Reward circuitry activation reflects social preferences in the face of cognitive effort
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Holly Sullivan-Toole, Ekaterina Dobryakova, Samantha DePasque, Elizabeth Tricomi Research at the intersection of social neuroscience and cognitive effort is an interesting new area for exploration. There is great potential to broaden our understanding of how social context and cognitive effort processes, currently addressed in disparate literatures, interact with one another. In this paper, we briefly review the literature on cognitive effort, focusing on effort-linked valuation and the gap in the literature regarding cognitive effort in th...
Source: Neuropsychologia - June 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Enhanced Perception of Pitch Changes in Speech and Music in Early Blind Adults
In conclusion, in addition to providing further evidence of compensatory auditory mechanisms in early blind individuals, our results point to differences in how auditory processing is modulated in this population. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early neural responses underlie advantages for consonance over dissonance
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Paola Crespo-Bojorque, Júlia Monte-Ordoño, Juan M. Toro Consonant musical intervals tend to be more readily processed than dissonant intervals. In the present study, we explore the neural basis for this difference by registering how the brain responds after changes in consonance and dissonance, and how formal musical training modulates these responses. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were registered while participants were presented with sequences of consonant intervals interrupted by a dissonant interval, or sequences of...
Source: Neuropsychologia - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Are incongruent objects harder to identify? The functional significance of the N300 component
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Alyssa Truman, Liad Mudrik Objects in the real world typically appear within a broader context, having relationships with the environment. Do these relations between objects and the contexts in which they appear affect object identification? Previous findings of an N300 component evoked by scene-incongruent objects were taken as evidence for such an effect, since N300 is held to reflect object identification processes. Yet this conjuncture was never directly tested, and ignores differences between the fronto-central incongruency-evoked N300 ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Visual illusions modify object size estimates for prospective action judgements
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Laurie Geers, Mauro Pesenti, Michael Andres How does the eye guide the hand in an ever-changing world? The perception-action model posits that visually-guided actions rely on object size estimates that are computed from an egocentric perspective independently of the visual context. Accordingly, adjusting grip aperture to object size should be resistant to illusions emerging from the contrast between a target and surrounding elements. However, experimental studies gave discrepant results that have remained difficult to explain so far. Visual ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Contribution of the Left Anterior Ventrolateral Temporal Lobe to the Retrieval of Personal Semantics
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Matthew D. Grilli, John J. Bercel, Aubrey A. W., Steven Z. Rapcsak Autobiographical facts and personal trait knowledge are conceptualized as distinct types of personal semantics, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms that separate them remain underspecified. One distinction may be their level of specificity, with autobiographical facts reflecting idiosyncratic conceptual knowledge and personal traits representing basic level category knowledge about the self. Given the critical role of the left anterior ventrolateral temporal lobe (AVTL) i...
Source: Neuropsychologia - June 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ERP Indicators of L2 Proficiency in Word-to-text Integration Processes
We examined on-line second language (L2) text comprehension in relation to L2 proficiency with ERPs recorded on critical words separated across a sentence boundary from their co-referential antecedents. The integration processes on the critical words were designed to reflect different levels of text representation: word-form, word-meaning, and situational levels (Kintsch, 1998). Across proficiency level, bilinguals showed biphasic N400/late positive component (LPC) effects related to word meaning integration (N400) and mental model updating (LPC) processes. More proficient bilinguals, compared with less proficient bilingua...
Source: Neuropsychologia - June 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Altered Activation and Functional Asymmetry of Exner's Area but not the Visual Word Form Area in a Child with Sudden-onset, Persistent Mirror Writing
We present an unusual case of sudden-onset, persistent mirror writing in a previously typical seven-year-old girl. Using her dominant right hand only, she copied and spontaneously produced all letters, words and sentences, as well as some numbers and objects, in mirror image. Additionally, she frequently misidentified letter orientations in perceptual assessments. Clinical, neuropsychological, and functional neuroimaging studies were carried out over sixteen months. Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations and a standard clinical MRI scan of the head were normal. Neuropsychological testing revealed average scores on most...
