Dopaminergic genes are associated with both directed and random exploration
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Samuel J. Gershman, Bastian Greshake TzovarasAbstractIn order to maximize long-term rewards, agents must balance exploitation (choosing the option with the highest payoff) and exploration (gathering information about options that might have higher payoffs). Although the optimal solution to this trade-off is intractable, humans make use of two effective strategies: selectively exploring options with high uncertainty (directed exploration), and increasing the randomness of their choices when they are more uncertain (random exploration). Usin...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Visual Detection of Affordances for Aperture Negotiation in People with Parkinson Disease
ConclusionsPD significantly impacted the affordances for aperture negotiation. Such altered perceptual affordances may contribute to gait pattern changes in people with PD when walking through doorways. These findings suggest that some of the motor symptoms in PD might have a perceptual underpinning. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cross-modal integration during value-driven attentional capture
This study sheds new light on the potential implication of brain regions underlying value-driven attention across sensory modalities. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Typical numerosity adaptation despite selectively impaired number acuity in dyscalculia
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Giovanni Anobile, Guido Marco Cicchini, Filippo Gasperini, David C. BurrAbstractIt has been suggested that a core deficit of the “number sense” may underlie dyscalculia. We test this idea by measuring perceptual adaptation and discrimination thresholds for numerosity and object size in a group of dyscalculic and typical preadolescents (N=71, mean age 12). We confirmed that numerosity discrimination thresholds are higher in developmental dyscalculia, while size thresholds are not affected. However, dyscalculics adapted to numero...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Investigating the roles of medial prefrontal and superior temporal cortex in source monitoring
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Peter Moseley, Kaja J. Mitrenga, Amanda Ellison, Charles FernyhoughAbstractSource monitoring, or the ability to recall the origin of information, is a crucial aspect of remembering past experience. One facet of this, reality monitoring, refers to the ability to distinguish between internally generated and externally generated information, biases in which have previously been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that medial prefrontal and superior temporal (STG) regions may play a r...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disconfirmation Modulates the Neural Correlates of the False Consensus Effect: A Parametric Modulation Approach
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): B. Locke Welborn, Matthew D. LiebermanAbstractThe False Consensus Effect (FCE) – the tendency to (erroneously) project our attitudes and opinions onto others – is an enduring bias in social reasoning with important societal implications. In this fMRI investigation, we examine the neural correlates of within-subject variation in consensus bias on a variety of social and political issues. Bias demonstrated a strong association with activity in brain regions implicated in self-related cognition, mentalizing, and valuation. Importa...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2018Source: Neuropsychologia, Volume 119Author(s): (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multivariate pattern analysis of the human pSTS: A comparison of three prototypical localizers
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Samhita Dasgupta, Ramesh Srinivasan, Emily D. GrossmanAbstractThe posterior extent of the human superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is an important cortical region for detecting animacy, attributing agency to others, and decoding goal-directed behavior. Theoretical accounts attribute these cognitive skills to unique neural populations that have been difficult to identify empirically (Hein & Knight, 2008). The aim of this study is to evaluate the multivariate statistical structure of pSTS activation patterns when viewing different social cu...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The neural representation of an individualized relational affective space
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Seth M. Levine, Anja Wackerle, Rainer Rupprecht, Jens V. SchwarzbachAbstractHumans experience emotions every day. Traditionally, psychology has described emotions through discrete labels (e.g. happy, afraid) or standardized affective dimensions (e.g. valence, arousal), and neuroscience has more recently sought the neurobiological basis of emotions via functional neuroimaging. However, by treating emotions similarly among everyone, we neglect that emotions are individualized; thus the overall relational structure of an individual's emotion ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Post-Exercise Facilitation of Executive Function is Independent of Aerobically Supported Metabolic Costs
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Matthew Heath, Andrea Petrella, Jonathan Blazevic, David Lim, Andre Pelletier, Glen BelfryAbstractA single-bout of aerobic or resistance training facilitates executive function and is a benefit thought to be specific to exercise durations greater than 20 minutes. We sought to determine whether an executive benefit is observed for a session as brief as 10-minutes, and whether distinct and participant-specific exercise intensities – and associated metabolic costs – influence the magnitude of the benefit. Participants complet...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Consciousness and confidence
