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Distinct neural engagement during implicit and explicit regulation of negative stimuli
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Kerry L. Kinney, K. Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp Neuroimaging research has characterized underlying neural mechanisms of attentional control and cognitive reappraisal, common implicit and explicit forms of emotion regulation, respectively. This research suggests attentional control and reappraisal may engage similar midline and lateral areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); however, findings are largely based on separate studies. Therefore, the extent to which mechanisms of implicit versus explicit regulation are indepe...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Subthalamic nucleus stimulation, dopaminergic treatment and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease
Conclusion Contrary to a recent proposal, STN DBS impaired rather than improved action control by weakening erroneous impulse suppression, whether the patients were On or Off their usual medication. These findings are discussed in light of a recent proposal (Servant M, White C, Montagnini A, Burle B, 2015) that reconciles partial errors with accumulation-to-bound models of decision making. Our results suggest that medication specifically lowers the mechanical threshold while STN DBS lowers the mechanical threshold and to a lesser extent the EMG-threshold. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ensemble Coding of Face Identity is Present but Weaker in Congenital Prosopagnosia
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Matthew Robson, Romina Palermo, Linda Jeffery, Markus F. Neumann Individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) are impaired at identifying individual faces but do not appear to show impairments in extracting the average identity from a group of faces (known as ensemble coding). However, possible deficits in ensemble coding in a previous study (CPs n=4) may have been masked because CPs relied on pictorial (image) cues rather than identity cues. Here we asked whether a larger sample of CPs (n=11) would show intact ensemble coding of iden...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lateral inhibition in the autism spectrum: an SSVEP study of visual cortical lateral interactions
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Myles Jones, Vance Zemon, Elizabeth Milne Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder (Geschwind 2009; Port et al. 2014). An important mediator of circuit level brain activity is lateral inhibition, and a number of authors have suggested that lateral inhibition may be atypical in ASD. However, evidence regarding putative atypical lateral connections i...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Divergent and Convergent Thinking in Big-C Creativity
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Kevin Japardi, Susan Bookheimer, Kendra Knudsen, Dara G. Ghahremani, Robert M. Bilder The cognitive and physiological processes underlying creativity remain unclear, and very few studies to date have attempted to identify the behavioral and brain characteristics that distinguish exceptional (“Big-C”) from everyday (“little-c”) creativity. The Big-C Project examined functional brain responses during tasks demanding divergent and convergent thinking in 35 Big-C Visual Artists (VIS), 41 Big-C Scientists (SCI), and 3...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The cognitive neuroscience of person identification
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Irving Biederman, Bryan E. Shilowich, Sarah B. Herald, Eshed Margalit, Rafael Maarek, Emily X. Meschke, Catrina M. Hacker We compare and contrast five differences between person identification by voice and face. 1. There is little or no cost when a familiar face is to be recognized from an unrestricted set of possible faces, even at Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) rates, but the accuracy of familiar voice recognition declines precipitously when the set of possible speakers is increased from one to a mere handful. 2. Whereas defi...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Enhancing creative cognition with a rapid right-parietal neurofeedback procedure
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Sergio Agnoli, Marco Zanon, Serena Mastria, Alessio Avenanti, Giovanni Emanuele Corazza The present article describes an innovative neurofeedback training (NFT) procedure aimed at increasing creative cognition through the enhancement of specific brain activities previously associated with divergent thinking. We designed and tested two NFT protocols based on training alpha and beta EEG oscillations selectively measured over the right parietal region. A total of 80 participants were involved, 40 in the alpha NFT protocol and 40 in the bet...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The creative brain in the figural domain: Distinct patterns of EEG alpha power during idea generation and idea elaboration
This study investigated EEG activity in the upper alpha band during the well-known Picture Completion Task of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a widely used creative ideation task in the figural domain. The application of a sophisticated computerized version of the TTCT facilitating the online assessment and digitalizing of participant's drawings allowed to separate two central stages of the creative ideation process (i.e., idea generation and idea elaboration). During idea generation, the participants’ task was to generate an initial draft of an original and creative completion of the presented abstrac...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Creativity and cognitive control: Behavioral and ERP evidence that divergent thinking, but not real-life creative achievement, relates to better cognitive control