Source: Neuropsychologia - June 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disentangling representations of shape and action components in the tool network
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Xiaoying Wang, Tonghe Zhuang, Jiasi Shen, Yanchao Bi Shape and how they should be used are two key components of our knowledge about tools. Viewing tools preferentially activated a frontoparietal and occipitotemporal network, with dorsal regions implicated in computation of tool-related actions and ventral areas in shape representation. As shape and manners of manipulation are highly correlated for daily tools, whether they are independently represented in different regions remains inconclusive. In the current study, we collected fMRI data w...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Emotional language production: Time course, behavioral and electrophysiological correlates
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Lana Rohr, Rasha Abdel Rahman The ultimate goal of speaking is to convey meaning, and meaning may relate not only to categorical or associative semantics, but also to social and emotional aspects. However, while semantic effects are well-investigated, little is known about how emotional contents shape different planning stages during language production. In two experiments we investigated emotional language production using electrophysiological measures of brain activity during overt speaking. In event related brain potentials, negative emot...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Evidence for Preserved Primacy of Lexical Prediction in Aging
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): S. Dave, T.A. Brothers, M.J. Traxler, F. Ferreira, J.M. Henderson, T.Y. Swaab Young adults show consistent neural benefits of predictable contexts when processing upcoming words, but these benefits are less clear-cut in older adults. Here we disentangle the neural correlates of prediction accuracy and contextual support during word processing, in order to test current theories that suggest predictive processing mechanisms are specifically impaired in older adults. During a sentence comprehension task, older and younger readers were asked to ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

I Must Have Missed That: Alpha-Band Oscillations Track Attention to Spoken Language
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): M.A. Boudewyn, C.S. Carter Attention is critical to the construction of mental representations of language context during comprehension. We investigated the consequences of momentary lapses in attention during listening comprehension on neural activity and behavior. Participants listened to two full-length stories while EEG was recorded, and afterwards completed multiple choice comprehension questions. Listening was periodically interrupted by attention probes, in which participants were asked whether their attention immediately preceding th...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A nonverbal route to conceptual knowledge involving the right anterior temporal lobe
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Robert S. Hurley, M.-Marsel Mesulam, Jaiashre Sridhar, Emily J. Rogalski, Cynthia K. Thompson The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is diagnosed based on impaired single-word comprehension, but nonverbal impairments in face and object recognition can also be present, particularly in later disease stages. PPA-S is associated with focal atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), often accompanied by a lesser degree of atrophy in the right ATL. According to a dual-route account, the left ATL is critical for verbal a...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mid-frontal theta activity is diminished during cognitive control in Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Arun Singh, Sarah Pirio Richardson, Nandakumar Narayanan, James F. Cavanagh Mid-frontal theta activity underlies cognitive control. These 4–8Hz rhythms are modulated by cortical dopamine and can be abnormal in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we investigated mid-frontal theta deficits in PD patients during a task explicitly involving cognitive control. We collected scalp EEG from high-performing PD patients and demographically matched controls during performance of a modified Simon reaction-time task. This task involves co...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The influence of DCDC2 risk genetic variants on reading: Testing main and haplotypic effects
In this study, we tested the effects of these genetic variants on DD as a categorical trait and on quantitative reading-related measures in a sample of 555 Italian nuclear families with 930 offspring, of which 687 were diagnosed with DD. We conducted both single-marker and haplotype analyses, finding that the READ1-deletion was significantly associated with reading, whereas no significant haplotype associations were found. Our findings add further evidence to support the hypothesis of a DCDC2 contribution to inter-individual variation in distinct indicators of reading (dis)ability in transparent languages (i.e., reading ac...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Your favorite number is special (to you): Evidence for item-level differences in retrieval of information from numerals
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Danielle S. Dickson, Kara D. Federmeier Arabic numerals have come to be used for many purposes beyond representing a particular quantity (e.g., as a label for an athlete on their jersey), but it remains to be determined how this type of meaningfulness is accessed and utilized by readers. Motivated by previous work showing that item-level ratings of personal familiarity can influence traditional indices of memory retrieval, we recorded ERPs while participants read double-digit Arabic numerals (e.g., “65”), presented in a list, and...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Auditory Priming Improves Neural Synchronization in Auditory-Motor Entrainment