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): David RosenthalAbstractIt is natural to see conscious perceptions as typically bringing with them a degree of confidence about what is perceived. So one might also expect such confidence not to occur if a perception is not conscious. This has resulted in the use of confidence as a test or measure of consciousness, one that may be more reliable and fine-grained than the traditional appeal to subjective report as a test for a perception's being conscious. The following describes theoretical difficulties for the use of confidence as a reliabl...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rubber Hand Illusion survives Ventral Premotor area inhibition: A rTMS study
In this study, we aimed at exploring the role of PMv in generating and experiencing the RHI. Off-line repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) was applied to a group of 24 healthy participants whilst changes in proprioceptive judgment and self-reported illusion sensations were collected and analysed separately. The PMv was not directly implicated in generating the sense of ownership. Indeed, its inhibition affected the explicit detection of the visuo-tactile congruence without interfering with the illusion experience itself. We hypothesized that the conscious visuo-tactile congruence detection may be independent...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Orienting toward threat: Contributions of a subcortical pathway transmitting retinal afferents to the amygdala via the superior colliculus and pulvinar
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Kristin Koller, Robert D. Rafal, Adam Platt, Nicholas D. MitchellAbstractProbabilistic diffusion tractography was used to provide the first direct evidence for a subcortical pathway from the retina to the amygdala, via the superior colliculus and pulvinar, that transmits visual stimuli signaling threat. A bias to orient toward threat was measured in a temporal order judgement saccade decision task, under monocular viewing, in a group of 19 healthy participants who also underwent diffusion weighted MR imaging. On each trial of the behaviour...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distinct neural engagement during implicit and explicit regulation of negative stimuli
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Kerry L. Kinney, K. Luan Phan, Heide KlumppAbstractNeuroimaging research has characterized underlying neural mechanisms of attentional control and cognitive reappraisal, common implicit and explicit forms of emotion regulation, respectively. This research suggests attentional control and reappraisal may engage similar midline and lateral areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); however, findings are largely based on separate studies. Therefore, the extent to which mechanisms of implicit versus explicit regulation are i...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Suppress to feel and remember less: Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory
In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants’ memory for the images was tested one week later. Behaviorally, explicit suppression reduced emotional ratings of negative images, whereas both explicit and implicit suppression reduced subsequent memory. At the neural level, the engagement of explicit suppression was uniquely associated with decreased activity in the amygdala (AMY), during emotional ratings, and in the...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-lasting improvement following tDCS treatment combined with a training for reading in children and adolescents with dyslexia
This study confirmed the ameliorative effects of multiple sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a training for reading on the reading abilities of children and adolescents with dyslexia and examined whether they are long-lasting.Twenty-six children and adolescents with dyslexia received 3 20-min sessions per week for 6 weeks (18 sessions) of left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, set to 1 mA, over the parieto-temporal regions, combined with training for reading. The participants were randomly assigned to receive active or sham treatment. Reading measures (text, high- and low-frequency words, ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ipsilesional deficit of selective attention in left homonymous hemianopia and left unilateral spatial neglect
ConclusionsThe present results bring further evidence that patients with left homonymous hemianopia or left unilateral neglect both present a weaker but significant ipsilesional deficit in addition to their well-known massive contralesional deficit. The presence of a specific attentional deficit in the right ipsilesional visual field of left hemianopic and left neglect patients is discussed regarding the hypothesis of hemispheric specialization for selective spatial attention and may have clinical implications for both conditions. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Human amygdala stimulation effects on emotion physiology and emotional experience
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Cory S. Inman, Kelly R. Bijanki, David I. Bass, Robert E. Gross, Stephan Hamann, Jon T. WillieAbstractThe amygdala is a key structure mediating emotional processing. Few studies have used direct electrical stimulation of the amygdala in humans to examine stimulation-elicited physiological and emotional responses, and the nature of such effects remains unclear. Determining the effects of electrical stimulation of the amygdala has important theoretical implications for current discrete and dimensional neurobiological theories of emotion, which...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dissociations of conscious and unconscious perception in TMS-induced blindsight
