Can the AGE/RAGE/ERK signalling pathway and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition interact in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps?

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a persistent sinonasal mucosa inflammatory disease with still unclear pathophysiologic mechanisms that imply events of tissue repair and structural remodelling. Several cascades seem to have a considerable role in the onset and progression of mucosa hyperproliferation in nasal polyps including transforming growth factor β/Small mother against decapentaplegic (TGFβ/Smads), mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs), advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) together with epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT). Since many inflammatory mediators are reported to play important roles in the development of nasal poly ps (NP) disease, this study aimed to analyse the correlation between the AGEs/receptor of advanced glycosylation end-products (RAGE)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway and the main markers of EMT to better understand the influence that they exert on the remodelling of nas al mucous membranes in patients affected by CRSwNP vs normal controls. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemical analysis, using AGE, RAGE, p-ERK, MMP-3, TGF-β1, Smad2/3, Collagen I-III, α-SMA, E-cadherin, IL-6 and Vimentin antibodies, was performed. AGE, RAGE, ERK, p -ERK and MMP3 were also evaluated using western blot analysis. We observed an overexpression of the AGE/RAGE/p-ERK and the main mesenchymal markers of EMT (Vimentin and IL-6) in CRSwNPvs controls whereas t...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

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Medusae of Turritopsis dohrnii undergo reverse development in response to physical damage, adverse environmental conditions, or aging. Senescent, weakened or damaged medusae transform into a cluster of poorly differentiated cells (known as the cyst stage), which metamorphose back into a preceding life cycle stage, the polyp. During the metamorphosis, cell transdifferentiation occurs. The cyst represents the intermediate stage between a reverting medusa and a healthy polyp, during which cell transdifferentiation and tissue reorganization take place. Here we characterize and compare the transcriptomes of the polyp and newbor...
Source: G3: Genes Genomes Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Investigations Source Type: research
Conclusion: These findings suggest a crucial involvement of HH pathway in airway basal cells to guide differentiation and indicate an alteration of its activation in COPD patients. Measuring HH elements in biological samples may help categorize COPD patients and propose novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Mechanisms of lung injury and repair Source Type: research
ConclusionPatients with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (
Source: Cancer Genetics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We report a case of a 74-yr-old women with a tubulovillous adenoma occurring in the vagina, and a second one occurring later in the vulva. Tumor cells in both lesions were CK7−, CK20+, CDX-2+, and showed intact mismatch-repair proteins. A G13D (c.38G>A, p.Gly13Asp) mutation in the KRAS gene was identified in both masses. As well, a novel frameshift truncating mutation (c.4320delA, p.Pro1441fsTer32) in the APC gene was detected only in the vaginal mass, ruling out the possibility that the vulvar mass was a local recurrence of the vaginal mass. This is the first identification of KRAS and APC gene mutations in adeno...
Source: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Pathology of the Lower Genital Tract: Case Report Source Type: research
A germline MBD4 mutation was identified in a patient with colorectal oligopolyposis and early‑onset cancer: A case report. Oncol Rep. 2019 Jul 17;: Authors: Tanakaya K, Kumamoto K, Tada Y, Eguchi H, Ishibashi K, Idani H, Tachikawa T, Akagi K, Okazaki Y, Ishida H Abstract A 42‑year‑old woman presented with ~30 adenomatous polyps of the left sided‑colon with early rectosigmoid cancer. The patient had no previous medical history and no familial history of inherited colorectal disease. No germline gene mutations associated with colorectal adenomatous polyposis, including APC regulator of WNT s...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
Conclusions The current review reports recent epidemiological and experimental data supporting the bright future of dietary polyphenols as chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticancer agents in CRC (Figure 1). The polyphenol-rich diet not only may represent a chemopreventive treatment but also has important function on immune system by promoting symbiont and commensal bacterial populations, increases reciprocal interaction between host and microbiota which in turn have important effects on immune function Evidence underlines the use of polyphenols as sensitizers of chemo/radiotherapies paving the w...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precurso...
Source: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Hered Cancer Clin Pract Source Type: research
ConclusionImmunohistochemical detection of colorectal polyp mismatch repair protein as Lynch syndrome screening efficiency is low. Effective screening strategies may be improved by optimizing patient/polyp selection, such as focusing on young adenoma patients with a family history of cancer, or patients who present with high-risk features (large size, villous, high-grade dysplasia and malignant components).
Source: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC inpath_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs inpath_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor le...
Source: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study provides the molecular evidence that SSA/P, even without cytological dysplasia, is a precursor lesion of CRC and that conventional CRC might arise from mixed polyp.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
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