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Does Synaesthesia Age? Changes in the quality and consistency of synaesthetic associations
We present the first evidence that aging desaturates synaesthetic colours in the minds of older synaesthetes, and we show for the first time that aging affects the key diagnostic measure of synaesthesia (consistency of colours over time). We screened ~4000 members of the general population to identify grapheme-colour synaesthetes, targeting both younger and older adults. We found proportionally fewer older than younger synaesthetes, not only because fewer older people self-reported the condition, but because fewer also passed the objective diagnostic test. We examined the roots of this apparent decline in grapheme-colour s...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

N1 responses to images of hands in occipito-temporal event-related potentials
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Miguel Granja Espírito Santo, Octavian Sorin Maxim, Martin Schürmann Hands, much like faces, convey social information, instructions and intentions to an observer. While the neural processes of face perception have been widely studied, it was only recently that fMRI identified occipito-temporal areas sensitive to static images of hands as body parts. To complement these studies with fine-grained timing information, we measured event-related EEG potentials (ERPs) from 33 subjects who were presented with static images of hand...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Perception of Caucasian and African faces in 5- to 9-month-old Caucasian infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Susanna Timeo, Sabrina Brigadoi, Teresa Farroni Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this popula...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sensory overload and imbalance: Resting-state vestibular connectivity in PTSD and its dissociative subtype
Discussion Taken together, decreased vestibular nuclei functional connectivity with key cortical vestibular regions in the PTSD+DS as compared to PTSD group, and its negative correlations with PTSD and dissociative symptoms, suggest that dysregulation of vestibular multisensory integration may contribute to the unique symptom profiles of each group. Further research examining disruption of vestibular system neural circuitry in PTSD and its dissociative subtype will be critical in capturing the neurophenomenology of PTSD symptoms and in identifying psychotherapeutic techniques that target dysfunction related to the vestibul...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Target and distractor processing and the influence of load on the allocation of attention to task-irrelevant threat
This study investigated the characteristics of two distinct mechanisms of attention – stimulus enhancement and stimulus suppression – using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. Across three experiments, participants viewed sparse visual search arrays containing one target and one distractor. The main results of Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that whereas neural signals for stimuli that are not inherently salient could be directly suppressed without prior attentional enhancement, this was not the case for stimuli with motivational relevance (human faces). Experiment 3 showed that as task difficulty increased...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural correlates of working memory in children and adolescents with agenesis of the corpus callosum: an fMRI study
This study aims to investigate functional organisation of WM in children and adolescents with AgCC using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nine children with AgCC and a comparison group of sixteen TD children aged 8 to 17 years completed an fMRI WM paradigm designed to enable investigation of different WM processes, i.e., encoding, maintenance and retrieval. We found that AgCC children recruited globally similar brain regions as the TD comparison group during the WM task, despite significant disparity in brain development, i.e., bilateral occipito-frontal activations during verbal encoding, and bilateral fronto...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Aging and Working Memory Performance: Electrophysiological Correlates of High and Low Performing Elderly
In this study we investigated age-related changes in WM capacity and their respective ERP correlates. We explicitly addressed the differentiation between high and low performing elderly to identify electrophysiological correlates of successful aging. Therefore, ERP and behavioral data was obtained from 45 young (mean = 22.73 years) and 35 older participants (mean = 68.49 years). Both groups performed a visual-spatial n-back task with two levels of difficulty. Additionally, related neuropsychological tests were administered. Older subjects performed less accurately in both conditions of the n-back task. Older age was additi...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Emotion processing in the infant brain: the importance of local information
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Carlijn van den Boomen, Nicolette M. Munsters, Chantal Kemner Facial expressions provide crucial information for an infant's social and cognitive development. Expressions are discriminated based on specific basic-level information, such as global and local information represented in spatial frequencies. Research in adults suggests that different neural pathways are involved in emotion discrimination, each activated by specific spatial frequency ranges. However, in infants the involvement of spatial frequencies in emotion discrimination ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Face working memory deficits in developmental prosopagnosia: Tests of encoding limits and updating processes
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Margaret C Jackson, Paul Counter, Jeremy J Tree Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a condition in which individuals experience life-long problems recognising faces. In recent years, unpacking the nature of the impairments of this population has been the focus of numerous studies. One focus has been on the nature of face-based memory impairments for such individuals, with the onus being mainly on long-term memory deficits. Far fewer have considered the nature of face-based working memory (WM) impairments for DP cases, and the current st...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Investigating the Role of Temporal Lobe Activation in Speech Perception Accuracy with Normal Hearing Adults: An Event-Related fNIRS Study
