Incretins and microRNAs: interactions and physiological relevance

Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Shabnam Radbakhsh, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Maciej Banach, Amirhossein SahebkarAbstractMicroRNAs (miRNA) are one class of the small regulatory RNAs that can impact the expression of numerous genes including incretin hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors. Incretin peptides, including GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP, are released from the gastrointestinal tract and have an crucial role in the glucose hemostasis and pancreatic beta-cell function. These hormones and their analogs with a longer half-life, glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1RA), modify the expression of miRNAs. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) is an enzyme that degrades the incretin hormones and is inactivated by DPP-4 inhibitors, which are a class of compounds used in the management of type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 inhibitors may also increase or reduce the expression of miRNAs. In this review, we describe the possible interactions between miRNAs and incretin hormones and the relevance of such interactions to physiological processes and diseases.Graphical abstract
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsTo our knowledge, no study has examined the detailed dynamic changes in glucose and insulin homeostasis in this number of participants undergoing SG in relation to incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1. This current study supports the role of SG for the treatment of obesity-related glucose dysregulation.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Shiying Shao, QinQin Xu, Xuefeng Yu, Ruping Pan, Yong ChenAbstractDipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors (DPP4is) are oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through inhibiting the degradation of incretin peptides. Numerous investigations have been focused on the effects of DPP4is on glucose homeostasis. However, there are limited evidences demonstrating their Potential modulatory functions in the immune system. DPP4, originally known as the lymphocyte cell surface protein CD26,...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractGender and biological sex impact the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including metabolic disorders such as diabetes. In most parts of the world, diabetes is more prevalent in men than in women, especially in middle-aged populations. In line with this, considering almost all animal models, males are more likely to develop obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia than females in response to nutritional challenges. As summarised in this review, it is now obvious that many aspects of energy balance and glucose metabolism are regulated differently in males and females and influence their predisposition to type ...
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThere were rapid changes within 4 weeks after RYGB: signs of enhanced parasympathetic nerve activity, reduced morning cortisol, and enhanced incretin and glucagon responses to glucose. The findings suggest that neurohormonal mechanisms can contribute to the rapid improvement of insulin resistance and glycemia following RYGB in type 2 diabetes.
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionTherefore, our results demonstrate that DA5 ‐CH has neuroprotective effects in the STZ‐induced animal model and that DA5‐CH has potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Conclusion: GLP-1 RAs were more effective than DPP-4Is in lowering the three indicators. Overall, the effects of GLP-1 RAs on weight, BMI, and WC were favorable. PMID: 32029057 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Biomed Environ Sci Source Type: research
ConclusionTherefore, our results demonstrate that DA5 ‐CH has neuroprotective effects in the STZ‐induced animal model and that DA5‐CH has potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Abstract The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients. GIP has a variety of effects on different systems, including the potentiation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells after food intake (i.e. incretin effect), which is probably the most important. GIP effects are mediated by the GIP receptor (GIPR), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in several tissues, including islet β-cells, adipocytes, bone cells, and brain. As well as its involvement in metabolic disorders (e.g. it contributes to the impair...
Source: ENDOCR REV - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research
AbstractThe glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients. GIP has a variety of effects on different systems, including the potentiation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells after food intake (i.e. incretin effect), which is probably the most important. GIP effects are mediated by the GIP receptor (GIPR), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in several tissues, including islet β-cells, adipocytes, bone cells, and brain. As well as its involvement in metaboli c disorders (e.g. it contributes to the impaired postpr...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist and incretin mimetic used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been shown to have a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which liraglutide promotes angiogenesis using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of liraglutide, and assessed by wound healing assay and tube formation assay as measures of angiogenesis. We found that liraglutide at 10 and 100 nmol/L greatly promoted the angiogenic ability of HUVECs. Ne...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
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