Invasion of Host Cells by Microsporidia

Microsporidia are found worldwide and both vertebrates and invertebrates can serve as hosts for these organisms. While microsporidiosis in humans can occur in both immune competent and immune compromised hosts, it has most often been seen in the immune suppressed population, e.g., patients with advanced HIV infection, patients who have had organ transplantation, those undergoing chemotherapy, or patients using other immune suppressive agents. Infection can be associated with either focal infection in a specific organ (e.g., keratoconjunctivitis, cerebritis, or hepatitis) or with disseminated disease. The most common presentation of microsporidiosis being gastrointestinal infection with chronic diarrhea and wasting syndrome. In the setting of advanced HIV infection or other cases of profound immune deficiency microsporidiosis can be extremely debilitating and carries a significant mortality risk. Microsporidia are transmitted as spores which invade host cells by a specialized invasion apparatus the polar tube (PT). This review summarizes recent studies that have provided information on the composition of the spore wall and PT, as well as insights into the mechanism of invasion and interaction of the PT and spore wall with host cells during infection.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Abstract BACKGROUND &AIMS: Quantification of anti-HBs and anti-HBc predicts the risk of HBV reactivation (HBVr) in lymphoma patients receiving rituximab treatment. However, it remains unclear whether the quantification is predictive of HBVr in leukemia patients undergoing immunosuppression. METHODS: and patients: Clinical and laboratory data of the leukemia patients with resolved HBV infection diagnosed between January 2013 and March 2018 were retrospectively collected. Data series of HBV seromarkers and HBV DNA levels before the patients receiving chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantati...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONSWe confirm that seroprotection for vaccine-preventable disease is affected by treatment for pediatric malignancy. A single booster dose of vaccine might be a practical way to restore vaccine immunity in patients after chemotherapy.
Source: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
Immunosuppression can lead to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B core antigen antibodies (anti-HBc) positive patients, especially those undergoing chemotherapy, although there is limited data on solid organ recipients, especially lung transplantation. Our aim was to analyze the risk of HBV reactivation and the potential impact of anti-HBc-positive status (both donors and recipients) on prognosis in a lung, kidney, and liver transplantation cohort. Retrospective analysis including data from all transplants in adults (2011–2012) in a tertiary hospital, with prospective HBV serology study to assess the...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
Transfusion related hepatitis C(HCV) is rare in the west, in the developing world, it remains a challenge. Children with hematological malignancies are especially vulnerable due to large number of blood components received. They often develop active hepatitis due to immunocompromised status and concurrent hepatic insults from chemotherapy and iron overload. Stem cell transplant(SCT) further increases hepatic risk due to veno-occlusive disease(VOD) and hepatic graft versus host disease(GVHD).Direct acting antivirals(DAA) have revolutionized treatment of HCV.
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 536 Source Type: research
More than 2 billion people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection is high (6.2%) in the Western Pacific and African regions [1]. Many researchers are aware of the risk of HBV reactivation in previously infected patients during immunosuppressive therapies such as chemotherapy, rituximab therapy and glucocorticoids [2,3]. The prevalence of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) ranges from 5% in Western countries to>50% in Far Eastern countries [4 –6].
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, around 20% of all patients with HBV reactivation developed HBV reactivation after 2 years from the initiation of therapy, unlike malignant lymphoma. This might be due to the fact that almost all of the patients received chemotherapy for a long duration. Therefore, a new strategy for the prevention of HBV reactivation in MM patients is required.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this report, we present a case wherein with high probability HBV reactivated after chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation despite the patient having received HBV vaccination during infancy.
Source: Digestive and Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Authors: Chandak S, Mandot A, Rathi S Abstract Hepatitis E is an enterically transmitted and typically self-limited infection, that is caused by the hepatitis E virus. Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute. Chronic hepatitis E is rare and occurs mainly in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, HIV patients with low CD4 count and in patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy. PMID: 31331149 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 and 4 infections are prevalent in industrialized and high-income countries. Although most HEV gt3 and gt4 infections are clinically silent, acute infection may be symptomatic in some patients. In persons with underlying liver disease and in elderly men, HEV infections may present as acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure. Chronic hepatitis may develop in immunosuppressed individuals, including transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and persons with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy, and may progress to life-threatening liver cirrhosi...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research
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