We presented participants with a speech recognition task using sentences in quiet, sentences in noise, and vocoded sentences. Hemodynamic responses were examined across conditions and then compared when speech perception was accurate compared to when speech perception was inaccurate in the context of noisy speech. Repeated measures, two-way ANOVAs revealed that the speech in noise condition (−2.8dB signal-to-noise ratio/SNR) demonstrated significantly greater activation than the easier listening conditions on multiple channels bilaterally. Further analyses comparing correct recognition trials to incorrect recognition...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alpha-band transcranial alternating current stimulation modulates precision, but not gain during whole-body spatial updating
This study tested whether alpha oscillations directly contribute to whole-body motion updating using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). In a double blind sham controlled design, healthy volunteers received 10Hz tACS at an intensity of 1mA over either the left or right posterior hemisphere during a whole-body motion updating task. Updating performance was assessed psychometrically and indices of gain and precision were obtained. No tACS-related effects on updating gain were found, irrespective of whether the remapping was across or within the hemispheres. In contrast, updating precision was enhanced when a...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Top-down modulation of alpha power and pattern similarity for threatening representations in visual short-term memory
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of alpha oscillations and their spatiotemporal characteristics that underlie top-down attention to threatening representations during VSTM maintenance with electroencephalography. Participants were instructed to remember a threatening object and a neutral object in a cued variant delayed response task. Retrospective cues (retro-cues) were presented to direct attention to the hemifield of a threatening object (i.e., cue-to-threat trials) or a neutral object (i.e., cue-to-neutral trials) during a retention interval prior to the probe test. We found a significant retro-cue-related...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Improved accuracy of lesion to symptom mapping with multivariate sparse canonical correlations
In this study, we propose a multivariate optimization technique known as sparse canonical correlation analysis for neuroimaging (SCCAN) for lesion to symptom mapping. To validate the method and compare it with mass-univariate results, we used data from 131 patients with chronic stroke lesions in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, and created synthetic behavioral scores based on the lesion load of 93 brain regions (putative functional units). LSM analyses were performed with univariate VLSM or SCCAN, and the accuracy of the two methods was compared in terms of both overlap and and displacement from the simulated f...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lexical access in semantic variant PPA: Evidence for a post-semantic contribution to naming deficits
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Stephen M. Wilson, Charlotte Dehollain, Sophie Ferrieux, Laura Hook, Marc Teichmann The most salient clinical symptom of semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a profound and pervasive anomia. These patients’ naming impairments have been shown to reflect in large part a domain-general deterioration of conceptual knowledge that impacts both linguistic and non-linguistic processing. However, it is possible that post-semantic stages of lexical access may also contribute to naming deficits. To clarify the stages at whic...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High vagally mediated resting-state heart rate variability is associated with superior action cascading
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Lorenza S. Colzato, Laura Steenbergen The neurovisceral integration model suggests that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV), an index of vagal tone, may relate to prefrontal cortical activity and predict performance on cognitive control tasks. The aim of this study was to further verify this model by investigating the relationship between vagally-mediated resting-state HRV and action cascading, a crucial cognitive control function which refers to the ability to cope with multiple response options when confronted with ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pathways for smiling, disgust and fear recognition in blindsight patients
We examined, then, the possible pathways that may convey affective visual information to these centers following lesions of V1. We concluded that the pathway leading to pACC, AI, and amygdala involves the deep layers of the superior colliculus, the medial pulvinar, and the superior temporal sulcus region. We suggest that this visual pathway provides an image of the observed affective faces, which, although deteriorated, is sufficient to determine some overt behavior, but not to provide conscious experience of the presented stimuli. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Musical training increases functional connectivity, but does not enhance mu suppression
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Carolyn Wu, Jeff P. Hamm, Vanessa K. Lim, Ian J. Kirk Musical training provides an ideal platform for investigating action representation for sound. Learning to play an instrument requires integration of sensory and motor perception-action processes. Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated that listening to trained music can result in the activity in premotor areas, even after a short period of training. These studies suggest that action representation systems are heavily dependent on specific sensorimotor experience. However, othe...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Structural Changes in Socio-Affective Networks: Multi-Modal MRI Findings in Long-Term Meditation Practitioners
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Haakon G. Engen, Boris C. Bernhardt, Leon Skottnik, Matthieu Ricard, Tania Singer Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k hours, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extens...