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Lua Koenig, Tony RoAbstractAs with some patients with primary visual cortex (V1) damage, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over V1 reliably induces blindsight, whereby observers can correctly discriminate the attributes of visual stimuli despite being unable to detect them. This TMS-induced blindsight has been demonstrated to reflect a form of unconscious vision that relies upon different neural pathways than with conscious vision. However, the timing of the neural processes mediating TMS-induced blindsight has been unclear, especially...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The current status of the magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): John SteinAbstractSome people doubt that the concept of developmental dyslexia (DD) is useful at all because the phonological weaknesses seen in DD cannot be distinguished from those found in every person with poor reading skills, whatever their cause. Here I argue that true DD is characterised by poor temporal processing, hence impaired visual and auditory sequencing, that is caused by impaired development of transient/magnocellular (M-) systems throughout the brain. These deficits can be measured in order to distinguish the causes of the p...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

RUBBER HAND ILLUSION SURVIVES VENTRAL PREMOTOR AREA INHIBITION a rTMS study
In this study, we aimed at exploring the role of PMv in generating and experiencing the RHI. Off-line repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) was applied to a group of 24 healthy participants whilst changes in proprioceptive judgment and self-reported illusion sensations were collected and analysed separately. The PMv was not directly implicated in generating the sense of ownership. Indeed, its inhibition affected the explicit detection of the visuo-tactile congruence without interfering with the illusion experience itself. We hypothesized that the conscious visuo-tactile congruence detection may be independent...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hierarchical timescales of statistical learning revealed by mismatch negativity to auditory pattern deviations
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Kaitlin Fitzgerald, Juanita ToddAbstractThe amplitude of mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited following an unexpected sound reflects a pattern-violation signal that will increase with estimated precision. Precision is inversely related to environmental variance, and should be higher the longer that current regularities have been stable. However, MMN amplitude can be impacted by initial learning such that the relative probability of sounds when first encountered distorts the precision estimates later associated with those sounds. The presen...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

An information-theoretic perspective on the costs of cognition
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Zénon Alexandre, Solopchuk Oleg, Pezzulo GiovanniAbstractIn statistics and machine learning, model accuracy is traded off with complexity, which can be viewed as the amount of information extracted from the data. Here, we discuss how cognitive costs can be expressed in terms of similar information costs, i.e. as a function of the amount of information required to update a person's prior knowledge (or internal model) to effectively solve a task. We then examine the theoretical consequences that ensue from this assumption. This fram...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Resting-state brain oscillations predict trait-like cognitive styles
Publication date: November 2018Source: Neuropsychologia, Volume 120Author(s): Brian Erickson, Monica Truelove-Hill, Yongtaek Oh, Julia Anderson, Fengqing (Zoe) Zhang, John KouniosAbstractAnecdotal reports suggest the existence of individual differences in peoples' cognitive styles for solving problems, in particular, the tendency to rely on insight (the "aha" phenomenon) versus deliberate analytical thought. We hypothesized that such stable individual differences exist and are associated with trait-like individual differences in resting-state brain activity. We tested this idea by recording participants' resting-...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

No evidence from MVPA for different processes underlying the N300 and N400 incongruity effects in object-scene processing
Publication date: November 2018Source: Neuropsychologia, Volume 120Author(s): Dejan Draschkow, Edvard Heikel, Melissa L.-H. Võ, Christian J. Fiebach, Jona SassenhagenAbstractAttributing meaning to diverse visual input is a core feature of human cognition. Violating environmental expectations (e.g., a toothbrush in the fridge) induces a late event-related negativity of the event-related potential/ERP. This N400 ERP has not only been linked to the semantic processing of language, but also to objects and scenes. Inconsistent object-scene relationships are additionally associated with an earlier negative deflection of t...
Source: Neuropsychologia - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spontaneous eyeblinks are sensitive to sequential learning
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Estibaliz San Anton, Axel Cleeremans, Arnaud Destrebecqz, Philippe Peigneux, Rémy SchmitzAbstractAlthough sequential learning and spontaneous eyeblink rate (EBR) have both been shown to be tightly related to cerebral dopaminergic activity, they have never been investigated at the same time. In the present study, EBR, taken as an indirect marker of dopaminergic activity, was investigated in two resting state conditions, both before and after visuomotor sequence learning in a serial reaction time task (SRT) and during task practice....
