Persistent Gamma Spiking in SI Nonsensory Fast Spiking Cells Predicts Perceptual Success
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Hyeyoung Shin, Christopher I. MooreSummaryGamma oscillations (30–55 Hz) are hypothesized to temporally coordinate sensory encoding, enabling perception. However, fast spiking interneurons (FS), key gamma generators, can be highly sensory responsive, as is the gamma band local field potential (LFP). How can FS-mediated gamma act as an impartial temporal reference for sensory encoding, when the sensory drive itself presumably perturbs the pre-established rhythm? Combining tetrode recording in SI barrel cortex with controlled psychophysics...
Source: Neuron - July 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identification of a Spinal Circuit for Mechanical and Persistent Spontaneous Itch
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Haili Pan, Mahar Fatima, Alan Li, Hankyu Lee, Wei Cai, Lorraine Horwitz, Chia Chun Hor, Nizam Zaher, Mitchell Cin, Hannah Slade, Tianwen Huang, X.Z. Shawn Xu, Bo DuanSummaryLightly stroking the lips or gently poking some skin regions can evoke mechanical itch in healthy human subjects. Sensitization of mechanical itch and persistent spontaneous itch are intractable symptoms in chronic itch patients. However, the underlying neural circuits are not well defined. We identified a subpopulation of excitatory interneurons expressing Urocortin 3::Cre (Ucn3+) ...
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dopamine Deficiency Reduces Striatal Cholinergic Interneuron Function in Models of Parkinson’s Disease
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Jonathan W. McKinley, Ziqing Shi, Ivana Kawikova, Matthew Hur, Ian J. Bamford, Suma Priya Sudarsana Devi, Annie Vahedipour, Martin Darvas, Nigel S. BamfordSummaryMotor and cognitive functions depend on the coordinated interactions between dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) at striatal synapses. Increased ACh availability was assumed to accompany DA deficiency based on the outcome of pharmacological treatments and measurements in animals that were critically depleted of DA. Using Slc6a3DTR/+ diphtheria-toxin-sensitive mice, we demonstrate that a prog...
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Local versus Global Dendritic Integration
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): William M. Connelly, Greg J. StuartWhile many studies indicate that dendrites can perform a range of local computations on their inputs, work from the Harnett lab in this issue of Neuron suggests that the vast majority of active dendritic events are synchronized across the somato-dendritic axis of cortical pyramidal neurons. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Traces of Learning in Thalamocortical Circuits
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): Alex J. Yonk, David J. MargolisA recent study (Audette et al., 2019) demonstrates that thalamic input from the posterior medial (POm) nucleus to somatosensory cortex plays an unexpected role in plasticity resulting from associative sensory learning. POm-mediated plasticity may be critical for coordinating learning-related sensorimotor circuitry. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Low Dimensionality, High Robustness in Neural Population Dynamics
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): Román Rossi-Pool, Ranulfo RomoNeuronal populations respond within a small number of relevant dimensions. New research by Trautmann et al. (2019) shows that spike sorting is not necessary to extract the important features of this low-dimensional population signal. Combined responses of multiple neurons (multiunit activity) only generate small changes in the extracted signals. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How to Break a Fever: A Feedback Circuit for Body Temperature Control
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): Bo Duan, X.Z. Shawn XuBody temperature control is a critical brain function. In this issue of Neuron, Wang et al. identify a negative feedback circuit in mouse preoptic area of the hypothalamus that regulates body temperature to counter fever. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Many Roads to Sleep
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): Milan Halgren, Michael M. HalassaRecent studies have expanded our understanding of sleep regulation by elucidating multiple neural circuits that promote sleep. In this issue of Neuron, Ma et al. (2019) identify a novel thalamo-amygdalar circuit which uses neurotensin to initiate and sustain NREM sleep. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Working Memory: Flexible but Finite
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): Kirsten C.S. Adam, John T. SerencesThere are inherent trade-offs between the flexibility and the capacity of working memory, or the ability to temporarily hold information “in mind.” In a recent issue of Neuron, Bouchacourt and Buschman (2019) present a new model of working memory that demonstrates how coordinated activity between specialized sensory networks and flexible higher-order networks may support these competing constraints. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Beyond the Isolated Brain: The Promise and Challenge of Interacting Minds
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): Thalia Wheatley, Adam Boncz, Ivan Toni, Arjen StolkAs scientists, we brainstorm and develop experimental designs with our colleagues and students. Paradoxically, this teamwork has produced a field focused nearly exclusively on mapping the brain as if it evolved in isolation. Here, we discuss promises and challenges in advancing our understanding of how human minds connect during social interaction. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Embracing Complexity in Defensive Networks
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): Drew B. Headley, Vasiliki Kanta, Pinelopi Kyriazi, Denis ParéThe neural basis of defensive behaviors continues to attract much interest, not only because they are important for survival but also because their dysregulation may be at the origin of anxiety disorders. Recently, a dominant approach in the field has been the optogenetic manipulation of specific circuits or cell types within these circuits to dissect their role in different defensive behaviors. While the usefulness of optogenetics is unquestionable, we argue that this method, as c...