Source: Neuropsychologia - September 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Corrections for multiple comparisons in voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping
Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Daniel Mirman, Jon-Frederick Landrigan, Spiro Kokolis, Sean Verillo, Casey Ferrara, Dorian Pustina Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) is an important method for basic and translational human neuroscience research. VLSM leverages modern neuroimaging analysis techniques to build on the classic approach of examining the relationship between location of brain damage and cognitive deficits. Testing an association between deficit severity and lesion status in each voxel involves very many individual tests and requires statistical correct...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Amygdala Activation as a Marker for Selective Attention Toward Neutral Faces in a Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury Population
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Leanne R. Young, Weikei Yu, Michael Holloway, Barry N. Rodgers, Sandra B. Chapman, Daniel C. Krawczyk There has been great interest in characterizing the response of the amygdala to emotional faces, especially in the context of social cognition. Although amygdala activation is most often associated with fearful or angry stimuli, there is considerable evidence that the response of the amygdala to neutral faces is both robust and reliable. This characteristic of amygdala function is of particular interest in the context of assessing populat...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Artificial grammar learning in vascular and progressive non-fluent aphasias
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Thomas E. Cope, Benjamin Wilson, Holly Robson, Rebecca Drinkall, Lauren Dean, Manon Grube, P. Simon Jones, Karalyn Patterson, Timothy D. Griffiths, James B. Rowe, Christopher I. Petkov Patients with non-fluent aphasias display impairments of expressive and receptive grammar. This has been attributed to deficits in processing configurational and hierarchical sequencing relationships. This hypothesis had not been formally tested. It was also controversial whether impairments are specific to language, or reflect domain general deficits in pr...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural signatures of recognition memory in 10- to 12-month-old infants
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Szilvia Linnert, Brigitta Tóth, Márton Nagy, Eugenio Parise, Ildikó Király Understanding memory mechanisms is crucial in the study of infant social and cognitive development. Here, we show that the Nc ERP component, known to reflect frequency-related attentional and/or memory processes, is a good candidate to investigate infant recognition memory. Previous paradigms have only investigated the effect of frequency during on-line stimulus presentation, but not during stimulus encoding. In this paper, we present a ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of mental workload on involuntary attention: A somatosensory ERP study
This study investigated the tactile ERP and EEG spectral power correlates of mental workload by relating limited-capacity involuntary attention allocation to changes in late positive potential (LPP) amplitude, alpha, and theta powers. We examined whether mental workload (high-level cognitive control) can be evaluated using somatosensory stimuli. Sixteen participants all performed three tasks of varying difficulty. Two dual n-back tasks (n = 1 and 2) were used to investigate the degree to which mental workload affected the LPP amplitudes and EEG spectral powers evoked by ignoring salient tactile stimuli. In control trials, ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dance expertise modulates visual sensitivity to complex biological movements
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Andrea Orlandi, Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio Motor resonance processes that occur when observing an individual perform an action may be modulated by acquired visuomotor expertise. We used the event-related potential (EEG/ERP) technique to investigate the ability to automatically recognize a subtle difference between very similar novel contemporary dance movements. Twelve professional dancers and twelve non-dancers were shown 212 pairs of videos of complex whole-body movements that lasted 3seconds. The second of each pair was the rep...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

How mimicry influences the neural correlates of reward: an fMRI study
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Chun-Ting Hsu, Thomas Sims, Bhismadev Chakrabarti Mimicry has been suggested to function as a “social glue”, a key mechanism that helps to build social rapport. It leads to increased feeling of closeness toward the mimicker as well as greater liking, suggesting close bidirectional links with reward. In recent work using eye-gaze tracking, we have demonstrated that the reward value of being mimicked, measured using a preferential looking paradigm, is directly proportional to trait empathy (Neufeld & Chakrabarti, 2016). ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Category-selective human brain processes elicited in fast periodic visual stimulation streams are immune to temporal predictability
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Genevieve L. Quek, Bruno Rossion Recording direct neural activity when periodically inserting exemplars of a particular category in a rapid visual stream of other objects offers an objective and efficient way to quantify perceptual categorization and characterize its spatiotemporal dynamics. However, since periodicity entails predictability, perceptual categorization processes identified within this framework may be partly generated or modulated by temporal expectations. Here we present a stringent test of the hypothesis that temporal pre...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Auditory conflict and congruence in frontotemporal dementia