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A robust dissociation among the language, multiple demand, and default mode networks: Evidence from inter-region correlations in effect size
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Zachary Mineroff, Idan Asher Blank, Kyle Mahowald, Evelina FedorenkoAbstractComplex cognitive processes, including language, rely on multiple mental operations that are carried out by several large-scale functional networks in the frontal, temporal, and parietal association cortices of the human brain. The central division of cognitive labor is between two fronto-parietal bilateral networks: (a) the multiple demand (MD) network, which supports executive processes, such as working memory and cognitive control, and is engaged by diverse ta...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Residual effects of cannabis use on attentional bias towards fearful faces
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Robert D. Torrence, Don C. Rojas, Lucy J. TroupAbstractCannabis use has increased since legalization in various states within the United States of America. Although much of the research on the neurological and psychological effects of cannabis has been on non-human animals, the current research suggests that it can have anxiolytic effects and also decrease some cognitive functioning (e.g. memory, emotional processing, etc.). Individuals with high anxiety have been suggested to have increased attentional bias towards threat-related stimul...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Deontological morality can be experimentally enhanced by increasing disgust: A transcranial direct current stimulation study
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Cristina Ottaviani, Francesco Mancini, Samantha Provenzano, Alberto Collazzoni, Francesca D’OlimpioAbstractPrevious studies empirically support the existence of a distinctive association between deontological (but not altruistic) guilt and both disgust and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Given that the neural substrate underlying deontological guilt comprises brain regions strictly implicated in the emotion of disgust (i.e. the insula), the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that indirect stimulation of the insula via t...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

How occupational status influences the processing of faces: an EEG study
This study examines the influence of social hierarchy on the neural electrophysiological responses to faces. In contrast with earlier EEG studies that typically manipulate social rank through competitive situations, we implemented hierarchy through occupational status and thus contrasted faces associated with high- vs. low-status (e.g. lawyer vs. waiter). Since social hierarchies are largely intertwined with gender, both female and male faces were used as stimuli, and both female and male participants were tested. The procedure consisted in presenting a status label before the face it was associated with. The analyses focu...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Risk Perception as a Function of Risk Level: An Approach to the Study of Risk through a Daily Life Task
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): A. Megías, A. Cándido, A. Maldonado, A. CatenaAbstractWe are often required to make decisions that can have safe or risky consequences. Evaluating the risk of each possible alternative is an important step before making our final decision. The main goal of the present research was to explore the neural basis of risk perception in a naturalistic context (driving). Twenty-two drivers evaluated the perceived risk in 72 traffic situations (previously categorized by driving instructors) while brain activity was recorded using fM...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expectations May Influence the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Sheida Rabipour, Allan D. Wu, Patrick S.R. Davidson, Marco IacoboniAbstractGrowing interest surrounds transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a safe and inexpensive method for improving cognitive functions and mood. Nevertheless, tDCS studies rarely examine psychological factors such as expectations of outcomes, which may influence tDCS responsiveness through placebo-like effects. Here we sought to evaluate the potential influence of expectations on tDCS intervention outcomes. We assessed expectations of tDCS outcomes in 88 hea...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multitasking in aging: ERP correlates of dual-task costs in young versus low, intermediate, and high performing older adults
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Sven Thönes, Michael Falkenstein, Patrick D. GajewskiAbstractWith large inter-individual variability, older adults show a decline in cognitive performance in dual-task situations. Differences in attentional processes, working memory, response selection, and general speed of information processing have been discussed as potential sources of this decline and its between-subject variability. In comparison to young subjects (n = 36, mean age: 25 years), we analyzed the performance of a large group of healthy elderly subjects (n = 138, m...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Functional reorganisation and recovery following cortical lesions: A preliminary study in macaque monkeys
