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The developmental time course and topographic distribution of individual-level monkey face discrimination in the infant brain
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Ryan Barry-Anwar, Hillary Hadley, Stefania Conte, Andreas Keil, Lisa S. Scott The ability to discriminate between faces from unfamiliar face groups has previously been found to decrease across the first year of life. Here, individual-level discrimination of faces within a previously unfamiliar group was investigated by measuring neural responses to monkey faces. Six- and 9-month-old infants (n = 42) completed a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) task while steady state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were recorded. Using an oddba...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Smaller Amygdala Volume and Increased Neuroticism Predict Anxiety Symptoms in Healthy Subjects: A Volumetric Approach Using Manual Tracing
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Yifan Hu, Matthew Moore, Zachariah Bertels, K. Luan Phan, Florin Dolcos, Sanda Dolcos Volume reductions in the amygdala (AMY) have been found in patients with anxiety disorders, but findings are mixed in subclinical participants with high trait anxiety scores, in whom both reductions and increases in AMY volume have been identified. One potential reason for such discrepancies could be the employment of different methods to determine the AMY volume (i.e., manual tracing in psychiatric research vs. automated methods), in non-patient resea...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrophysiological impact of multiple concussions in asymptomatic athletes: a re-analysis based on alpha activity during a visual-spatial attention task
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Samuel Guay, Louis De Beaumont, Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Jean-Marc Lina, Pierre Jolicoeur Most EEG studies used event-related potentials to assess long-term and cumulative effects of sport-related concussions on brain activity. Time-frequency methods provide another approach that allows the detection of subtle shifts in types and patterns of brain oscillations. We sought to discover whether event-related alpha activity would be significantly affected in asymptomatic multi-concussed athletes. We measured the amplitude of alpha activity (8&n...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

EEG-neurofeedback training of beta band (12 –22Hz) affects alpha and beta frequencies – a controlled study of a healthy population
In this study, we administered EEG-neurofeedback (EEG-NFB) to a healthy population to determine the efficacy of this procedure. We evaluated feedback manipulation in the beta band (12–22Hz), known to be involved in visual attention processing. Two groups of healthy adults were trained to either up- or down-regulate beta band activity mutual control. Up-regulation training induced increases in beta and alpha band (8–12Hz) amplitudes during the first three sessions. Group-independent increases in the activity of both bands were observed in the later phase of training. EEG changes were not matched by measured beha...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Longitudinal interactions between brain and cognitive measures on reading development from 6 months to 14 years
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A. Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H.T. Leppänen Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chromaticity Separation and the Alpha Response
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): S.M. Haigh, N.R. Cooper, A.J. Wilkins Chromatic gratings can be uncomfortable to view and can evoke a large haemodynamic response. Both the discomfort and the amplitude of the haemodynamic response increase monotonically with the perceptual difference in the colour of the component bars of the grating, as registered by the separation in their chromaticity in the CIE 1976 UCS diagram. Individuals with photosensitive epilepsy exhibit epileptiform EEG activity in response to flickering light of alternate colours. The probability of the epi...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Altered function but not structure of the amygdala in nicotine-dependent individuals
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia, Volume 107 Author(s): Zhujing Shen, Peiyu Huang, Chao Wang, Wei Qian, Xiao Luo, Xiaojun Guan, Tiantian Qiu, Yihong Yang, Minming Zhang Tobacco use disorder is frequently comorbid with emotional disorders, each exerting reciprocal influence on the other. As an important hub for emotional processing, amygdala may also play a critical role in tobacco addiction. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the volume and spontaneous activity of the amygdala in nicotine-dependent individuals and their relationships with cigarette use. A total of 84 smokers (aged 22–54 years)...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Translucence perception is not dependent on cortical areas critical for processing colour or texture
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): A.C. Chadwick, C.A. Heywood, H.E. Smithson, R.W. Kentridge Translucence is an important property of natural materials, and human observers are adept at perceiving changes in translucence. Perceptions of different material properties appear to arise from different cortical regions, and it is therefore plausible that the perception of translucence is dependent on specialised regions, separate from those important for colour and texture processing. To test for anatomical independence between areas necessary for colour, texture and transluc...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

More than blindsight: Case report of a child with extraordinary visual capacity following perinatal bilateral occipital lobe injury