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thermoregulation via Temperature-Dependent PGD2 Production in Mouse Preoptic Area
Publication date: 17 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 2Author(s): Tongfei A. Wang, Chin Fen Teo, Malin Åkerblom, Chao Chen, Marena Tynan-La Fontaine, Vanille Juliette Greiner, Aaron Diaz, Michael T. McManus, Yuh Nung Jan, Lily Y. Jan (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bayesian Computation through Cortical Latent Dynamics
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Hansem Sohn, Devika Narain, Nicolas Meirhaeghe, Mehrdad JazayeriSummaryStatistical regularities in the environment create prior beliefs that we rely on to optimize our behavior when sensory information is uncertain. Bayesian theory formalizes how prior beliefs can be leveraged and has had a major impact on models of perception, sensorimotor function, and cognition. However, it is not known how recurrent interactions among neurons mediate Bayesian integration. By using a time-interval reproduction task in monkeys, we found that prior statistics warp neu...
Source: Neuron - July 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Single-Cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Human Neocortical Development during Mid-gestation
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Damon Polioudakis, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Justin Langerman, Andrew G. Elkins, Xu Shi, Jason L. Stein, Celine K. Vuong, Susanne Nichterwitz, Melinda Gevorgian, Carli K. Opland, Daning Lu, William Connell, Elizabeth K. Ruzzo, Jennifer K. Lowe, Tarik Hadzic, Flora I. Hinz, Shan Sabri, William E. Lowry, Mark B. Gerstein, Kathrin PlathSummaryWe performed RNA sequencing on 40,000 cells to create a high-resolution single-cell gene expression atlas of developing human cortex, providing the first single-cell characterization of previously uncharacterized cell...
Source: Neuron - July 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TREM2 Acts Downstream of CD33 in Modulating Microglial Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Ana Griciuc, Shaun Patel, Anthony N. Federico, Se Hoon Choi, Brendan J. Innes, Mary K. Oram, Gea Cereghetti, Danielle McGinty, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, Suzanne E. Hickman, Joseph El Khoury, Marco Colonna, Rudolph E. TanziSummaryThe microglial receptors CD33 and TREM2 have been associated with risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we investigated crosstalk between CD33 and TREM2. We showed that knockout of CD33 attenuated amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and improved cognition in 5xFAD mice, both of which were abrogated by additiona...
Source: Neuron - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Control of Synaptic Specificity by Establishing a Relative Preference for Synaptic Partners
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Chundi Xu, Emma Theisen, Ryan Maloney, Jing Peng, Ivan Santiago, Clarence Yapp, Zachary Werkhoven, Elijah Rumbaut, Bryan Shum, Dorota Tarnogorska, Jolanta Borycz, Liming Tan, Maximilien Courgeon, Ian A. Meinertzhagen, Benjamin de Bivort, Jan Drugowitsch, Matthew Y. PecotSummaryThe ability of neurons to identify correct synaptic partners is fundamental to the proper assembly and function of neural circuits. Relative to other steps in circuit formation such as axon guidance, our knowledge of how synaptic partner selection is regulated is severely limited....