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Darya L. Zabelina, Giorgio Ganis Two studies used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether and how divergent thinking and creative achievement are linked to attentional flexibility and cognitive control as indexed by response times and by the amplitude of the anterior N2 ERP component. Both experiments used an oddball paradigm in which participants viewed hierarchical letter stimuli and identified target letters in frequent and rare target trials. The successful identification of targets required attentional flexibility when s...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The effects of theta burst stimulation (TBS) targeting the prefrontal cortex on executive functioning: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Cassandra J. Lowe, Felicia Manocchio, Adrian B. Safati, Peter A. Hall Continuous theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a highly efficient variant of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) employed in experimental and clinical treatment paradigms. Despite widespread usage of TBS targeting the prefrontal cortex (PFC), there has been no systematic review of the evidence linking TBS protocols to changes in task performance on common measures of prefrontal function in general, and executive functions specifically. A systematic review...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reading and visual word recognition ability in Semantic Dementia is not predicted by semantic performance
We examined this issue using a battery of cognitive tests and two structural scans undertaken at different points in each cases time course. Across both cases, our behavioural testing found little evidence of a key putative link between semantic impairment and the decline of irregular word reading or lexical decision. In addition, our neuroimaging analyses suggested that it may be the emergence of atrophy to key neural regions both inside and outside the anterior temporal lobes that may best capture the emergence of impairments of irregular word reading, and implicated inferior temporal cortex in surface dyslexia. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Suppress to Feel and Remember Less: Neural Correlates of Explicit and Implicit Emotional Suppression on Perception and Memory
In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants’ memory for the images was tested one week later. Behaviorally, explicit suppression reduced emotional ratings of negative images, whereas both explicit and implicit suppression reduced subsequent memory. At the neural level, the engagement of explicit suppression was uniquely associated with decreased activity in the amygdala (AMY), during emotional ratings, and in the...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Self-construals moderate associations between trait creativity and the social brain network
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Yi Liu, Bing Wu, Claudio Petti, Xinhuai Wu, Shihui Han Creativity is an adaptive way of thinking and plays a key role in problem solving. Recent brain imaging studies focused on structural and functional characteristics of the brain that are correlated with creativity. But whether and how the association between creativity and the brain is moderated by individuals' cultural traits remains unclear. We integrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and questionnaire measures (Williams creativity aptitude test) of trait creativity ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exogenous vs. endogenous attention: Shifting the balance of fronto-parietal activity
This study specifically aimed to determine whether activity in the dorsal fronto-parietal network differed between endogenous and exogenous conditions. Participants performed a visual discrimination task in endogenous and exogenous attention conditions while undergoing fMRI scanning. Analyses revealed robust and bilateral activation throughout the dorsal fronto-parietal network for each condition, in line with many previous results. In order to investigate possible differences in the balance of neural activity within this network with greater sensitivity, a priori regions of interest (ROIs) were selected for analysis, cent...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

EEG measures of brain activity reveal that smoking-related images capture the attention of smokers outside of awareness
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Joseph A. Harris, Sarah E. Donohue, Arne Ilse, M. Ariel Schoenfeld, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Marty G. Woldorff The capture of attention by substance-related stimuli in dependent users is a major factor in the maintenance and/or cessation of substance use. The present study examined the automaticity of this process in smokers, as well as the effects of craving. Event-related potential (ERP) measures of spatial-attention allocation (N2pc) and extended target processing (SPCN) were isolated during an object-substitution masking (OSM) task that d...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Probing links between action perception and action production in Parkinson's disease using Fitts' law
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Takeshi Sakurada, Guenther Knoblich, Natalie Sebanz, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Masahiro Hirai Information on how the subcortical brain encodes information required to execute actions or to evaluate others’ actions remains scanty. To clarify this link, Fitts’-law tasks for perception and execution were tested in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). For the perception task, participants were shown apparent motion displays of a person moving their arm between two identical targets and reported whether they judged that the person c...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The processing of mispredicted and unpredicted sensory inputs interact differently with attention
