Consistently inconsistent: Multimodal episodic deficits in semantic aphasia

This study explored the impact of this semantic impairment on episodic recall. We used a verbal and non-verbal episodic memory task: participants remembered nursery rhymes in the verbal condition and logos and their associated products in the visual condition (e.g. bowl of cereal and coco-pops). For both tasks, we manipulated a) congruency with pre-existing knowledge (e.g. expectancy of trials: baa baa black build – instead of sheep) and b) whether these trial types were blocked by congruency or mixed, as well as (c) distractor strength. If SA patients experience overwhelming automatic activation, they should find incongruent items more difficult to suppress, particularly when presented in an unpredictable task format. A total of 13 SA patients were compared to 33 controls across three experiments. In line with our predictions, SA patients found it more difficult to retrieve episodic memories which were in conflict with pre-existing semantic knowledge. This was true across modalities. Moreover, these deficits were accentuated when the congruency was presented in a mixed fashion, and so unpredictable across trials. Evidence of these episodic control impairments in SA cases supports the idea of a shared mechanism for semantic and episodic memory control.
Source: Neuropsychologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Source: Aphasiology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
Discussion Memory is an important part of what distinguishes higher order species from others. Memory also is part of one’s self-identity. Difficulties in short-term memory can make common, everyday tasks difficult for the person experiencing the problem particularly if it recently occurred and the person’s long-term memory is intact. Difficulties with long-term memory can also have problems when language, events or even one’s own identity are affected. For some people the memory loss is temporary but for others, memory impairments are permanent and must be accepted and accommodated as part of the overall...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Conclusion Various skull base tumors involving MCF with extension to adjacent sites can be successfully resected using the TZ-MCF approach in a multidisciplinary fashion. This approach yields optimal exposure and permits excellent tumor control with acceptable CN and neurological morbidity. [...] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part B: Skull Base - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Noah S. Philip, Nicole CR. McLaughlin, Linda L. Carpenter, Mary L. Phillips, Hesheng Liu, Suzanne N. Haber, Benjamin D. Greenberg
Source: Brain Stimulation - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first observation of SD occurring after cSDH evacuation. SD occurred at a rate of 15% and was associated with neurological deterioration. This may represent a novel mechanism for otherwise unexplained fluctuating neurological deficit after cSDH evacuation. This could provide a new therapeutic target, and SD-targeted therapies should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials. PMID: 32217801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a novel form of transcranial magnetic stimulation that rapidly alters synaptic plasticity (1). During TBS, short bursts of high-frequency (typically 50 Hz) stimulation are repeated at 5 Hz (200 ms interval). When TBS is delivered in trains separated by rest periods (intermittent; iTBS) it has shown long-term potentiation-like effects on cortical neurons. In the last several years, numerous reports have indicated that repeated applications of iTBS have efficacy to reduce symptoms of major depressive disorder (2).
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Conditions:   Post-stroke Depression;   Post-stroke Aphasia Interventions:   Behavioral: Intensive communicative-pragmatic social interaction.;   Behavioral: Standard care. Sponsor:   University Medicine Greifswald Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
We describe, for the first time, a case of developmental dynamic dysphasia (DDD) in a right-handed adolescent boy (subject D) with cortical malformations involving language-eloquent regions (inferior frontal gyrus) in both the left and the right hemispheres. Language evaluation revealed a markedly reduced verbal output affecting phonemic and semantic fluency, phrase and sentence generation and verbal communication in everyday life. Auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, reading and spelling were relatively preserved, but executive function was impaired. Multimodal neuroimaging showed a malformed cerebral cortex with a...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Aphasic discourse has been investigated through two major approaches: a micro-linguistic approach and a macro one, but the separate analysis of the micro and macro aspects of aphasic discourse has led to a noticeable gap between them. Cohesion analysis is one of the possible ways that can directly connect these two aspects. However, few studies have investigated cohesion in aphasic discourse in an integrated manner. The present study employs a mixed-methods approach to examine whether and how patients with fluent and non-fluent stroke-induced aphasia differ from normal individuals in the cohesion of their...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research
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Source: Aphasiology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
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