This study explores the neural oscillations underlying auditory-motor entrainment using electroencephalography. Forty young adults were randomly assigned to one of two control conditions, an auditory-only condition or a motor-only condition, prior to a rhythmic auditory-motor synchronization condition (referred to as combined condition). Participants assigned to the auditory-only condition (auditory-first group) listened to 400 trials of auditory stimuli presented every 800ms, while those in the motor-only condition (motor-first group) were asked to tap rhythmically every 800ms without any external stimuli. Following their...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Apathy in individuals with Parkinson's disease associated with mild cognitive impairment. A neuropsychological investigation
This study was aimed at investigating the association between severity of apathy of PD patients and their performance on neuropsychological tests investigating executive abilities. Individuals with PD (i.e., with and without MCI) and healthy controls (HCs) were administered a neuropsychological test battery that investigated episodic memory, language, short-term memory and attention, visual-spatial abilities and executive functions. Subjects were also administered additional neuropsychological tests to evaluate the different executive subcomponents (i.e., planning/abstract reasoning, self-monitoring/response inhibition, wo...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sleep divergently affects cognitive and automatic emotional response in children
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Elaina Bolinger, Jan Born, Katharina Zinke Sleep enhances memory for emotional experiences, but its influence on the emotional response associated with memories is elusive. Here, we compared the influence of nocturnal sleep on memory for negative and neutral pictures and the associated emotional response in 8–11-year-old children, i.e., an age group with heightened levels of emotional memory-related sleep features. During all sessions, emotional responses as measured by subjective ratings, the late positive potential of the EEG (LPP) a...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural responses to perturbations in visual and auditory metronomes during sensorimotor synchronization
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Daniel C Comstock, Ramesh Balasubramaniam Tapping in synchrony to an isochronous rhythm involves several key functions of the sensorimotor system including timing, prediction and error correction. While auditory sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) has been well studied, much less is known about mechanisms involved in visual SMS. By comparing error correction in auditory and visual SMS, it can be determined if the neural mechanisms for detection and correction of synchronization errors are generalized or domain specific. To study this problem,...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differential roles of polar orbital prefrontal cortex and parietal lobes in logical reasoning with neutral and negative emotional content
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Iveta Eimontaite, Vinod Goel, Vanessa Raymont, Frank Krueger, Igor Schindler, Jordan Grafman To answer the question of how brain pathology affects reasoning about negative emotional content, we administered a disjunctive logical reasoning task involving arguments with neutral content (e.g. Either there are tigers or women in NYC, but not both; There are no tigers in NYC; There are women in NYC) and emotionally laden content (e.g. Either there are pedophiles or politicians in Texas, but not both; There are politicians in Texas; There are no p...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cue Awareness in Avoiding Effortful Control
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Timothy L. Dunn, Connor Gaspar, Evan F. Risko Based on a recent metacognitive account, cognitive effort is the result of an inferential evaluation made over explicitly available cues. Following from this account, we present here a pre-registered experiment that tested the specific hypothesis that explicit awareness of cues that are aligned with cognitive demand is a prerequisite in avoiding effortful lines of action. We attempted to modulate levels of effort avoidance behavior by introducing an incentive (between-subjects) to monitor two lin...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Influence of continuous flash suppression mask frequency on stimulus visibility
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Minye Zhan, Tahnée Engelen, Beatrice de Gelder The continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm is increasingly used in consciousness research, but its mechanisms are still not fully understood. To better understand its temporal properties, we presented the CFS masks at 9 frequencies, and examined their influence on stimuli visibility, while taking into account the inter-individual variability and the change of CFS suppression as the experiment progressed. The frequencies consisted of fundamental frequencies of 3, 4 and 5Hz, and their ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of Feedback Delay on Learning from Positive and Negative Feedback in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Off Medication
This study investigated whether the bias towards negative feedback learning induced by a lack of DA in PD patients OFF medication is modulated by feedback delay. To this end, PD patients OFF medication and healthy controls completed a probabilistic selection task, in which feedback was given immediately (after 800 ms) or delayed (after 6800 ms). PD patients were impaired in immediate but not delayed feedback learning. However, differences in the preference for positive/negative learning between patients and controls were seen for both learning from immediate and delayed feedback, with evidence of stronger negative learning...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Seeing music: The perception of melodic 'ups and downs' modulates the spatial processing of visual stimuli