Source: Neuron - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensory-to-Category Transformation via Dynamic Reorganization of Ensemble Structures in Mouse Auditory Cortex
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Yu Xin, Lin Zhong, Yuan Zhang, Taotao Zhou, Jingwei Pan, Ning-long XuSummaryThe ability to group physical stimuli into behaviorally relevant categories is fundamental to perception and cognition. Despite a large body of work on stimulus categorization at the behavioral and cognitive levels, little is known about the underlying mechanisms at the neuronal level. Here, combining mouse auditory psychophysical behavior and in vivo two-photon imaging from the auditory cortex, we investigate how sensory-to-category transformation is implemented by cortica...
Source: Neuron - July 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stable Representations of Decision Variables for Flexible Behavior
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Bilal A. Bari, Cooper D. Grossman, Emily E. Lubin, Adithya E. Rajagopalan, Jianna I. Cressy, Jeremiah Y. CohenSummaryDecisions occur in dynamic environments. In the framework of reinforcement learning, the probability of performing an action is influenced by decision variables. Discrepancies between predicted and obtained rewards (reward prediction errors) update these variables, but they are otherwise stable between decisions. Although reward prediction errors have been mapped to midbrain dopamine neurons, it is unclear how the brain represents decisio...
Source: Neuron - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visualizing Infralimbic Control over Incubation of Cocaine Craving
Publication date: 3 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 1Author(s): Phillip Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel, Gavan P. McNallyThe infralimbic prefrontal cortex serves complex roles in controlling drug-seeking behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Cameron et al. (2019) provide new insights into engagement and function of the infralimbic cortex → nucleus accumbens corticostriatal pathway in the incubation of cocaine craving. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interneurons Tap the Brakes on Learning
Publication date: 3 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 1Author(s): Ayaka Hachisuka, Sotiris C. MasmanidisLittle was previously known about the behavioral role of low-threshold spiking interneurons in the striatum. In this issue of Neuron, Holly et al. (2019) show that their activity can slow the acquisition of novel action-outcome associations. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bursting Enables GRP Neurons to Engage Spinal Itch Circuits
Publication date: 3 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 1Author(s): Hugues Petitjean, Philippe Seguéla, Reza Sharif-NaeiniIn this issue of Neuron, Pagani et al. (2019) find that itch signaling occurs only when GRP neurons fire action potentials in bursts. This enables GRP release and the activation of GRPR neurons, which help carry the itch signal to the brain. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Noise-Induced Tinnitus: Insights from Cellular Studies
Publication date: 3 July 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 103, Issue 1Author(s): Susan E. Shore, Calvin WuTinnitus, sound perception in the absence of physical stimuli, occurs in 15% of the population and is the top-reported disability for soldiers after combat. Noise overexposure is a major factor associated with tinnitus but does not always lead to tinnitus. Furthermore, people with normal audiograms can get tinnitus. In animal models, equivalent cochlear damage occurs in animals with and without behavioral evidence of tinnitus. But cochlear-nerve-recipient neurons in the brainstem demonstrate distinct, synchronized spontaneou...
Source: Neuron - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Memo1-Mediated Tiling of Radial Glial Cells Facilitates Cerebral Cortical Development
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Naoki Nakagawa, Charlotte Plestant, Keiko Yabuno-Nakagawa, Jingjun Li, Janice Lee, Chu-Wei Huang, Amelia Lee, Oleh Krupa, Aditi Adhikari, Suriya Thompson, Tamille Rhynes, Victoria Arevalo, Jason L. Stein, Zoltán Molnár, Ali Badache, E.S. AntonSummaryPolarized, non-overlapping, regularly spaced, tiled organization of radial glial cells (RGCs) serves as a framework to generate and organize cortical neuronal columns, layers, and circuitry. Here, we show that mediator of cell motility 1 (Memo1) is a critical determinant of radial glial tiling ...