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Camilla N. Clark, Jennifer M. Nicholas, Jennifer L. Agustus, Christopher J.D. Hardy, Lucy L. Russell, Emilie V. Brotherhood, Katrina M. Dick, Charles R. Marshall, Catherine J. Mummery, Jonathan D. Rohrer, Jason D. Warren Impaired analysis of signal conflict and congruence may contribute to diverse socio-emotional symptoms in frontotemporal dementias, however the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Here we addressed this issue in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n=19) and semantic dementia (SD; n=1...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Should I trust you? Learning and memory of social interactions in dementia
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Claire O’Callaghan, Fiona Kumfor, Greg Savage, John R. Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger Social relevance has an enhancing effect on learning and subsequent memory retrieval. The ability to learn from and remember social interactions may impact on susceptibility to financial exploitation, which is elevated in individuals with dementia. The current study aimed to investigate learning and memory of social interactions, the relationship between performance and financial vulnerability and the neu...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Neural networks underlying language and social cognition during self-other processing in autism spectrum disorders [Neuropsychologia 102 (2017) 116 –123]
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Rajesh K. Kana, Emma B. Sartin, Carl Stevens, Hrishikesh D. Deshpande, Christopher Klein, Mark R. Klinger, Laura Grofer Klinger (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive Estimation: Performance of patients with focal frontal and posterior lesions
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Lisa Cipolotti, Sarah E. MacPherson, Sara Gharooni, Natasja van-Harskamp, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Parashkev Nachev The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is a widely used test to investigate estimation abilities requiring complex processes such as reasoning, the development and application of appropriate strategies, response plausibility checking as well as general knowledge and numeracy (e.g., Shallice and Evans, 1978; MacPherson et al., 2014). Thus far, it remains unknown whether the CET is both sensitive and specific to frontal lobe dys...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gamma phase-synchrony in autobiographical memory: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography and Severely Deficient Autobiographical Memory
We examined the role of large-scale patterns of neural synchrony using whole-head MEG recordings in healthy adults and S.M., who has severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM; Palombo et al., 2015), a syndrome in which autobiographical recollection is absent but other functions (including other mnemonic functions), are normal. MEG was conducted while participants listened to prospectively collected recordings documenting unique personal episodes (PE) that normally evoke rich recollection, as well as a condition including general semantic information that is non-specific in place or time (GS; Levine et al., 2004). We...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endogenous visuospatial attention increases visual awareness independent of visual discrimination sensitivity
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Marine Vernet, Shruti Japee, Savannah Lokey, Sara Ahmed, Valentinos Zachariou, Leslie G. Ungerleider Visuospatial attention often improves task performance by increasing signal gain at attended locations and decreasing noise at unattended locations. Attention is also believed to be the mechanism that allows information to enter awareness. In this experiment, we assessed whether orienting endogenous visuospatial attention with cues differentially affects visual discrimination sensitivity (an objective task performance) and visual awareness...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Not all visual symmetry is equal: partially distinct neural bases for vertical and horizontal symmetry
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Zaira Cattaneo, Silvia Bona, Juha Silvanto Visual mirror symmetry plays an important role in visual perception in both human and animal vision; its importance is reflected in the fact that it can be extracted automatically during early stages of visual processing. However, how this extraction is implemented at the cortical level remains an open question. Given the importance of symmetry in visual perception, one possibility is that there is a network which extracts all types of symmetry irrespective of axis of orientation; alternatively, ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Different neural routes to autobiographical memory recall in healthy people and individuals with left medial temporal lobe epilepsy
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Cornelia McCormick, Morris Moscovitch, Taufik A. Valiante, Melanie Cohn, Mary Pat McAndrews Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are poor at recalling vivid details from autobiographical memories (AM), instead retrieving gist-like schematic memories. Recent research has suggested that this impoverished recall in comparison to controls may reflect (1) differential engagement of anterior vs posterior regions of the hippocampus (HC) and/or (2) differences between the engagement of the HC vs the ventromedial prefrontal cortex...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Efficacy of navigation may be influenced by retrosplenial cortex-mediated learning of landmark stability