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia, Volume 111 Author(s): Yi-Fang Hsu, Jarmo A. Hämäläinen, Florian Waszak Prediction and attention are fundamental brain functions in the service of perception. Interestingly, previous investigations found prediction effects independent of attention in some cases but attention-dependent in other cases. The discrepancy might be related to whether the prediction effect was revealed by comparing mispredicted event (where there is incorrect prediction) or unpredicted event (where there is no precise prediction) against predicted event, which are associated with...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spontaneous imitative movements induced by an illusory embodied fake hand
In this study, we examined whether motor manipulation of the fake hand similarly affects the observer's motor system. Our study employed a novel RHI paradigm wherein stroking was interrupted by unexpected movement of the fake hand (i.e., finger spreading) while measuring electroencephalography (EEG). We found that participants often spontaneously moved their hands in accordance with the movement of the fake hand only in the RHI (synchronous) sessions. EEG analyses revealed enhanced neural activation (mu-rhythm desynchronization) of the motor system during observation of the fake hand movement. Moreover, motor activation wa...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilingualism and healthy aging: Aging effects and neural maintenance
We report a Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) study showing cumulative effects of age on grey matter volume (GMV) in brain structures that are involved in cognitive control in bilingual seniors and found no differences in RT or accuracy between bilingual and monolingual seniors on a behavioral test of cognitive control called the Attentional Network Task (ANT), and no differences in GMV for selected ROIs between groups. However, chronological age predicted the size of interference and conflict effects for monolingual speakers only. We also observed a more widespread pattern of bilateral aging-effcts in brain regions that are c...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impaired awareness of action-outcome contingency and causality during healthy ageing and following ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Claire O’Callaghan, Matilde M. Vaghi, Berit Brummerloh, Rudolf N. Cardinal, Trevor W. Robbins Detecting causal relationships between actions and their outcomes is fundamental to guiding goal-directed behaviour. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been extensively implicated in computing these environmental contingencies, via animal lesion models and human neuroimaging. However, whether the vmPFC is critical for contingency learning, and whether it can occur without subjective awareness of those contingencies, has not bee...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Visual, sensorimotor and cognitive routes to understanding others' enjoyment: an individual differences rTMS approach to empathic accuracy
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Riccardo Paracampo, Martina Pirruccio, Marco Costa, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti Functional imaging studies suggest that accurate understanding of others’ emotional feelings (i.e., empathic accuracy, EA) recruits high-order visual, sensorimotor and mentalizing brain networks. However, the behavioral relevance of these findings is unclear. To fill in this gap, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to interfere with the right superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and temporoparietal ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A rapid, objective and implicit measure of visual quantity discrimination
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Mathieu Guillaume, Sandrine Mejias, Bruno Rossion, Milena Dzhelyova, Christine Schiltz There is evidence that accurate and rapid judgments of visual quantities form an essential component of human mathematical ability. However, explicit behavioural discrimination measures of visual quantities are readily contaminated both by variations in low-level physical parameters and higher order cognitive factors, while implicit measures often lack objectivity and sensitivity at the individual participant level. Here, with electrophysiological freq...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Consciousness and confidence
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): David Rosenthal It is natural to see conscious perceptions as typically bringing with them a degree of confidence about what is perceived. So one might also expect such confidence not to occur if a perception is not conscious. This has resulted in the use of confidence as a test or measure of consciousness, one that may be more reliable and fine-grained than the traditional appeal to subjective report as a test for a perception's being conscious. The following describes theoretical difficulties for the use of confidence as a reliable tes...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Orienting toward threat: Contributions of a subcortical pathway transmitting retinal afferents to the amygdala via the superior colliculus and pulvinar
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Kristin Koller, Robert D. Rafal, Adam Platt, Nicholas D. Mitchell Probabilistic diffusion tractography was used to provide the first direct evidence for a subcortical pathway from the retina to the amygdala, via the superior colliculus and pulvinar, that transmits visual stimuli signalling threat. A bias to orient toward threat was measured in a temporal order judgement saccade decision task, under monocular viewing, in a group of 19 healthy participants who also underwent diffusion weighted MR imaging. On each trial of the behavioural t...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural responses during the anticipation and receipt of olfactory reward and punishment in human