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Inaki-Carril Mundinano, Juan Chen, Mitchell de Souza, Marc G. Sarossy, Marc F. Joanisse, Melvyn A. Goodale, James A. Bourne Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) and the geniculostriate pathway in adults results in cortical blindness, abolishing conscious visual perception. Early studies by Larry Weiskrantz and colleagues demonstrated that some patients with an occipital-lobe injury exhibited a degree of unconscious vision and visually-guided behaviour within the blind field. A more recent focus has been the observed ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Language control mechanisms differ for native languages: neuromagnetic evidence from trilingual language switching
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Suzanne C.A. Hut, Päivi Helenius, Alina Leminen, Jyrki P. Mäkelä, Minna Lehtonen How does the brain process and control languages that are learned at a different age, when proficiency in all these languages is high? Early acquired strong languages are likely to have higher baseline activation levels than later learned less-dominant languages. However, it is still largely unknown how the activation levels of these different languages are controlled, and how interference from an irrelevant language is prevented. In this mag...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Causal Mapping of Emotion Networks in the Human Brain: Framework and Initial Findings
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Julien Dubois, Hiroyuki Oya, J. Michael Tyszka, Matthew Howard, Frederick Eberhardt, Ralph Adolphs Emotions involve many cortical and subcortical regions, prominently including the amygdala. It remains unknown how these multiple network components interact, and it remains unknown how they cause the behavioral, autonomic, and experiential effects of emotions. Here we describe a framework for combining a novel technique, concurrent electrical stimulation with fMRI (es-fMRI), together with a novel analysis, inferring causal structure from ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Does TMS on V3 block conscious visual perception?
The objective of this study was to examine the causal role of V3 in visual consciousness in humans. We combined neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a computational model of the TMS-induced electric field to test whether or not the intact processing of visual input in V3, like in V1 and V2, is necessary for conscious visual perception. We targeted the stimulation both to V2 and to V3. If TMS of V3 blocks conscious visual perception of stimuli, then activation in V3 is a causally necessary prerequisite for conscious perception of stimuli. According to the alternative hypothesis, TMS of V3 will not blo...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Affective blindsight in the absence of input from face processing regions in occipital-temporal cortex
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Christopher L. Striemer, Robert L. Whitwell, Melvyn A. Goodale Previous research suggests that the implicit recognition of emotional expressions may be carried out by pathways that bypass primary visual cortex (V1) and project to the amygdala. Some of the strongest evidence supporting this claim comes from case studies of “affective blindsight” in which patients with V1 damage can correctly guess whether an unseen face was depicting a fearful or happy expression. In the current study, we report a new case of affective blinds...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

TMS-EEG reveals hemispheric asymmetries in top-down influences of posterior intraparietal cortex on behavior and visual event-related potentials
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Mikko Hurme, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Henry Railo, Victor Vorobyev, Jussi Tallus, Teemu Paavilainen, Antti Revonsuo Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posteri...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Temporal Gradient During Famous Face Naming is Associated with Lower Cerebral Blood Flow and Gray Matter Volume in Aging
Conclusions This represents the first study to show that cognitively intact older adults who demonstrate a RTG during famous face naming exhibit vascular dysregulation and structural changes similar to that seen in AD risk. Findings suggest that famous face naming ability may be particularly sensitive to the very early brain changes associated with AD. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A role for consolidation in cross-modal category learning
This study investigated the acquisition and consolidation of categorical information that required participants to integrate information across visual and auditory dimensions. The impact of wake- and sleep-dependent consolidation were investigated using a paradigm in which training and testing were separated by a delay spanning either an evening of sleep or daytime wakefulness, with a paired-associate episodic memory task used as a measure of classic sleep-dependent consolidation. Participants displayed good evidence of category learning, but did not show any wake- or sleep-dependent changes in memory for category informat...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Are Resting State Spectral Power Measures Related to Executive Functions in Healthy Young Adults?
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Shirley Gordon, Doron Todder, Inbal Deutsch, Dror Garbi, Nir Getter, Nachshon Meiran Resting-state electroencephalogram (rsEEG) has been found to be associated with psychopathology, intelligence, problem solving, academic performance and is sometimes used as a supportive physiological indicator of enhancement in cognitive training interventions (e.g. neurofeedback, working memory training). In the current study, we measured rsEEG spectral power measures (relative power, between-band ratios and asymmetry) in one hundred sixty five young ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The ERP correlates of self-knowledge: Are assessments of one ’s past, present, and future traits closer to semantic or episodic memory?