Source: Neuron - July 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Natural and Drug Rewards Engage Distinct Pathways that Converge on Coordinated Hypothalamic and Reward Circuits
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Amber L. Alhadeff, Nitsan Goldstein, Onyoo Park, Michelle L. Klima, Alexandra Vargas, J. Nicholas BetleySummaryMotivated behavior is influenced by neural networks that integrate physiological needs. Here, we describe coordinated regulation of hypothalamic feeding and midbrain reward circuits in awake behaving mice. We find that alcohol and other non-nutritive drugs inhibit activity in hypothalamic feeding neurons. Interestingly, nutrients and drugs utilize different pathways for the inhibition of hypothalamic neuron activity, as alcohol signals hypothal...
Source: Neuron - July 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Plug-and-Play Protein Modification Using Homology-Independent Universal Genome Engineering
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Yudong Gao, Erin Hisey, Tyler W.A. Bradshaw, Eda Erata, Walter E. Brown, Jamie L. Courtland, Akiyoshi Uezu, Yu Xiang, Yarui Diao, Scott H. SoderlingSummaryAnalysis of endogenous protein localization, function, and dynamics is fundamental to the study of all cells, including the diversity of cell types in the brain. However, current approaches are often low throughput and resource intensive. Here, we describe a CRISPR-Cas9-based homology-independent universal genome engineering (HiUGE) method for endogenous protein manipulation that is straight...
Source: Neuron - July 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Small-Molecule Modulation of TDP-43 Recruitment to Stress Granules Prevents Persistent TDP-43 Accumulation in ALS/FTD
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Mark Y. Fang, Sebastian Markmiller, Anthony Q. Vu, Ashkan Javaherian, William E. Dowdle, Philippe Jolivet, Paul J. Bushway, Nicholas A. Castello, Ashmita Baral, Michelle Y. Chan, Jeremy W. Linsley, Drew Linsley, Mark Mercola, Steven Finkbeiner, Eric Lecuyer, Joseph W. Lewcock, Gene W. YeoSummaryStress granules (SGs) form during cellular stress and are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD). To yield insights into the role of SGs in pathophysiology, we performed a high-content ...
Source: Neuron - July 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Non-Canonical Wnt-Signaling through Ryk Regulates the Generation of Somatostatin- and Parvalbumin-Expressing Cortical Interneurons
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Melissa G. McKenzie, Lucy V. Cobbs, Patrick D. Dummer, Timothy J. Petros, Michael M. Halford, Steven Stacker, Yimin Zou, Gord J. Fishell, Edmund AuSummaryGABAergic interneurons have many important functions in cortical circuitry, a reflection of their cell diversity. The developmental origins of this diversity are poorly understood. Here, we identify rostral-caudal regionality in Wnt exposure within the interneuron progenitor zone delineating the specification of the two main interneuron subclasses. Caudally situated medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) pr...
Source: Neuron - June 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroligin-4 Regulates Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in Human Neurons
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Samuele G. Marro, Soham Chanda, Nan Yang, Justyna A. Janas, Giulio Valperga, Justin Trotter, Bo Zhou, Sean Merrill, Issa Yousif, Hannah Shelby, Hannes Vogel, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Thomas C. Südhof, Marius WernigSummaryThe autism-associated synaptic-adhesion gene Neuroligin-4 (NLGN4) is poorly conserved evolutionarily, limiting conclusions from Nlgn4 mouse models for human cells. Here, we show that the cellular and subcellular expression of human and murine Neuroligin-4 differ, with human Neuroligin-4 primarily expressed in cerebral cortex and local...
Source: Neuron - June 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurovascular Coupling in the Dentate Gyrus Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis
In this study, we investigated how coupling of pre-existing neurons to the cerebrovascular system regulates hippocampal neurogenesis. Using a new in vivo imaging method in freely moving mice, we found that hippocampus-engaged behaviors, such as exploration in a novel environment, rapidly increased microvascular blood-flow velocity in the dentate gyrus. Importantly, blocking this exploration-elevated blood flow dampened experience-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. By imaging the neurovascular niche in combination with chemogenetic manipulation, we revealed that pre-existing DGCs actively regulated microvascular blood f...