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Carlos Romero-Rivas, Fátima Vera-Constán, Sara Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Laura Puigcerver, Irune Fernández-Prieto, Jordi Navarra Musical melodies have “peaks” and “valleys”. Although the vertical component of pitch and music is well-known, the mechanisms underlying its mental representation still remain elusive. We show evidence regarding the importance of previous experience with melodies for crossmodal interactions to emerge. The impact of these crossmodal interactions on other perceptual and a...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Psychophysical and neuroimaging responses to moving stimuli in a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon due to bilateral visual cortex lesions
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Michael J. Arcaro, Lore Thaler, Derek J. Quinlan, Simona Monaco, Sarah Khan, Kenneth F. Valyear, Rainer Goebel, Gordon N. Dutton, Melvyn A. Goodale, Sabine Kastner, Jody C. Culham Patients with injury to early visual cortex or its inputs can display the Riddoch phenomenon: preserved awareness for moving but not stationary stimuli. We provide a detailed case report of a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon, MC. MC has extensive bilateral lesions to occipitotemporal cortex that include most early visual cortex and complete blindness in visual fi...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Associations of functional connectivity and walking performance in multiple sclerosis
Conclusions We provide novel evidence that RSFC can be a valuable tool to monitor the motor and non-motor networks impacted in MS that relate to declines in motor impairment. RSFC may identify critical nodes involved in a range of motor tasks such as walking that can be more sensitive to disruption by MS. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The opportunity cost of time modulates cognitive effort
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): A. Ross Otto, Nathaniel D. Daw A spate of recent work demonstrates that humans seek to avoid the expenditure of cognitive effort, much like physical effort or economic resources. Less is clear, however, about the circumstances dictating how and when people decide to expend cognitive effort. Here we adopt a popular theory of opportunity costs and response vigor and to elucidate this question. This account, grounded in Reinforcement Learning, formalizes a trade-off between two costs: the harder work assumed necessary to emit faster actions and ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Repetition Effects in Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment depend upon Working Memory Demand
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Lucas S. Broster, Shonna L. Jenkins, Sarah D. Holmes, Matthew G. Edwards, Gregory A. Jicha, Yang Jiang Forms of implicit memory, including repetition effects, are preserved relative to explicit memory in clinical Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, cognitive interventions for persons with Alzheimer's disease have been developed that leverage this fact. However, despite the clinical robustness of behavioral repetition effects, altered neural mechanisms of repetition effects are studied as biomarkers of both clinical Alzheimer's disease and pre-...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Modulation of motor cortex activity in a visual working memory task of hand images
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Alejandro Galvez-Pol, Bettina Forster, Beatriz Calvo-Merino Recent studies suggest that brain regions engaged in perception are also recruited during the consolidation interval of the percept in working memory (WM). Evidence for this comes from studies showing that maintaining arbitrary visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in WM elicits recruitment of the corresponding sensory cortices. Here we investigate if encoding and WM maintenance of visually perceived body-related stimuli engage just visual regions, or additional sensorimotor regions ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Motivational fatigue: A neurocognitive framework for the impact of effortful exertion on subsequent motivation
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Tanja Müller, Matthew A.J. Apps Fatigue – a feeling of exhaustion arising from exertion – is a significant barrier to successful behaviour and one of the most prominent symptoms in primary care. During extended behaviours, fatigue increases over time, leading to decrements in performance in both physically and cognitively demanding tasks. However, to date, theoretical accounts of fatigue have not fully characterised the neuroanatomical basis of cognitive and physical fatigue nor placed results within broader discussions of th...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Creative conceptual expansion: A combined fMRI replication and extension study to examine individual differences in creativity
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Anna Abraham, Barbara Rutter, Trisha Bantin, Christiane Hermann The aims of this fMRI study were two-fold. The first objective of the study was to verify whether the findings associated with a previous fMRI study could be replicated in which a novel event-related experimental design was developed which rendered it possible to investigate the brain basis of creative conceptual expansion. The ability to widen the boundaries of conceptual structures is integral to creative idea generation, which makes conceptual expansion a core component of cre...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Restoration of sensory input may improve cognitive and neural function
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Hanin Karawani, Kimberly Jenkins, Samira Anderson Age-related hearing loss is one of the most prevalent health conditions among the elderly. Hearing loss may lead to social isolation, depression, and cognitive decline in older adults. The mechanistic basis for the association between hearing loss and decreased cognitive function remains unknown as does the potential for improving cognition through hearing rehabilitation. To that end, we asked whether the restoration of sensory input through the use of hearing aids would improve cognitive and ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Connectivity Patterns in Cognitive Control Networks Predict Naturalistic Multitasking Ability