This study aimed to examine the neural basis of olfactory rewards in 25 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We developed an Olfactory Incentive Delay (OLID) imaging task distinguishing between the anticipation and receipt of olfactory rewards and punishments. We found that the pallidum was activated during the anticipation of both olfactory rewards and punishments. The bilateral insula was activated independently from the odours’ hedonic valence during the receipt phase. In addition, right caudate activation during the anticipation of unpleasant odours was correlated with self-rep...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive control and midline theta adjust across multiple timescales
This study used measures of behavior, EEG, and a simple quantitative model to test the hypothesis that conflict control at the block level is not exclusively driven by the control adjustments over successive trials. Young adults performed an auditory Simon task, and the base rate of compatible vs. incompatible trials was manipulated in separate blocks (25, 50, 75% compatible). EEG data were analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA) to define cortical mechanisms of any base rate and trial-by-trial sequence effects. Reaction time measures had both sequence and base rate effects. Two fronto-medial ICA components ind...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The neuroimaging basis of apathy: Empirical findings and conceptual challenges
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Sergio E. Starkstein, Simone Brockman Apathy, usually defined as loss of motivation, is common in both neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, and acute neurological disorders such as stroke. Neuroradiological studies on the imaging correlates of apathy have used a variety of methods such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and single photon and positron emission tomography to assess brain metabolic activity and specific synaptic receptors. Dysfunction of the anterior cingu...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diminished choice effect on anticipating improbable rewards
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia, Volume 111 Author(s): Weiran Chen, Qi Li, Shuting Mei, Wei Yi, Guochun Yang, Shiyu Zhou, Xun Liu, Ya Zheng Previous research found that the neural substrates underlying perceived control highly overlap those of reward system, especially during reward anticipation stage. The current event-related potential study examined whether the experience of choice by which individuals exercise control is modulated by reward probability during reward anticipation stage as indexed by the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN). Thirty participants performed a cued gambling task during w...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Active inference and the anatomy of oculomotion
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston Given that eye movement control can be framed as an inferential process, how are the requisite forces generated to produce anticipated or desired fixation? Starting from a generative model based on simple Newtonian equations of motion, we derive a variational solution to this problem and illustrate the plausibility of its implementation in the oculomotor brainstem. We show, through simulation, that the Bayesian filtering equations that implement ‘planning as inference’ can generate both saccadic an...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, emotional-affective and auto-activation apathy in alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Perri Roberta, Turchetta Chiara Stella, Caruso Giulia, Fadda Lucia, Caltagiorne Carlo, Carlesimo Giovanni Augusto Apathy symptoms include different dimensions: cognitive (C), emotional-affective (E-Aff) and auto-activation; they have been related to dysfunctions of the dorsolateral, orbito-basal prefrontal cortex and the subcortical frontal connections to the basal ganglia, respectively. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an association has been found between apathy severity and both executive deficits and atrophy of the dorso-lateral prefront...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Saccade latency bias toward temporal hemifield: evidence for role of retinotectal tract in mediating reflexive saccades
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Kristin Koller, Robert D. Rafal The superior colliculus (SC) plays a critical role in mediating reflexive eye movements. Under optimal conditions, for example including a temporal ‘gap’ of 200 ms after fixation offset and prior to target onset, it is possible to isolate a population of ‘express’ saccades with very short latencies between (80 − 120 ms). Ablation of the SC abolishes express saccades in monkeys. However, it remains to be established whether express saccade generation is dependent upon visual af...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dissociating neural variability related to stimulus quality and response times in perceptual decision-making
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Stefan Bode, Daniel Bennett, David K. Sewell, Bryan Paton, Gary F. Egan, Philip L. Smith, Carsten Murawski According to sequential sampling models, perceptual decision-making is based on accumulation of noisy evidence towards a decision threshold. The speed with which a decision is reached is determined by both the quality of incoming sensory information and random trial-by-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations. To investigate those decision dynamics at the neural level, participants made perceptual decisions while fu...