Source: Neuron - June 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transneuronal Propagation of Pathologic α-Synuclein from the Gut to the Brain Models Parkinson’s Disease
This study supports the Braak hypothesis in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD).Graphical Abstract (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - June 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thrombospondin-1 Mediates Axon Regeneration in Retinal Ganglion Cells
Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Eric R. Bray, Benjamin J. Yungher, Konstantin Levay, Marcio Ribeiro, Gennady Dvoryanchikov, Ana C. Ayupe, Kinjal Thakor, Victoria Marks, Michael Randolph, Matt C. Danzi, Tiffany M. Schmidt, Nirupa Chaudhari, Vance P. Lemmon, Samer Hattar, Kevin K. ParkSummaryNeuronal subtypes show diverse injury responses, but the molecular underpinnings remain elusive. Using transgenic mice that allow reliable visualization of axonal fate, we demonstrate that intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are both resilient to cell death and highly regen...
Source: Neuron - June 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Orbitofrontal Circuits Control Multiple Reinforcement-Learning Processes
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Stephanie M. Groman, Colby Keistler, Alex J. Keip, Emma Hammarlund, Ralph J. DiLeone, Christopher Pittenger, Daeyeol Lee, Jane R. TaylorSummaryAdaptive decision making in dynamic environments requires multiple reinforcement-learning steps that may be implemented by dissociable neural circuits. Here, we used a novel directionally specific viral ablation approach to investigate the function of several anatomically defined orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) circuits during adaptive, flexible decision making in rats trained on a probabilistic reversal learning tas...
Source: Neuron - June 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Strengthened Temporal Coordination within Pre-existing Sequential Cell Assemblies Supports Trajectory Replay
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Usman Farooq, Jeremie Sibille, Kefei Liu, George DragoiSummaryA central goal in learning and memory research is to reveal the neural substrates underlying episodic memory formation. The hallmark of sequential spatial trajectory learning, a model of episodic memory, has remained equivocal, with proposals ranging from de novo creation of compressed sequential replay from blank slate networks to selection of pre-existing compressed preplay sequences. Here, we show that increased millisecond-timescale activation of cell assemblies expressed during de novo ...
Source: Neuron - June 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deep Sequencing of Somatosensory Neurons Reveals Molecular Determinants of Intrinsic Physiological Properties
Publication date: Available online 24 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Yang Zheng, Pin Liu, Ling Bai, James S. Trimmer, Bruce P. Bean, David D. GintySummaryDorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neuron subtypes defined by their in vivo properties display distinct intrinsic electrical properties. We used bulk RNA sequencing of genetically labeled neurons and electrophysiological analyses to define ion channel contributions to the intrinsic electrical properties of DRG neuron subtypes. The transcriptome profiles of eight DRG neuron subtypes revealed differentially expressed and functionally relevant genes, including voltag...
Source: Neuron - June 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Serotonergic Raphe Promote Sleep in Zebrafish and Mice
Publication date: Available online 24 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Grigorios Oikonomou, Michael Altermatt, Rong-wei Zhang, Gerard M. Coughlin, Christin Montz, Viviana Gradinaru, David A. ProberSummaryThe role of serotonin (5-HT) in sleep is controversial: early studies suggested a sleep-promoting role, but eventually the paradigm shifted toward a wake-promoting function for the serotonergic raphe. Here, we provide evidence from zebrafish and mice that the raphe are critical for the initiation and maintenance of sleep. In zebrafish, genetic ablation of 5-HT production by the raphe reduces sleep, sleep depth, and the ho...
Source: Neuron - June 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Autism-Associated Gene Scn2a Contributes to Dendritic Excitability and Synaptic Function in the Prefrontal Cortex
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Perry W.E. Spratt, Roy Ben-Shalom, Caroline M. Keeshen, Kenneth J. Burke, Rebecca L. Clarkson, Stephan J. Sanders, Kevin J. BenderSummaryAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is strongly associated with de novo gene mutations. One of the most commonly affected genes is SCN2A. ASD-associated SCN2A mutations impair the encoded protein NaV1.2, a sodium channel important for action potential initiation and propagation in developing excitatory cortical neurons. The link between an axonal sodium channel and ASD, a disorder typically attributed to synaptic or transc...