Publication date: October 2018Source: Neuropsychologia, Volume 119Author(s): Matthew Ainsworth, Helen Browncross, Daniel J. Mitchell, Anna S. Mitchell, Richard E. Passingham, Mark J. Buckley, John Duncan, Andrew H. BellAbstractDamage following traumatic brain injury or stroke can often extend beyond the boundaries of the initial insult and can lead to maladaptive cortical reorganisation. On the other hand, beneficial cortical reorganisation leading to recovery of function can also occur. We used resting state FMRI to investigate how cortical networks in the macaque brain change across time in response to lesions to the pre...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Go/no-go training affects frontal midline theta and mu oscillations to passively observed food stimuli
This study investigated the electrophysiological mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial effects of go/no-go training on food consumption. EEG was measured while 19 participants passively observed pictures of food and non-food items, both before and after the go/no-go training. During training, 50% of the food and non-food items were consistently paired with a go/no-go response. After training, food items that had been associated with a response induced larger mu desynchronization at electrodes over sensorimotor regions, whereas food items that had been associated with withholding from responding induced larger increas...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Energization and Spoken Language Production: Evidence from Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Megan S. Barker, Nicole L. Nelson, John D. O'Sullivan, Robert Adam, Gail A. RobinsonAbstractEnergization is the process of initiating and sustaining a response over time. It has been described as one of three key “supervisory” attentional control processes associated with the frontal lobes. Attentional mechanisms, such as energization, are critical for a range of cognitive functions, such as spontaneous speech and other higher-order tasks. We aimed to investigate the process of energization in a case series of patients with pr...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Asymmetric neural responses for facial expressions and anti-expressions
We examined whether neural responses to these complementary stimulus pairs were equivalent or asymmetric, and also tested for norm-based coding by comparing whether stronger responses are elicited by expressions and anti-expressions than neutral faces. Observers viewed 20 s sequences of 6 Hz alternations of neutral faces and expressions, neutral faces and anti-expressions, and expressions and anti-expressions. Responses were analyzed in the frequency domain. Significant responses at half the frequency of the presentation rate (3 Hz), indicating asymmetries in responses, were observed for all conditions. Inve...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Left frontal anodal tDCS increases approach motivation depending on reward attributes
DiscussionThe observation of an increasing effect of left frontal anodal tDCS on effort expenditure for reward as indicated by HTC supports the idea of a causal relationship between asymmetric activity of frontal brain sites and approach motivation and hints at moderating effects of task-features on the effects of tDCS. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Outcome evaluations in group decision-making using authority rule: An electrophysiological study
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Kenta Kimura, Hiroki Sawada, Jun’ichi KatayamaAbstractThe present study aimed to investigate whether coincidence of opinion affects the evaluative processing of outcomes in group decision-making under authority rule. For this purpose, we examined the effects of the opinion coincidence on feedback-related negativity (FRN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) reflecting the evaluative processing of outcomes. Six three-person groups performed a group decision-making task in which one member acting as a leader (leader blocks) made a ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Military Veterans is Associated with Increased Neuropsychological Intra-Individual Variability
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Victoria C. Merritt, Alexandra L. Clark, Laura D. Crocker, Scott F. Sorg, Madeleine L. Werhane, Mark W. Bondi, Dawn M. Schiehser, Lisa Delano-WoodAbstractAlthough across-test intra-individual variability (IIV), or dispersion, has been shown to be a valuable marker of neurological health in a variety of clinical samples, IIV has not been well examined in the context of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In the present study, we examined measures of IIV in military Veterans with and without a history of mTBI. Secondly, we examined how measur...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Copycat of dynamic facial expressions: Superior volitional motor control for expressions of disgust
We examined the impact of emotion in preparing and revoking a prepared expression, and possible facilitation for dynamic facial expressions relative to symbolic primes. Participants' facial responses were scored using automated analyses of facial expressions with computer software. The underlying neurocognitive processes were tracked with event-related-potentials. Reprogramming costs, in the form of longer reaction times (RTs) in trials where participants had prepared an invalidly primed expression and had to quickly switch to the correct one, were more pronounced for smiles and jaw drops than for disgust, possibly indicat...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Changes in discourse structure over time following traumatic brain injury
The objective of the present study was to investigate structural changes in the narrative discourse of individuals with penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) following immediate and delayed story retellings. Additionally, the potential influence of immediate memory, working memory, and executive functions on narrative discourse performance were examined. The narrative discourse of two groups, 123 with pTBI and 44 non-brain injured (NBI), was sampled. Participants were asked to retell a wordless picture story immediately after viewing it and again 30-minutes later. Story narratives were analyzed using a variety of micro...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predicted sensory consequences of voluntary actions modulate amplitude of preceding readiness potentials
