An IgG1 Version of the Anti-transferrin Receptor 1 Antibody ch128.1 Shows Significant Antitumor Activity Against Different Xenograft Models of Multiple Myeloma: A Brief Communication

The transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) is a meaningful target for antibody-based cancer therapy given its overexpression on malignant cells and its central role in cancer pathology. We previously developed a mouse/human chimeric IgG3 targeting human TfR1 (ch128.1), which exhibits significant antitumor activity against multiple myeloma (MM) in xenograft models of SCID-Beige mice bearing disseminated ARH-77 or KMS-11 tumors. This activity is observed in early and late disease stages of disseminated KMS-11 tumors and, in this model, the mechanism of antitumor activity is Fc-mediated, involving macrophages. As human IgG1 is the isotype of choice for therapeutic antibodies targeting malignant cells and has several advantages compared with IgG3, including established manufacturability, we now developed an IgG1 version of ch128.1. A single dose of ch128.1/IgG1 shows significant antitumor activity, not only against early and late stages of disseminated KMS-11 tumors (Asian origin) but also against these stages of disseminated disease following injection of human MM cells MM.1S (African American origin) or its variant that is resistant to dexamethasone MM.1R. Treatment with the Fc mutant version of ch128.1/IgG1 (L234A/L235A/P329S) with impaired effector functions fails to confer protection against MM.1S and MM.1R tumors, indicating a crucial role of the Fc fragment in the antitumor activity, similar to its IgG3 counterpart. In fact, we found that ch128.1/IgG1, but not the mutant, elicits a...
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Basic Studies Source Type: research

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, Dörfel D Abstract The ubiquitin-proteasome system is elementary for cellular protein degradation and gained rising attention as a new target for cancer therapy due to promising clinical trials with bortezomib, the first-in class proteasome inhibitor meanwhile approved for multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Both bortezomib and next-generation proteasome inhibitors mediate their effects by targeting the 20S core particle of the 26S proteasome. The novel small molecule inhibitor b-AP15 affects upstream elements of the ubiquitin-proteasome cascade by suppressing the deubiquitinase activity of both prote...
Source: Neoplasia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Neoplasia Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion MTDH is pro-oncogenic factor playing multifaceted and diverse roles in cancer progression. Its association and central role in regulating signaling pathways such a MAPK, wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AkT, NF-κβ pathways in various cancers shows that it plays a vital role in metastasis. MTDH contribution to chemo and radiotherapy resistance provides a new direction for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote expression of MTDH in cancers. Further studies are therefore warranted to determine whether the elevated MTDH expression has prognostic value for development...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions Several model systems are now available to characterize the MSC-tumour interplay in the TME. These offer early promise in establishing robust preclinical platforms for the identification of crucial molecular pathways and for the assessment of clinical efficacy of novel drugs to inhibit cancer development and progression. However, selection of the right model for a given study should be shaped on the purpose, and should also consider fixed biological, biochemical, and biophysical parameters according to the specific tumour type. Finally, in order to get reliable and useful results to be translated to the clinic...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, CAR-T treatment combined with intratumoral delivery of poly I:C resulted in synergistic antitumor activity. We thus provide a rationale to translate this immunotherapeutic strategy to solid tumors. Introduction Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has been demonstrated to be a new way to fight malignancies. In particular, T lymphocytes engineered to express chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have shown great promise in treating hematological malignancies (1). CD19-targeted CAR-T cells have been approved by FDA to treat relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma (DLBC...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study highlights how the use of in vitro 3D model can allow rapid screening and selection of new and safer drugs. Introduction Angiogenesis is a complex and finely regulated process that consists of the growth of new capillary blood vessels from pre-existing vessels to create communication pathways among tissues. The coordination of different activities such as endothelial cell proliferation and migration, metalloproteinase function, integrin expression and pericyte stabilization is essential for angiogenesis (Folkman, 1984). The “angiogenic switch” is “on” when the balance between pro-...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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