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Stephen D. Auger, Peter Zeidman, Eleanor A. Maguire Human beings differ considerably in their ability to orient and navigate within the environment, but it has been difficult to determine specific causes of these individual differences. Permanent, stable landmarks are thought to be crucial for building a mental representation of an environment. Poor, compared to good, navigators have been shown to have difficulty identifying permanent landmarks, with a concomitant reduction in functional MRI (fMRI) activity in the retrosplenial cortex. Ho...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Correlates of Voice Memory for Young and Old Speakers in Young and Old Listeners
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Romi Zäske, Katharina Limbach, Dana Schneider, Verena G. Skuk, Christian Dobel, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Stefan Robert Schweinberger Faces of one's own-age group are easier to recognize than other-age faces. Using behavioural measures and EEG, we studied whether an own-age bias (OAB) also exists in voice memory. Young (19 - 26 years) and old (60 - 75 years) participants studied young (18 – 25 years) and old (60 – 77 years) unfamiliar voices from short sentences. Subsequently, they classified studied and novel voices as &...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Semantic control deficits impair understanding of thematic relationships more than object identity
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Hannah Thompson, James Davey, Paul Hoffman, Glyn Hallam, Rebecca Kosinski, Sarah Howkins, Emma Wooffindin, Rebecca Gabbitas, Elizabeth Jefferies Recent work has suggested a potential link between the neurocognitive mechanisms supporting the retrieval of events and thematic associations (i.e., knowledge about how concepts relate in a meaningful context) and semantic control processes that support the capacity to shape retrieval to suit the circumstances. Thematic associations and events are inherently flexible: the meaning of an item chang...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

When You Can, Scale Up: Large-Scale Study Shows No Effect of tDCS in an Ambiguous Risk-Taking Task
Conclusions This study showed that there was no detectable effect of tDCS stimulation on risky decision-making under ambiguity, compared to sham stimulation. Hence, using a much larger sample, we did not replicate previous work reporting a reduction in risky decision-making by bilateral stimulation of the DLPFC compared to sham. When the results of our bilateral and unilateral stimulation studies were combined, it emerged that the most likely explanation for the apparent significant results in our bilateral stimulation study was random variation in performance. This outcome is a further reminder of the need for appropriate...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Episodic future thinking and future-based decision-making in a case of retrograde amnesia
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Flavia De Luca, Francesca Benuzzi, Elena Bertossi, Davide Braghittoni, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Elisa Ciaramelli We investigated episodic future thinking (EFT) and future-based cognition and decision-making in patient SG, who developed a dense retrograde amnesia following hypoxia due to a cardiac arrest. Despite intact general cognitive and executive functioning, SG was unable to remember events from his entire lifetime. He had, however, relatively spared anterograde memory and general semantic knowledge. Voxel-based morphometry detected a ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Faster Native Vowel Discrimination Learning in Musicians is Mediated by an Optimization of Mnemonic Functions
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Stefan Elmer, Marielle Greber, Arethy Pushparaj, Jürg Kühnis, Lutz Jäncke The ability to discriminate phonemes varying in spectral and temporal attributes constitutes one of the most basic intrinsic elements underlying language learning mechanisms. Since previous work has consistently shown that professional musicians are characterized by perceptual and cognitive advantages in a variety of language-related tasks, and since vowels can be considered musical sounds within the domain of speech, here we investigated the behaviora...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

On the validity of lesion-behaviour mapping methods
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Christoph Sperber, Hans-Otto Karnath Brain lesion studies have been criticised for producing partly heterogeneous results; especially the validity of statistical voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping has been discussed. In fact, planning a lesion-behaviour mapping study is associated with many methodological degrees of freedom. In the present review, we argue that not the lesion-behaviour mapping method itself produces heterogeneous results, but rather its heterogeneous or even erroneous application. We outline which methodological pitfalls...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The active construction of the visual world
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston What we see is fundamentally dependent on where we look. Despite this seemingly obvious statement, many accounts of the neurobiology underpinning visual perception fail to consider the active nature of how we sample our sensory world. This review offers an overview of the neurobiology of visual perception, which begins with the control of saccadic eye movements. Starting from here, we can follow the anatomy backwards, to try to understand the functional architecture of neuronal networks that support the interrog...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Congenital amusics use a secondary pitch mechanism to identify lexical tones