Source: Neuron - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transforming the Choice Outcome to an Action Plan in Monkey Lateral Prefrontal Cortex: A Neural Circuit Model
We examined three scenarios regarding how the final action plan could emerge in the neural circuit and compared their implications with experimental data. Our model with heterogeneous connectivity predicts the coexistence of three types of neurons with distinct functions, confirmed by analyzing the neural activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) of behaving monkeys. We obtained a much more distinct classification of functional neuron types in the ventral than the dorsal region of LPFC, suggesting that the action plan is initially generated in ventral LPFC. Our model offers a biologically plausible neural circuit ar...
Source: Neuron - June 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Function in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome
Publication date: 19 June 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 102, Issue 6Author(s): Emily B. Warren, Eric M. MorrowCopy number variant disorders arise from altering the dosage of multiple contiguous genes. In this issue of Neuron, Fernandez et al. (2019) identify haploinsufficiency of mitochondrial Txnrd2 as an important contributor to the hypo-cortico-cortical connectivity of 22q11 deletion syndrome. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Looking at Synaptic Specificity from a Different Angle
Publication date: 19 June 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 102, Issue 6Author(s): Letizia Mariotti, Marco TripodiThe debate over the nature of mechanisms leading to the establishment of synaptic specificity has engaged neuroscientists for the best part of a century. In this issue of Neuron, Balaskas et al. (2019) provide new evidence in favor of the role of positional strategies in the organization of sensory-motor circuits. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Harnessing the Sun to See Anew
Publication date: 19 June 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 102, Issue 6Author(s): Gabriel Peinado Allina, Marie E. BurnsLight drives vision by directly activating opsin-based visual pigments in rod and cone photoreceptors. In this issue of Neuron, Morshedian et al. (2019) show that light also drives regeneration of the cone visual pigments via an elegant biochemical mechanism in Müller glial cells of the neural retina that can contribute to sustained cone function under daytime conditions. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Encoding of Speech Sounds in the Superior Temporal Gyrus
We present a theory that temporally recurrent connections within STG generate context-dependent phonological representations, spanning longer temporal sequences relevant for coherent percepts of syllables, words, and phrases. (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rapid Reconfiguration of the Functional Connectome after Chemogenetic Locus Coeruleus Activation
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Valerio Zerbi, Amalia Floriou-Servou, Marija Markicevic, Yannick Vermeiren, Oliver Sturman, Mattia Privitera, Lukas von Ziegler, Kim David Ferrari, Bruno Weber, Peter Paul De Deyn, Nicole Wenderoth, Johannes BohacekSummaryThe locus coeruleus (LC) supplies norepinephrine (NE) to the entire forebrain and regulates many fundamental brain functions. Studies in humans have suggested that strong LC activation might shift network connectivity to favor salience processing. To causally test this hypothesis, we use a mouse model to study the effect of LC stimula...
Source: Neuron - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Unusual Physiological Properties of Smooth Monostratified Ganglion Cell Types in Primate Retina
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Colleen E. Rhoades, Nishal P. Shah, Michael B. Manookin, Nora Brackbill, Alexandra Kling, Georges Goetz, Alexander Sher, Alan M. Litke, E.J. ChichilniskySummaryThe functions of the diverse retinal ganglion cell types in primates and the parallel visual pathways they initiate remain poorly understood. Here, unusual physiological and computational properties of the ON and OFF smooth monostratified ganglion cells are explored. Large-scale multi-electrode recordings from 48 macaque retinas revealed that these cells exhibit irregular receptive field structu...
Source: Neuron - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronally Enriched RUFY3 Is Required for Caspase-Mediated Axon Degeneration
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Nicholas T. Hertz, Eliza L. Adams, Ross A. Weber, Rebecca J. Shen, Melanie K. O’Rourke, David J. Simon, Henry Zebroski, Olav Olsen, Charles W. Morgan, Trevor R. Mileur, Angela M. Hitchcock, Nicholas A. Sinnott Armstrong, Michael Wainberg, Michael C. Bassik, Henrik Molina, James A. Wells, Marc Tessier-LavigneSummarySelective synaptic and axonal degeneration are critical aspects of both brain development and neurodegenerative disease. Inhibition of caspase signaling in neurons is a potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disease, but n...