In this study, we aimed to compare the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of self-knowledge to those of semantic and episodic memory, using N400 and Late Positive Component (LPC) as proxies for semantic and episodic processing, respectively. We considered an additional factor: time perspective. Temporally distant selves have been suggested to be more semantic compared to the present self, but thinking about one’s past and future selves may also engage episodic memory. Twenty-eight adults answered whether traits (e.g., persistent) were true of most people holding an occupation (e.g., soldiers; semantic memory co...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Emotional priming depends on the degree of conscious experience
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Michael Lohse, Morten Overgaard Most experiments in consciousness research assume that awareness is a dichotomous 'either/or' phenomenon. However, participants can distinguish multiple levels of subjective experience of simple features (colour, shape etc.), which correlate with their performance in different tasks. As experiments showing multiple levels of perceptual awareness question the widespread idea that many forms of perception can occur unconsciously, we investigated emotional priming combined with methods able to measure small ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

“Why don't they ‘like’ me more?”: Comparing the time courses of social and monetary reward processing
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia, Volume 107 Author(s): Belel Ait Oumeziane, Jacqueline Schryer-Praga, Dan Foti Humans possess a strong tendency towards social affiliation and interpersonal interaction. Yet, we know far less about how rewards in one's social environment affect functioning as we do with other types of rewards, presumably due to the inherent complexity of measuring social phenomena in laboratory settings. Here, we adapted a social reward paradigm (social incentive delay [SID]) for use in event-related potential (ERP) research, enabling a direct comparison of social and monetary reward...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The role of the P3 and CNV components in voluntary and automatic temporal orienting: A high spatial-resolution ERP study
In this study a group of healthy adults underwent a cued reaction time task purposely designed to assess both voluntary and automatic TO. During the task, both post-cue and post-target event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded by means of a high spatial resolution EEG system. In the results of the post-cue analysis, the P3a and P3b were identified as two distinct ERP markers showing distinguishable spatiotemporal features and reflecting automatic and voluntary a priori expectancy generation, respectively. The brain source reconstruction further revealed that distinct cortical circuits supported these two temporally dis...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasticity of the human visual brain after an early cortical lesion
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): K. Mikellidou, R. Arrighi, G. Aghakhanyan, F. Tinelli, F. Frijia, S. Crespi, F. De Masi, D. Montanaro, M.C. Morrone In adults, partial damage to V1 or optic radiations abolishes perception in the corresponding part of the visual field, causing a scotoma. However, it is widely accepted that the developing cortex has superior capacities to reorganize following an early lesion to endorse adaptive plasticity. Here we report a single patient case (G.S.) with near normal central field vision despite a massive unilateral lesion to the optic rad...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Functional connectivity in the dorsal stream and between bilateral auditory-related cortical areas differentially contribute to speech decoding depending on spectro-temporal signal integrity and performance
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia, Volume 106 Author(s): Stefan Elmer, Jürg Kühnis, Piyush Rauch, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Lutz Jäncke Speech processing relies on the interdependence between auditory perception, sensorimotor integration, and verbal memory functions. Functional and structural connectivity between bilateral auditory-related cortical areas (ARCAs) facilitates spectro-temporal analyses, whereas the dynamic interplay between ARCAs and Broca's area (i.e., dorsal pathway) contributes to verbal memory functions, articulation, and sound-to-motor mapping. However, it remains un...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Structural Connections Support Emotional Connections: Uncinate Fasciculus Microstructure is Related to the Ability to Decode Facial Emotion Expressions
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Bethany M Coad, Mark Postans, Carl J Hodgetts, Nils Muhlert, Kim S Graham, Andrew D Lawrence The Uncinate Fasciculus (UF) is an association fibre tract connecting regions in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. UF disruption is seen in several disorders associated with impaired social behaviour, but its functional role is unclear. Here we set out to test the hypothesis that the UF is important for facial expression processing, an ability fundamental to adaptive social behaviour. In two separate experiments in healthy adults, we used ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Machiavellian Tendencies Increase Following Damage to the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Shira Cohen-Zimerman, Aileen Chau, Frank Krueger, Barry Gordon, Jordan Grafman Machiavellianism – a personality trait that is characterized by a tendency to distrust, deceive and exploit others – has been the focus of growing attention in psychological research. Neuroimaging studies of Machiavellianism highlight the influence of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) on Machiavellianism tendencies. However, knowledge regarding the causal role of the left and right dlPFC on Machiavellianism is still obscure. Here, we measu...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Links between action perception and action production in 10-week-old infants
This study suggests that parietal regions are associated with the perception of biological motion even at 9–11 weeks. Further, this result strongly suggests that experience refines the perception of biological motion and that at 10 weeks of age, the link between action perception and action production is tightly woven. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Movements and body ownership: evidence from the rubber hand illusion after mechanical limb immobilization
