contained in the vaccine after the third dose. Immunogenicity was also assayed in a subgroup. All adverse events (AEs) were collected from 30 min after each dose for immediate reaction, even to the entire study period, including the serious AEs (SAEs) and intussusception. RESULTS: VE against RVGE of any-severity, sRVGE and inpatient caused by any serotype was 56.6% (95% CI: 50.7, 61.8), 70.3% (95% CI: 60.6, 77.6) and 74.0% (95% CI: 57....
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Rotaviruses (RVs) are recognized as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children worldwide. Here we summarize the virology, disease burden, prevalence, distribution of genotypes a...
Source: Journal of Biomedical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
The incidence of gastroenteritis has greatly reduced due to improved hygiene conditions in developing countries and the use of rotavirus vaccine. Still thousands of children, however, die from gastroenteritis, most of them in poor countries. Yet gastroenteritis management is simple, inexpensive, and effective and is largely the same all over the world. Universal guidelines for gastroenteritis guide the management and include simple interventions put forward early in the course of the disease. Treatment includes rehydration, continuing oral feeding, and anti-infective drugs in selected clinical conditions related to the sym...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Society Papers Source Type: research
etswe In this review, we describe the distribution and genetic diversity of sapoviruses detected among humans, animals and the environment in African countries. Databases were searched for studies conducted in African countries and published between Jan 2005 and Mar 2019. Only studies where RT- PCR was used for initial detection were included in the systematic review. We identified 27 studies from 14 African countries with 18 focused on human sapoviruses, two on animal sapoviruses and seven on sapoviruses observed in the environment. Samples. The overall estimated pooled prevalence of human sapovirus infections among s...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Background: Since the introduction of 2 rotavirus (RV) vaccines in Korea, the vaccination rate has reached over 80% with out-of-pocket spending in the private market. We investigated the socioeconomic impact of RV vaccines in Korea to assess their value and public health contribution. Methods: By using National Health Insurance Service claims data, we compared the epidemiologic and economic characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) before and after the introduction of RV vaccines. For each year of the study period, the annual prevalence and national costs of RVGE were estimated based on children under 5 year...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
asia N. Vlasova Rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of the acute viral gastroenteritis in young children and livestock animals worldwide. Although live attenuated vaccines have been applied to control RV infection for many years, the underlying mechanisms of RV attenuation following cell culture adaption are unknown. To study these mechanisms at the genomic level, we have sequenced and conducted a comparative analysis of two virulent human (Wa, G1P[8] and M, G3P[8]) and two virulent porcine (Gottfried, G4P[6] and OSU, G5P[7]) RV strains maintained in gnotobiotic piglets for 22, 11, 12 and 9 serial passages, respect...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: The rotavirus is the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in small children. The purpose of this study was to map emergency primary health care consultations due to gastroenteritis in small children before and after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine on 1 October 2014. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The material consists of data from all electronic reimbursement claims from emergency primary health care doctors in the period 2010-18. Quarterly consultation rates at the emergency primary health care units for children aged 0-4 years with gastroenteritis were calculated. The consultation ra...
Source: Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen Source Type: research
Nordgren Innate resistance to viral infections can be attributed to mutations in genes involved in the immune response, or to the receptor/ligand. A remarkable example of the latter is the recently described Mendelian trait resistance to clinically important and globally predominating genotypes of rotavirus, the most common agent of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in children worldwide. This resistance appears to be rotavirus genotype-dependent and is mainly mediated by histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which function as a receptor or attachment factors on gut epithelial surfaces. HBGA synthesis is mediated by fuc...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This study investigated the frequency, incidence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in a cohort of rotavirus A vaccinated children in association to the host HBGA (Secretor/Lewis) genetic susceptibility profile. Norovirus genogroups I and II (GI/GII) were screened by RT-qPCR in 569 stool samples from 132 children followed-up from birth to 11 months of age during 2014-2018. Noroviruses were identified in 21.2% of children enrolled in this study, with a norovirus detection rate of 5.6% (32/569), in 17.1% and 4.7% of acute diarrheic episodes (ADE) and non-ADE, respectively. The norovirus incidence was 5.8 infections per 1...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
e R Abstract Rotavirus A (RVA) is a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans and mammalian animals, and has also been abundantly detected in avian species. Avian RVA infection is associated with diarrhea, reduced growth and increased mortality, leading to economic losses in the poultry industry. Avian RVA forms a unique genetic clade within the whole RVA species. However, up to now, only a few full-length avian RVA genomes have been published and only a small number of avian RVA strains have been adapted to grow in cell culture for subsequent studies. Here, the four cell culture-adapted chicken RVA strains 02V0002...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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