Source: Neuron - June 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High-Frequency Activation of Nucleus Accumbens D1-MSNs Drives Excitatory Potentiation on D2-MSNs
This study uncovers a mechanism for shaping NAc core activity through the transfer of excitatory information from D1-MSNs to D2-MSNs and may provide a means for altering goal-directed behavior through coordinated MSN activity.Graphical Abstract (Source: Neuron)
Source: Neuron - June 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Specialized Neural Circuit Gates Social Vocalizations in the Mouse
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Katherine Tschida, Valerie Michael, Jun Takato, Bao-Xia Han, Shengli Zhao, Katsuyasu Sakurai, Richard Mooney, Fan WangSummaryVocalizations are fundamental to mammalian communication, but the underlying neural circuits await detailed characterization. Here, we used an intersectional genetic method to label and manipulate neurons in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) that are transiently active in male mice when they produce ultrasonic courtship vocalizations (USVs). Genetic silencing of PAG-USV neurons rendered males unable to produce USVs and impai...
Source: Neuron - June 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Discrete Dorsal Raphe to Basal Amygdala 5-HT Circuit Calibrates Aversive Memory
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Ayesha Sengupta, Andrew HolmesSummaryDespite a wealth of clinical and preclinical data implicating the serotonin (5-HT) system in fear-related affective disorders, a precise definition of this neuromodulator’s role in fear remains elusive. Using convergent anatomical and functional approaches, we interrogate the contribution to fear of basal amygdala (BA) 5-HT inputs from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). We show the DRN→BA 5-HT pathway is engaged during fear memory formation and retrieval, and activity of these projections facilitates fear an...
Source: Neuron - June 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A VTA GABAergic Neural Circuit Mediates Visually Evoked Innate Defensive Responses
We report that VTAGABA+ neurons respond to a looming stimulus. Inhibition of VTAGABA+ neurons reduced looming-evoked defensive flight behavior, and photoactivation of these neurons resulted in defense-like flight behavior. Using viral tracing and electrophysiological recordings, we show that VTAGABA+ neurons receive direct excitatory inputs from the superior colliculus (SC). Furthermore, we show that glutamatergic SC-VTA projections synapse onto VTAGABA+ neurons that project to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and that the CeA is involved in mediating the defensive behavior. Our findings demonstrate that aerial th...
Source: Neuron - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prefrontal Cortex Regulates Sensory Filtering through a Basal Ganglia-to-Thalamus Pathway
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Miho Nakajima, L.Ian Schmitt, Michael M. HalassaSummaryTo make adaptive decisions, organisms must appropriately filter sensory inputs, augmenting relevant signals and suppressing noise. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) partly implements this process by regulating thalamic activity through modality-specific thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) subnetworks. However, because the PFC does not directly project to sensory TRN subnetworks, the circuitry underlying this process had been unknown. Here, using anatomical tracing, functional manipulations, and optical iden...
Source: Neuron - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Open Source Brain: A Collaborative Resource for Visualizing, Analyzing, Simulating, and Developing Standardized Models of Neurons and Circuits
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Padraig Gleeson, Matteo Cantarelli, Boris Marin, Adrian Quintana, Matt Earnshaw, Sadra Sadeh, Eugenio Piasini, Justas Birgiolas, Robert C. Cannon, N. Alex Cayco-Gajic, Sharon Crook, Andrew P. Davison, Salvador Dura-Bernal, András Ecker, Michael L. Hines, Giovanni Idili, Frederic Lanore, Stephen D. Larson, William W. Lytton, Amitava MajumdarSummaryComputational models are powerful tools for exploring the properties of complex biological systems. In neuroscience, data-driven models of neural circuits that span multiple scales are increasingly bein...
Source: Neuron - June 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research