Source: Neuropsychologia - February 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intentionally not imitating: Insula cortex engaged for top-down control of action mirroring
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Megan E.J. Campbell, Steve Mehrkanoon, Ross Cunnington Perception and action are inextricably linked, down to the level of single cells which have both visual and motor response properties – dubbed ‘mirror neurons’. The mirror neuron system is generally associated with direct-matching or resonance between observed and executed actions (and goals). Yet in everyday interactions responding to another's movements with matching actions (or goals) is not always appropriate. Here we examine processes associated with intentiona...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Language and alexithymia: Evidence for the role of the inferior frontal gyrus in acquired alexithymia
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Hannah Hobson, Jeremy Hogeveen, Rebecca Brewer, Caroline Catmur, Barry Gordon, Frank Krueger, Aileen Chau, Geoffrey Bird, Jordan Grafman The clinical relevance of alexithymia, a condition associated with difficulties identifying and describing one's own emotion, is becoming ever more apparent. Increased rates of alexithymia are observed in multiple psychiatric conditions, and also in neurological conditions resulting from both organic and traumatic brain injury. The presence of alexithymia in these conditions predicts poorer regulation o...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Coordinated neural, behavioral, and phenomenological changes in perceptual plasticity through overtraining of synesthetic associations
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Nicolas Rothen, David J. Schwartzman, Daniel Bor, Anil K. Seth Synesthesia is associated with additional perceptual experiences, which are automatically and consistently triggered by specific inducing stimuli. Synesthesia is also accompanied by more general sensory and cortical changes, including enhanced modality-specific cortical excitability. Extensive cognitive training has been shown to generate synesthesia-like phenomenology but whether these experiences are accompanied by neurophysiological changes characteristic of synesthesia re...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is associated with impairments in both spontaneous and deliberative moral judgments
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): C. Daryl Cameron, Justin Reber, Victoria L. Spring, Daniel Tranel Implicit moral evaluations—spontaneous, unintentional assessments of the moral status of actions or persons—play a pivotal role in supporting moral behavior, yet little research has attempted to model variability in these moral evaluations across healthy and clinical populations. Prior research reveals that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a critical area underpinning affect and morality, and patients with vmPFC lesions show abnormalities in moral ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Knowledge Supports Memory Retrieval through Familiarity, Not Recollection
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Wei-Chun Wang, Nadia M. Brashier, Erik A. Wing, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Roberto Cabeza Semantic memory, or general knowledge of the world, guides learning and supports the formation and retrieval of new episodic memories. Behavioral evidence suggests that this knowledge effect is supported by recollection—a more controlled form of memory retrieval generally accompanied by contextual details—to a greater degree than familiarity—a more automatic form of memory retrieval generally absent of contextual details. In the current s...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Human behavioural discrimination of human, chimpanzee and macaque affective vocalisations is reflected by the neural response in the superior temporal sulcus
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Thomas Fritz, Karsten Mueller, Anika Guha, Andre Gouws, Liat Levita, Timothy J. Andrews, Katie E. Slocombe Accurate perception of the emotional content of vocalisations is essential for successful social communication and interaction. However, it is not clear whether our ability to perceive emotional cues from vocal signals is specific to human signals, or can be applied to other species’ vocalisations. Here, we address this issue by evaluating the perception and neural response to affective vocalisations from different primate spe...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spatial attention modulates the temporal sequence of hemispheric asymmetry in configural and featural face processing
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Hailing Wang, Shimin Fu Face recognition requires both configural and featural processing. Configural face processing is more dependent on the right hemisphere, whereas featural face processing is more dependent on the left hemisphere. The ERP components sensitive to configural and featural face processing were found on P1 and P2, respectively. However, whether lateralized processing is independent of or interacts with the temporal sequence of configural and featural face processing is unclear. To prevent potentially confounding physical...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optimal visuo-vestibular integration for self-motion perception in patients with unilateral vestibular loss
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Mariia Kaliuzhna, Mario Prsa, Steven Gale, Raphael Maire, Olaf Blanke Unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) is accompanied by deficits in processing of visual and vestibular self-motion cues. The present study examined whether multisensory integration of these two types of information is, nevertheless, intact in such patients. Patients were seated on a rotating platform with a screen simulating 3D rotation in front of them and asked to judge the relative magnitude of two successive rotations in the yaw plane in three conditions: vestibular st...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impaired theory of mind in adults with traumatic brain injury: A replication and extension of findings
Conclusions We replicated findings of lower scores in adults with TBI on a video-based ToM task, and provided additional evidence of the effect of WM load on social cognition task performance. There were no significant accuracy differences between men and women, inconsistent with prior evidence – including our own data using the same test. There is strong evidence of a female advantage on other social cognition tasks, and the parameters of this advantage remain to be discovered. (Source: Neuropsychologia)
