Virus-Specific T Cells (VSTs) Therapy for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)- a Novel Therapy to Combat a Fatal Disease

PML is a rare infection with JC virus affecting mostly oligodendrocytes and the white matter of the central nervous system. It affects patients with profound cellular immunodeficiency such as uncontrolled HIV or those receiving immunosuppression for neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Prognosis is poor as there is no effective therapy except for immune recovery which is not feasible in all cases. Herein, we describe using Quadrivalent (CMV,EBV, Adenovirus and BK) VSTs in a recipient of an unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) with PML.
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 520 Source Type: research

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Discussion The pericardium is a bi-layered membrane that envelops the heart and provides a barrier to prevent disease and also decreases friction as the heart moves. Pericarditis is the inflammation of pericardium. The incidence is underreported as asymptomatic or mild disease may go unrecognized. From hospitalized patient data, 0.2-5% of patients with various cardiac disease had pericarditis. An incidence rate for hospitalizations of 3.32 per 100,000 person years has been cited. Percarditis occurs more often in adolescent males. Treatment of the underlying cause or suspected cause is important, along with close monitorin...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
This study aimed to investigate the presence of enterovirus and HLA class I expression in one of the largest HT thyroid tissue cohorts to date. In addition, viral receptors and viral immune response proteins were examined. METHODS: Thyroid tissue samples from 46 HT patients were obtained using core needle biopsy. Thyroid tissue collected during neck surgery for other reasons than thyroid autoimmunity served as controls. Standard immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples were used to detect HLA class I, enteroviral capsid protein 1 (VP1) and coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in thyro...
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
In conclusion, targeting the dysfunctional complex I usingNDI1 gene can be an approach to address axonal and neuronal loss responsible for permanent disability in MS that is unaltered by current disease modifying drugs.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease mediated by immunity, and could lead to liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms for breaking hepatic tolerance and driving AIH still remain elusive. We herein reported that the non-specific liver inflammation triggered by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) recruited high numbers of CD4 + T, CD8 + T and B cells, and elevated the expression of proinflammaitory cytokines in Balb/c mice, further breaking liver tolerance and inducing autoimmune response, AIH inflammation and liver fibrosis in the presence of...
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
Interleukin (IL)-34 is a homodimer that is produced mainly by keratinocytes, neuronal cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs). It is believed to play important roles in chronic inflammation and the homeostasis of microglia. Currently, there is no effective treatment for many types of retinal degeneration. An improved treatment of autoimmune uveitis is also needed, as current uveitis treatment primarily uses steroidal anti-inflammation medication, which may produce significant unwanted side effects in long-term use. The inventors at the National Eye Institute (NEI) found that various retinal degeneration and uveitis models in ...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
The objective of the present study is to explore the role of miR-21-5p in EAU. C57 mice were immunized with residue1-20 (IRBP1-20) in complete Freund's adjuvant supplemented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra to induce EAU, and miR-21-5p was knocked down via subretinal injection of anti-miR-21-5p adenovirus. The pathological score, TUNEL positive cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the retina were reduced, and the expression of IL-10 was increased by down-regulation of miR-21-5p. Up-regulation of miR-21-5p significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of IL-10 in ARPE-19 cells. The binding acti...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results demonstrated that DHT could reduce the severity of GD in female BALB/c mice by regulating oxidative stress. The upregulation of immunosuppressive cytokines might be another important protective mechanism. PMID: 31134819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research
In this study, we found that the expression of the transcription factor Foxp1 gradually increased during the maturation of DCs. Then, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus carrying Foxp1-interfering RNA (Ad-simFoxp1) and transfected murine bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro. DCs transfected with Ad-simFoxp1 exhibited markedly lower costimulatory molecules, and decreased cytokines. And Ad-simFoxp1 greatly inhibited mature DC-induced T cell responses. Moreover, in vivo infusion with Ad-simFoxp1-modified DCs significantly delayed the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Therefore, adoptive transfection of...
Source: Mechanisms of Development - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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