Advanced Neurotechnologies for the Restoration of Motor Function

Publication date: 19 February 2020Source: Neuron, Volume 105, Issue 4Author(s): Silvestro Micera, Matteo Caleo, Carmelo Chisari, Friedhelm C. Hummel, Alessandra PedrocchiStroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability. Advanced technological solutions (“neurotechnologies”) exploiting robotic systems and electrodes that stimulate the nervous system can increase the efficacy of stroke rehabilitation. Recent studies on these approaches have shown promising results. However, a paradigm shift in the development of new approaches must be made to significantly improve the clinical outcomes of neurotechnologies compared with those of traditional therapies. An “evolutionary” change can occur only by understanding in great detail the basic mechanisms of natural stroke recovery and technology-assisted neurorehabilitation. In this review, we first describe the results achieved by existing neurotechnologies and highlight their current limitations. In parallel, we summarize the data available on the mechanisms of recovery from electrophysiological, behavioral, and anatomical studies in humans and rodent models. Finally, we propose new approaches for the effective use of neurotechnologies in stroke survivors, as well as in people with other neurological disorders.
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
This article reviews the actual indications for mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and how the opportunities for endovascular therapy can be expanded by using the concept of clinical-imaging or perfusion-imaging mismatch (as a surrogate for salvageable tissue) rather than time of ischemia. RECENT FINDINGS Six randomized controlled trials undoubtedly confirmed the benefits of using endovascular thrombectomy on the clinical outcome of patients with stroke with large vessel occlusion within 6 hours from symptom onset compared with those receiving only standard medical care. In a meta-analysis of...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
This article describes restorative therapies to improve patient outcomes after stroke. These therapies contrast with acute stroke treatments such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and thrombectomy that target clots, aim to salvage threatened brain tissue to limit injury, and have a time window measured in hours. Restorative therapies target the brain, aim to promote plasticity within surviving brain tissue, and have a time window measured in days to weeks or longer. RECENT FINDINGS A number of drugs are under study. Preclinical studies are providing attractive therapeutic candidates for translation, suc...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
Contributors : Ashley McDonough ; Richard V Lee ; Shahani Noor ; Chungeun Lee ; Thu Le ; Michael Iorga ; Jessica L Phillips ; Sean Murphy ; Thomas M öller ; Jonathan R WeinsteinSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Mus musculusStroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and is a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide. Innate immune responses are critical in stroke pathophysiology, and microglia are key cellular effectors in the CNS response to ischemia/reperfusion. Using a transcriptional analysis approach, we identified a robust interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene res...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Mus musculus Source Type: research
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Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research
The problem of rehabilitation of post-stroke patients with motor deficit remains relevant with growing prevalence of disability and decreasing mortality, despite all measures aimed at stroke prevention and morbidity reduction. One of the most common conseq...
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