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Dalila Burin, Francesca Garbarini, Valentina Bruno, Carlotta Fossataro, Cristina Destefanis, Anna Berti, Lorenzo Pia There is no consensus on whether, and to what extent, actions contribute to constructing awareness of one's own body. Here we investigated at both physiological and behavioral level whether a prolonged limb immobilization affects body ownership. We tested a group of healthy participants, whose left-hand movements were prevented by a cast for one week, and a control group without any movement restriction. In both groups, we...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lateralised sleep spindles relate to false memory generation
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): John J. Shaw, Padraic Monaghan Sleep is known to enhance false memories: After presenting participants with lists of semantically related words, sleeping before recalling these words results in a greater acceptance of unseen “lure” words related in theme to previously seen words. Furthermore, the right hemisphere (RH) seems to be more prone to false memories than the left hemisphere (LH). In the current study, we investigated the sleep architecture associated with these false memory and lateralisation effects in a nap study. ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of alpha and gamma transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on verbal creativity and intelligence test performance
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Roland H. Grabner, Julia Krenn, Andreas Fink, Martin Arendasy, Mathias Benedek Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method that allows to directly modulate brain oscillations of a given frequency. Using this method, it was recently shown that increasing alpha (10Hz) oscillations improved creative ideation with figural material and that increasing gamma (40Hz) oscillations speeded up performance in a figural matrices intelligence task. The aim of the present study was to examine whether t...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasticity of the human visual brain after early cortical lesion
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): K. Mikellidou, R. Arrighi, G. Aghakhanyan, F. Tinelli, F. Frijia, S. Crespi, F. De Masi, D. Montanaro, M.C. Morrone In adults, partial damage to V1 or optic radiations abolishes perception in the corresponding part of the visual field, causing a scotoma. However, it is widely accepted that the developing cortex has superior capacities to reorganize following an early lesion to endorse adaptive plasticity. Here we report a single patient case (G.S.) with near normal central field vision despite a massive unilateral lesion to the optic rad...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distinct Cerebellar Regions Related to Motor and Cognitive Performance in SCA6 Patients
Conclusion Different regional patterns of cerebellar involvement were found for the motoric GPT task and the executive version of the TMT. The results for the GPT strongly indicated that the integrity of medial superior hemispheric regions was associated with motor task performance, whereas executive cognitive function was localized in distinctly different inferior regions. This is the first VBM study to differentiate cognitive and motor contributions of the cerebellum. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Preliminary report on the association between pulvinar volume and the ability to detect backward-masked facial features
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): M. Justin Kim, Alison M. Mattek, Daisy A. Burr, Paul J. Whalen Although backward masking is a powerful experimental tool in mitigating visual awareness of facial expressions of emotion, ~20% of participants consistently report being resistant to its effects. In our previous studies, we excluded these participants from analysis as we focused on neural data in individuals who were subjectively unaware of backward-masked facial features that were presented for a brief period of time (e.g., 17 ms). Here, we shifted our focus to potential str...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ERPs reveal perceptual and conceptual processing in 14-month-olds' observation of complete and incomplete action end-states
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Maria Schönebeck, Birgit Elsner Infants in the second year of life not only detect the visible goals or end-states of other people's action, but they also seem to be able to infer others’ underlying intentions. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the biological basis of infants’ processing of others’ goal-directed actions, with special regard to the involvement of bottom-up perceptual and top-down conceptual processes. In an adaptation of the behavioral re-enactment procedure, 14-m...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impaired math achievement in patients with acute vestibular neuritis
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Ivan Moser, Dominique Vibert, Marco D. Caversaccio, Fred W. Mast Broad cognitive difficulties have been reported in patients with peripheral vestibular deficit, especially in the domain of spatial cognition. Processing and manipulating numbers relies on the ability to use the inherent spatial features of numbers. It is thus conceivable that patients with acute peripheral vestibular deficit show impaired numerical cognition. Using the number Stroop task and a short math achievement test, we tested 20 patients with acute vestibular neuriti...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The neural correlates of apathy in schizophrenia: an exploratory investigation
Conclusions We replicated previous associations between reduced frontal GM and apathy in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, we demonstrated that these GM associations are distinct from those with Affective Flattening. The present findings set the stage for future larger-scale studies confirming the structural and neurochemical substrates of apathy in schizophrenia. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

On the “blindness” of blindsight: What is the evidence for phenomenal awareness in the absence of primary visual cortex (V1)?