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Oliver Bones, Patrick C.M. Wong Amusia is a pitch perception disorder associated with deficits in processing and production of both musical and lexical tones, which previous reports have suggested may be constrained to fine-grained pitch judgements. In the present study speakers of tone-languages, in which lexical tones are used to convey meaning, identified words present in chimera stimuli containing conflicting pitch-cues in the temporal fine-structure and temporal envelope, and which therefore conveyed two distinct utterances. Amusics w...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reshaping the brain after stroke: the effect of prismatic adaptation in patients with right brain damage
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Sonia Crottaz-Herbette, Eleonora Fornari, Michael P. Notter, Claire Bindschaedler, Laura Manzoni, Stephanie Clarke Prismatic adaptation has been repeatedly reported to alleviate neglect symptoms; in normal subjects, it was shown to enhance the representation of the left visual space within the left inferior parietal cortex. Our study aimed to determine in humans whether similar compensatory mechanisms underlie the beneficial effect of prismatic adaptation in neglect. Fifteen patients with right hemispheric lesions and 11 age-matched contro...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Widespread neural oscillations in the delta band dissociate rule convergence from rule divergence during creative idea generation
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Nathalie Boot, Matthijs Baas, Elisabeth Mühlfeld, Carsten K.W. De Dreu, Simon van Gaal Critical to creative cognition and performance is both the generation of multiple alternative solutions in response to open-ended problems (divergent thinking) and a series of cognitive operations that converges on the correct or best possible answer (convergent thinking). Although the neural underpinnings of divergent and convergent thinking are still poorly understood, several electroencephalography (EEG) studies point to differences in alpha-band ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - August 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alexithymia in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review of literature
Conclusion Admitting the prevalence of alexithymia in MS and its potential negative impact on the quality of life and interpersonal communication, screening for it is relevant for a better management. Its relationship with clinical, emotional and cognitive confounders merits to be further evaluated. Large-scale studies, employing neuroimaging techniques, are greatly needed in order to disentangle the neural underpinnings substrates of this trait in MS. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - July 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Familiarity and recollection vs representational models of medial temporal lobe structures: a single-case study
We report, in this study, on JMG, a patient who presents highly unusual lesions that completely affected all MTL structures except for the right hippocampus and parts of neighbouring medial parahippocampal cortex. We first demonstrate that JMG shows preserved recall for visual material on 5 experimental tasks. This finding suggests that his right hippocampus is functional, even though it appears largely disconnected from most of its MTL afferents. In contrast, JMG performed very poorly, as compared to control subjects, on 7 tasks of visual recognition memory for single items. Although he sometimes performed above chance, n...
Source: Neuropsychologia - July 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Functional connectivity within and between intrinsic brain networks correlates with trait mind wandering
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia, Volume 103 Author(s): Christine A. Godwin, Michael A. Hunter, Matthew A. Bezdek, Gregory Lieberman, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Victoria L. Romero, Katie Witkiewitz, Vincent P. Clark, Eric H. Schumacher Individual differences across a variety of cognitive processes are functionally associated with individual differences in intrinsic networks such as the default mode network (DMN). The extent to which these networks correlate or anticorrelate has been associated with performance in a variety of circumstances. Despite the established role of the DMN in mind wandering processe...
Source: Neuropsychologia - July 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulation of picture naming and word reading: A meta-analysis of single session tDCS applied to healthy participants
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Samuel J. Westwood, Cristina Romani Recent reviews quantifying the effects of single sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (or tDCS) in healthy volunteers find only minor effects on cognition despite the popularity of this technique. Here, we wanted to quantify the effects of tDCS on language production tasks that measure word reading and picture naming. We reviewed 14 papers measuring tDCS effects across a total of 96 conditions to a) quantify effects of conventional stimulation on language regions (i.e., left hemisphere anod...
Source: Neuropsychologia - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Narrative Construction is Intact in Episodic Amnesia
Publication date: Available online 28 July 2017 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Nazim Keven, Jake Kurczek, R. Shayna Rosenbaum, Carl F. Craver Autobiographical remembering and future imagining overlap in their underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms. The hippocampus and surrounding regions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL), known for their role in forming and maintaining autobiographical episodic memories, are also thought to play an essential role in fictitious and future constructions. Amnesic individuals with bilateral hippocampal damage cannot reconstruct their past personal experiences and also h...
Source: Neuropsychologia - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research