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

“Practice-related changes in eye movement strategy in healthy adults with simulated hemianopia”
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Anna Nowakowska, Alasdair D.F. Clarke, Arash Sahraie, Amelia R. Hunt The impact of visual field deficits such as hemianopia can be mitigated by eye movements that position the visual image within the intact visual field. Effective eye movement strategies are not observed in all patients, however, and it is not known whether persistent deficits are due to injury or to pre-existing individual differences. Here we examined whether repeated exposure to a search task with rewards for good performance would lead to better eye movement strategi...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Spatial Distribution of Perseverations in Neglect Patients during a Nonverbal Fluency Task Depends on the Integrity of the Right Putamen
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): B.C. Kaufmann, J. Frey, T. Pflugshaupt, P. Wyss, R.E. Paladini, T. Vanbellingen, S. Bohlhalter, M. Chechlacz, T. Nef, R.M. Müri, D. Cazzoli, T. Nyffeler Deficient inhibitory control leading to perseverative behaviour is often observed in neglect patients. Previous studies investigating the relationship between response inhibition and visual attention have reported contradictory results: some studies found a linear relationship between neglect severity and perseverative behaviour whereas others could not replicate this result. The ai...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural Representations for Newly Learned Words are Modulated by Overnight Consolidation, Reading skill, and Age
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Nicole Landi, Jeffrey G. Malins, Stephen J. Frost, James Magnuson, Peter Molfese, Kayleigh Ryherd, Jay G. Rueckl, William E. Mencl, Kenneth R. Pugh Word learning depends not only on efficient online binding of phonological, orthographic and lexical information, but also on consolidation of new word representations into permanent lexical memory. Work on word learning under a variety of contexts indicates that reading and language skill impact facility of word learning in both print and speech. In addition, recent research finds that indiv...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reliability in reporting perceptual experience: behaviour and electrophysiology in hemianopic patients
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Chiara Mazzi, Chiara Francesca Tagliabue, Gaetano Mazzeo, Silvia Savazzi Patients with hemianopia can present with the so called blindsight phenomenon: the ability to perform above chance in the absence of acknowledged awareness. Proper awareness reports are, thus, crucial to distinguish pure forms of blindsight from forms of conscious, yet degraded, vision. It has in fact been recently shown that 1) dichotomous and graded measures to assess awareness can lead to different behavioural results in patients with hemianopia and that 2) diffe...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Orthographic Influence on Spoken Word Identification: Behavioral and fMRI Evidence
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Christine Chiarello, Kenneth I. Vaden, Mark A. Eckert The current study investigated behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for orthographic influences on auditory word identification. To assess such influences, the proportion of similar sounding words (i.e. phonological neighbors) that were also spelled similarly (i.e., orthographic neighbors) was computed for each auditorily presented word as the Orthographic-to-Phonological Overlap Ratio (OPOR). Speech intelligibility was manipulated by presenting monosyllabic words in multi-talker babb...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuropsychological evidence for the crucial role of the right arcuate fasciculus in the face-based mentalizing network: a disconnection analysis
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Riho Nakajima, Yordanka N. Yordanova, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet Recent evidence from axonal stimulation mapping studies suggests that at least two white matter connectivities in the right hemisphere may be involved in face-based mentalizing, i.e. the ability to infer complex cognitive and affective states from human faces: the inferior fronto-occipital (IFOF) and the superior longitudinal/arcuate (SLF/AF) fasciculi. However, to date, only a handful of neuropsychological studies have focused on the white matter tracts subserving men...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mean emotion from multiple facial expressions can be extracted with limited attention: Evidence from visual ERPs
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Luyan Ji, Valentina Rossi, Gilles Pourtois Human observers can readily extract the mean emotion from multiple faces shown briefly. However, it remains currently debated whether this ability depends on attention or not. To address this question, in this study, we recorded lateralized event-related brain potentials (i.e., N2pc and SPCN) to track covert shifts of spatial attention, while healthy adult participants discriminated the mean emotion of four faces shown in the periphery at an attended or unattended spatial location, using a cuein...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A model-based quantification of action control deficits in Parkinson's disease
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia, Volume 111 Author(s): Mathieu Servant, Nelleke van Wouwe, Scott A. Wylie, Gordon D. Logan Basal ganglia dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is thought to generate deficits in action control, but the characterization of these deficits have been qualitative rather than quantitative. Patients with PD typically show prolonged response times on tasks that instantiate a conflict between goal-directed processing and automatic response tendencies. In the Simon task, for example, the irrelevant location of the stimulus automatically activates a corresponding lateralized res...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Gesa Schaadt, Elke van der Meer, Ann Pannekamp, Regine Oberecker, Claudia Männel During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for vi...
Source: Neuropsychologia - January 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research