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Chiara Mazzi, Silvia Savazzi, Juha Silvanto Blindsight has been central to theories of phenomenal awareness; that a lesion to primary visual cortex (V1) abolishes all phenomenal awareness while unconscious visual functions can remain has led to the views that this region plays in generating visual consciousness. However, since the early 20th century, there have been reports, many of which controversial, of phenomenal awareness in patients with V1 lesions. These reports include selective sparing of motion awareness, hemianopic completion ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gamma oscillations in the superior colliculus and pulvinar in response to faces support discrimination performance in monkeys
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Quan Van Le, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Minh Nui Nguyen, Can Van Mao, Etsuro Hori, Rafael S. Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo The subcortical visual pathway including the superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and amygdala has been implicated in unconscious visual processing of faces, eyes, and gaze direction in blindsight. Our previous studies reported that monkey SC and pulvinar neurons responded preferentially to images of faces while performing a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task to d...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ERPs reveal perceptual and conceptual processing in 14-month-olds ’ observation of complete and incomplete action end-states
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Maria Schönebeck, Birgit Elsner Infants in the second year of life not only detect the visible goals or end-states of other people's action, but they also seem to be able to infer others’ underlying intentions. The present study used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the biological basis of infants’ processing of others’ goal-directed actions, with special regard to the involvement of bottom-up perceptual and top-down conceptual processes. In an adaptation of the behavioral reenactment procedure, 14-mon...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A hitchhiker's guide to lesion-behaviour mapping
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Bianca de Haan, Hans-Otto Karnath Lesion-behaviour mapping is an influential and popular approach to anatomically localise cognitive brain functions in the human brain. Multiple considerations, ranging from patient selection, assessment of lesion location and patient behaviour, spatial normalisation, statistical testing, to the anatomical interpretation of obtained results, are necessary to optimize a lesion-behaviour mapping study and arrive at meaningful conclusions. Here, we provide a hitchhiker's guide, giving practical guidelines an...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural Mechanisms of Mental Fatigue Elicited by Sustained Auditory Processing
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Travis M. Moore, Alexandra P. Key, Antonia Thelen, Benjamin W.Y. Hornsby Despite growing evidence that prolonged episodes of effortful listening can lead to mental fatigue, little work has been done to examine the patterns of brain activation associated with listening over time. In order to gain a better understanding of the nature of listening-related mental fatigue, this study characterized the effects of sustained auditory processing on brain activation in 19 adults with normal hearing. A 50-minute, auditory choice paradigm served as ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrophysiology of Prosodic and Lexical-Semantic Processing During Sentence Comprehension in Aphasia
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Shannon M. Sheppard, Tracy Love, Katherine J. Midgley, Phillip J. Holcomb, Lewis P. Shapiro Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine how individuals with aphasia and a group of age-matched controls use prosody and thematic fit information in sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Two groups of individuals with aphasia were investigated; those demonstrating relatively good sentence comprehension whose primary language difficulty is anomia (Individuals with Anomic Aphasia (IWAA)), and those who demonstrate impair...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Psychological causes of autobiographical amnesia: A study of 28 cases
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Angelica Staniloiu, Hans J. Markowitsch, Andreas Kordon Autobiographical amnesia is found in patients with focal or diffuse brain damage (“organic amnesia”), but also without overt brain damage (at least when measured with conventional brain imaging methods). This last condition is usually named dissociative amnesia at present, and was originally described as hysteria. Classically and traditionally, dissociative amnesia is seen as a disorder that causes retrograde amnesia in the autobiographical domain in the aftermath of inc...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Concepts, actions, and objects: Functional and neural perspectives
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Marius V. Peelen, Alfonso Caramazza (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Oxytocin Increases Attention to the Eyes and Selectively Enhances Self-Reported Affective Empathy for Fear