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Daniel Reznik, Shiri Simon, Roy MukamelAbstractSelf-generated, voluntary actions, are preceded by a slow negativity in the scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signal recorded from frontal regions (termed ‘readiness potential’; RP). This signal, and its lateralized subcomponent (LRP), is mainly regarded as preparatory motor activity associated with the forthcoming voluntary motor act. However, it is not clear whether this neural signature is associated with preparatory motor activity, expectation of its associated sensory conseque...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Magnifying vision improves motor performance in individuals with stroke
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Elisabetta Ambron, Steven Jax, Luis F. Schettino, H. Branch CoslettAbstractIncreasing perceived hand size using magnifying lenses improves tactile discrimination and motor performance in neurologically-intact individuals. We tested whether magnification of the hand can improve motor function in individuals with chronic stroke. Twenty-five individuals with a history of stroke more than 6 months prior to testing underwent a series of tasks exploring different aspects of motor performance (grip force, finger tapping, reaching and grasping, and...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Role of context in affective theory of mind in Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Harmony Duclos, Alexandre Bejanin, Francis Eustache, Béatrice Desgranges, Mickaël LaisneyAbstractAffective theory of mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to deal with affective mental states. Attributing an affective mental state from a facial expression relies mainly on processes that allow information in the environment to be perceived and decoded. Reasoning processes are required when information is not directly available in the environment (e.g., when making an affective mental state attribution in a social situation where t...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Good to be stressed? Improved response inhibition and error processing after acute stress in young and older men
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Angelika Margarete Dierolf, Daniela Schoofs, Eve-Mariek Hessas, Michael Falkenstein, Tobias Otto, Marcus Paul, Boris Suchan, Oliver T. WolfAbstractWhile aging and stress are both known to affect cognitive functions, little is known on whether and how age modulates stress effects on executive functions and their neural correlates. The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on response inhibition and error processing and their underlying cortical processes in younger and older healthy men, using EEG. Forty-nine participants (30...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Risk taking, decision-making, and brain volume in youth adopted internationally from institutional care
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Max P. Herzberg, Amanda S. Hodel, Raquel A. Cowell, Ruskin H. Hunt, Megan R. Gunnar, Kathleen M. ThomasAbstractEarly life stress in the form of early institutional care has been shown to have wide-ranging impacts on the biological and behavioral development of young children. Studies of brain structure using magnetic resonance imaging have reported decreased prefrontal volumes, and a large literature has detailed decreased executive function (EF) in post-institutionalized (PI) youth. Little is known about how these findings relate to decisi...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

No Effect of Vocabulary Reactivation in Older Adults
Publication date: Available online 25 August 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Maren Jasmin Cordi, Thomas Schreiner, Björn RaschAbstractQuality of memory and sleep declines with age. However, the mechanistic interactions underlying the memory function of sleep in older adults are still unknown. It is widely assumed that the beneficial effect of sleep on memory relies on reactivation during Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep Targeting these reactivations by cue re-exposure reliably improves memory in younger participants. Here we tested whether the memory reactivation mechanism during sleep is still functional in...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A common representation of time across visual and auditory modalities
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Louise C. Barne, João R. Sato, Raphael Y. de Camargo, Peter M.E. Claessens, Marcelo S. Caetano, André M. CravoAbstractHumans' and non-human animals' ability to process time on the scale of milliseconds and seconds is essential for adaptive behaviour. A central question of how brains keep track of time is how specific temporal information across different sensory modalities is. In the present study, we show that encoding of temporal intervals in auditory and visual modalities are qualitatively similar. Human participants were i...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Auditory time perception in Huntington's disease
ConclusionOur data confirm that the impairment in time perception in persons affected by HD correlates with the advancing disease. They also suggest that time perception depends on similar cognitive mechanisms as the ones sub-serving the Stroop interference test. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research