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Tanya Wen, De-Cyuan Liu, Shulan Hsieh Multitasking is a fundamental aspect of everyday life activities. To achieve a complex, multi-component goal, the tasks must be subdivided into sub-tasks and component steps, a critical function of prefrontal networks. The prefrontal cortex is considered to be organized in a cascade of executive processes from the sensorimotor to anterior prefrontal cortex, which includes execution of specific goal-directed action, to encoding and maintaining task rules, and finally monitoring distal goals. In the current...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural Markers of Memory Consolidation Do Not Predict Temporal Estimates of Encoded Items
The objective of this study was to test whether memory consolidation indeed acts as the starting signal of interval timing. Participants performed an attentional blink task in which they not only reported the targets, but also the estimated target onsets, allowing us to calculate estimated lag. In the attentional blink task, the second target (T2) in a rapid serial visual presentation is often not reported when it follows quickly after the first target (T1). However, if this fast T2 is reported, memory consolidation of T2 is presumably delayed. Consequently, if memory consolidation determines interval onset, we would expec...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The effect of motor context on semantic processing: a tms study
Conclusion Results suggested that the gestural motor representation was integrated with corresponding word meaning in order to accomplish (and facilitate) the lexical task. We concluded that motor context resulted crucial to highlight motor system involvement during semantic processing of abstract language. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The influence of behavioral relevance on the processing of global scene properties: An ERP study
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Natalie E. Hansen, Birken T. Noesen, Jeffrey D. Nador, Assaf Harel Recent work studying the temporal dynamics of visual scene processing (Harel et al., 2016) has found that global scene properties (GSPs) modulate the amplitude of early Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). It is still not clear, however, to what extent the processing of these GSPs is influenced by their behavioral relevance, determined by the goals of the observer. To address this question, we investigated how behavioral relevance, operationalized by the task context impacts the e...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Unconscious fearful body perception enhances discrimination of conscious anger expressions under continuous flash suppression
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Minye Zhan, Beatrice de Gelder The continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm is increasingly used to study unconscious visual perception. Our goal was to use CFS and to to compare the results with previous findings from patients with brain lesions, and studies of healthy participants. We used an emotion discrimination task and bilaterally presented whole-body postures expressing fear or anger, rendering the stimuli invisible in either one of the visual fields. We found that the CFS presentation did not yield the classical redundant ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of Prefrontal tDCS on Executive Function: Methodological Considerations Revealed by Meta-Analysis
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Michael J. Imburgio, Joseph M. Orr A meta-analysis of studies using single-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to target the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was undertaken to examine the effect of stimulation on executive function (EF) in healthy samples. 27 studies were included in analyses, yielding 71 effect sizes. The most relevant measure for each task was determined a priori and used to calculate Hedge's g. Methodological characteristics of each study were examined individually as potential moderators of effect...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilingual Experience and Resting-State Brain Connectivity: Impacts of L2 Age of Acquisition and Social Diversity of Language Use on Control Networks
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Jason W. Gullifer, Xiaoqian J. Chai, Veronica Whitford, Irina Pivneva, Shari Baum, Denise Klein, Debra Titone We investigated the independent contributions of second language (L2) age of acquisition (AoA) and social diversity of language use on intrinsic brain organization using seed-based resting-state functional connectivity among highly proficient French-English bilinguals. There were two key findings. First, earlier L2 AoA related to greater interhemispheric functional connectivity between homologous frontal brain regions, and to decrease...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Adaptive Control and the Avoidance of Cognitive Control Demands Across Development
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Jesse C. Niebaum, Nicolas Chevalier, Ryan M. Guild, Yuko Munakata Young adults adaptively coordinate their behavior to avoid demands placed on cognitive control. We investigated how this adaptive coordination develops by having 6–7- and 11–12-year-olds and young adults complete a demand selection task, in which participants could select between two tasks that varied in cognitive control demands via differences in rule switch frequency. Adults and older children exhibited significant preference for selecting the less demanding task...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Beyond volume: A surface-based approach to bilingualism-induced grey matter changes
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Sini Hämäläinen, Juho Joutsa, Aleksi J. Sihvonen, Alina Leminen, Minna Lehtonen Bilingualism is a sustained experience associated with structural changes in cortical grey matter (GM) morphology. Apart from a few studies, a dominant method used to assess bilingualism-induced GM changes has been the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. While VBM is sensitive to GM volume/density differences in general, it cannot be used to identify whether the observed difference is due to relative changes in, e.g., cortical thickness, area or...