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Kelly Hubble, Katie Daughters, Antony S.R. Manstead, Aled Rees, Anita Thapar, Stephanie H.M. van Goozen Oxytocin (OXT) has previously been implicated in a range of prosocial behaviors such as trust and emotion recognition. Nevertheless, recent studies have questioned the evidence for this link. In addition, there has been relatively little conclusive research on the effect of OXT on empathic ability and such studies as there are have not examined the mechanisms through which OXT might affect empathy, or whether OXT selectively facilitate...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral metabolic correlates of attention networks in Alzheimer's Disease: a study of the Stroop
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Rebecca J. Melrose, Stephanie Young, Gali Weissberger, Laura Natta, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David Sultzer Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show difficulties with attention. Cognitive neuroscience models posit that attention can be broken down into alerting, orienting, and executive networks. We used the Stroop Color-Word test to interrogate the neural correlates of attention deficits in AD. We hypothesized that the Word, Color, and Color-Word conditions of the Stroop would all tap into the alerting and orienting networks. T...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Common brain networks for distinct deficits in visual neglect. A combined structural and tractography MRI approach
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Monica N. Toba, Raffaella Migliaccio, Bénédicte Batrancourt, Clémence Bourlon, Christophe Duret, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Bruno Dubois, Paolo Bartolomeo Visual neglect is a heterogeneous, multi-component syndrome resulting from right hemisphere damage. Neglect patients do not pay attention to events occurring on their left side, and have a poor functional outcome. The intra-hemispheric location of lesions producing neglect is debated, because studies using different methods reported different locations in the grey matte...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex during Encoding Improves Recall but not Recognition Memory
In this study, we investigated tDCS effects on face-name associative memory using both recall and recognition tests. Participants encoded face-name pairs under either active (1.5mA) or sham (0.1mA) stimulation applied to the scalp adjacent to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), an area known to support associative memory. Participants’ memory was then tested after study (day one) and then again after a 24-hour delay (day two), to assess both immediate and delayed stimulation effects on memory. Results indicated that active relative to sham stimulation led to substantially improved recall (more than 50%) ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural signatures of dynamic emotion constructs in the human brain
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Tijl Grootswagers, Briana L. Kennedy, Steven B. Most, Thomas A. Carlson How is emotion represented in the brain: is it categorical or along dimensions? In the present study, we applied multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the brain's temporally unfolding representations of different emotion constructs. First, participants rated 525 images on the dimensions of valence and arousal and by intensity of discrete emotion categories (happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, and sadness). Thirteen new participa...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Eyetracking metrics reveal impaired spatial anticipation in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Silvia Primativo, Camilla Clark, Keir XX Yong, Nicholas.C. Firth, Jennifer Nicholas, Daniel Alexander, Jason D Warren, Jonathan D Rohrer, Sebastian J Crutch Eyetracking technology has had limited application in the dementia field to date, with most studies attempting to discriminate syndrome subgroups on the basis of basic oculomotor functions rather than higher-order cognitive abilities. Eyetracking-based tasks may also offer opportunities to reduce or ameliorate problems associated with standard paper-and-pencil cognitive tests such as...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural correlates of visuospatial bias in patients with left hemisphere stroke: a causal functional contribution analysis based on game theory
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): C. Malherbe, R. Umarova, M. Zavaglia, C. Kaller, L. Beume, G. Thomalla, C. Weiller, C.C. Hilgetag Stroke patients frequently display spatial neglect, an inability to report, or respond to, relevant stimuli in the contralesional space. Although this syndrome is widely considered to result from the dysfunction of a large-scale attention network, the individual contributions of damaged grey and white matter regions to neglect are still being disputed. Moreover, while the neuroanatomy of neglect in right hemispheric lesions is well studied, ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research