Source: Neuropsychologia - May 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Contribution of Facial Dynamics to Subtle Expression Recognition in Typical Viewers and Developmental Visual Agnosia
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Neta Yitzhak, Sharon Gilaie-Dotan, Hillel Aviezer Facial expressions are inherently dynamic cues that develop and change over time, unfolding their affective signal. Although facial dynamics are assumed important for emotion recognition, testing often involves intense and stereotypical expressions and little is known about the role of temporal information in the recognition of subtle, non-stereotypical expressions. In Experiment 1 we demonstrate that facial dynamics are critical for recognizing subtle and non-stereotypical facial expressio...
Source: Neuropsychologia - April 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive training with action-related verbs induces neural plasticity in the action representation system as assessed by gray matter brain morphometry
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Marta Ghio, Matteo Locatelli, Andrea Tettamanti, Daniela Perani, Roberto Gatti, Marco Tettamanti Embodied cognition theories of semantic memory still face the need for multiple sources of converging evidence in support of the involvement of sensory-motor systems in action-related knowledge. Previous studies showed that training manual actions improves semantic processing of verbs referring to the trained actions. The present work aimed to provide complementary evidence by measuring the brain plasticity effects of a cognitive training requi...
Source: Neuropsychologia - April 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The neuroscience of empathy – from past to present and future
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Simone Shamay-Tsoory, Claus Lamm (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Seeing action simulation as it unfolds: The implicit effects of action scenes on muscle contraction evidenced through the use of a grip-force sensor
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): J. Blampain, L. Ott, Y.N. Delevoye-Turrell Action simulation is a cognitive process that mentally simulates a motor act without performing it in the true external world. Simulation mechanisms play a key role in perceiving, feeling and understanding actions executed by others. However, very little is known about the process dynamics because of the absence of a behavioral tool to probe directly the action simulation process as it unfolds. Twenty-seven healthy adults were required to hold a force sensor in a relaxed pinch-grip while viewing a...
Source: Neuropsychologia - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differential effects of sustained and transient effort triggered by reward – a combined EEG and pupillometry study
Publication date: Available online 28 April 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Mariam Kostandyan, Klaas Bombeke, Thomas Carsten, Ruth M. Krebs, Wim Notebaert, C. Nico Boehler In instrumental task contexts, incentive manipulations such as posting reward on successful performance usually trigger increased effort, which is signified by effort markers like increased pupil size. Yet, it is not fully clear under which circumstances incentives really promote performance, and which role effort plays therein. In the present study, we compared two schemes of associating reward with a Flanker task, while simultaneously acquirin...
Source: Neuropsychologia - April 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anticipation of a mentally effortful task recruits Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex: an fNIRS validation study
This study was designed to target DLPFC contribution to anticipation of a difficult task using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), as a more cost-effective tool measuring cortical hemodynamics. We adapted a validated mental effort task, where participants performed easy and difficult mental calculation, and measured DLPFC activity during the anticipation phase. As hypothesized, DLPFC activity increased during anticipation of a hard task as compared to an easy task. Besides replicating previous fMRI work, these results establish fNIRS as an effective tool to investigate cortical contributions to preparation for e...
Source: Neuropsychologia - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Manipulating memory efficacy affects the behavioral and neural profiles of deterministic learning and decision-making
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Joshua J. Tremel, Daniella M. Ortiz, Julie A. Fiez When making a decision, we have to identify, collect, and evaluate relevant bits of information to ensure an optimal outcome. How we approach a given choice can be influenced by prior experience. Contextual factors and structural elements of these past decisions can cause a shift in how information is encoded and can in turn influence later decision-making. In this two-experiment study, we sought to manipulate declarative memory efficacy and decision-making in a concurrent discrimination l...
Source: Neuropsychologia - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased conflict-induced slowing, but no differences in conflict-induced positive or negative prediction error learning in patients with schizophrenia
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, James F Cavanagh, Michael J Frank, James M Gold People with schizophrenia (PSZ) often fail to pursue rewarding activities despite largely intact in-the-moment hedonic experiences. Deficits in effort-based decision making in PSZ may be related to enhanced effects of cost or reduced reward, i.e., through the amplification of negative prediction errors or by dampened positive prediction errors (here, positive and negative prediction errors refer to outcomes that are better or worse than expected respectively...
Source: Neuropsychologia - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research