Chronic cypermethrin exposure alters mouse embryonic stem cell growth kinetics, induces Phase II detoxification response and affects pluripotency and differentiation gene expression
Worldwide uncontrolled use of synthetic pyrethroids contaminates water and soil leading to health hazards. Cypermethrin (CYP), the most used pyrethroid, induces detrimental effects on adults and embryos at different stages of development of several vertebrate species. In Mammals, CYP-induced alterations have been previously described in adult somatic cells and in post-implantation embryos. It remains unknown whether CYP has effects during pre-implantation development. Studies to access pre-implantation embryo toxicity are complicated by the restricted number of blastocysts that may be obtained, eitherin vivo orin vitro. Em...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - February 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Immunolocalization of aromatase P450 in the epididymis of Podarcis sicula and Rattus rattus
The goal of this study was to evaluate P450 aromatase localization in the epididymis of two different vertebrates: the lizardPodarcis sicula, a seasonal breeder, andRattus rattus, a continuous breeder. P450 aromatase is a key enzyme involved in the local control of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis and we proved for the first time that this enzyme is represented in the epididymis of bothP. sicula andR. rattus. In details, P450 aromatase was well represented in epithelial and myoid cells and in the connective tissue ofP. sicula epididymis during the reproductive period; instead, during autumnal resumption this enzyme was ...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Can the AGE/RAGE/ERK signalling pathway and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition interact in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps?
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a persistent sinonasal mucosa inflammatory disease with still unclear pathophysiologic mechanisms that imply events of tissue repair and structural remodelling. Several cascades seem to have a considerable role in the onset and progression of mucosa hyperproliferation in nasal polyps including transforming growth factor β/Small mother against decapentaplegic (TGFβ/Smads), mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs), advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) together with epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT). Since many inflammatory mediators are reported to ...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 23, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nuclear factor-kB and nitric oxide synthases in red blood cells: good or bad in obesity? A preliminary study
In conclusion, we have considered the literature that focuses on the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The ratio changed from the past, especially in people whose diet is strongly westernized worsening the state of health of the patient and leading to an higher incidence of obesity. Our study hypoth esizes that the supplementation could help to restore the correct ratio. (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expression, localization and synthesis of small leucine-rich proteoglycans in developing mouse molar tooth germ
The gene expression and protein synthesis of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), including decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, and lumican, was analyzed in the context of the hypothesis that they are closely related to tooth formation.In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and organ culture with metabolic labeling of [35S] were carried out in mouse first molar tooth germs of different developmental stages using ICR mice at embryonic day (E) 13.5 to postnatal day (P) 7.0. At the bud and cap stage,decorin mRNA was expressed only in the surrounding mesenchyme, but not within the tooth germ.BiglycanmRNA was then expre...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 10, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anastomotic healing in a rat model of peritonitis after non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration
The tissue inflammatory response can influence the outcome of anastomotic healing. Anastomotic leakage represents a dreadful complication after gastrointestinal surgery, in particular sepsis and intra-abdominal infections impair the restorative process of colic anastomoses. It has been debated whether the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is a risk factor for dehiscence, since many patients receive NSAIDs in the early postoperative period. Our aim was, for the first time, to analyze the morpho-functional effects of postoperative administration of two commonly used NSAIDs, Diclofenac and Ketor...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 10, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Morphological analysis of the seeds of three pseudocereals by using light microscopy and ESEM-EDS
The seed morphology of three Pseudocereal Grains (PSCg),i.e. quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld,Chenopodiaceae), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentumMoench,Polygonaceae) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatusL.,Amaranthaceae) was studied by light microscopy (LM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS). LM was used with visible light to evaluate either unstained sections or sections stained with Azan mixture and with fluorescent light. The aim of the study was to compare the architecture of the three seeds in order to connect their morphology with nutrient localization. The A...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 10, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A journal of histochemistry as a forum for non-histochemical scientific societies
Histochemical techniques are widely applied in biomedical research and, during the last twenty years, they were among the methods used in more than 590,000 scientific articles in indexed journals. However, a very small percentage of these papers were published in strictly histochemical journals. A possible strategy to widen the audience of the histochemical journals making them attractive to non-histochemist authors might be to publish and make open-access available the proceedings of the meetings and conferences of valued scientific societies whose fellows use microscopy and histochemistry in their experimental activity. ...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - December 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Alcian blue staining to track the intracellular fate of hyaluronic-acid-based nanoparticles at transmission electron microscopy
In this study, the critical-electrolyte-concentration Alcian Blue method set up by Schofieldet al. in 1975 was applied to track hyaluronic-acid-based NPs in muscle cellsin vitro. This long-established histochemical method proved to be a powerful tool allowing to identify not only whole NPs while entering cells and moving into the cytoplasm, but also their remnants following lysosomal degradation and extrusion. (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - December 12, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Downregulation of SRPK2 promotes cell cycle arrest though E2F1 in non-small cell lung cancer
Serine-arginine protein kinase (SRPK) belongs to a class of cell cycle regulating kinases that can phosphorylate proteins containing serine/arginine-Rich (SR) regions. SR proteins are a family of RNA binding phosphoproteins that control both constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing events. However, little is known about their role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we found that serine-arginine protein kinase 2 (SRPK2) expression was upregulated in NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier curve analyses showed that the overall survival time of NSCLC patients with hig...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - December 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bleaching melanin in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded melanoma specimens using visible light: a pilot study
In conclusion, visible light can be effectively exploited to bleach pigmented melanoma FFPE sections prior to perform routine histochemical and immunohistochemical stains. (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 31, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Increased expression of STAT3 and SOCS3 in placenta from hyperglycemic rats
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that is activated by interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 that generate nearly opposing responses. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is the negative regulator of STAT3 and plays an important role in the negative regulation of the inflammatory process. Evidence has shown the importance of STAT3 and SOCS3 during implantation and normal pregnancy. However, little is known about the relationship of both factors under hyperglycemic condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the placenta regions exhibiting immunopositivity for STAT3 a...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 30, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Erythrocytes of the Rhesus and Cynomolgus Monkeys
The monographErythrocytes of the Rhesus and Cynomolgus Monkeys is devoted to the cytologic, quantitative, generative normal and abnormal presentations of the erythrocytes in these two species of primates... (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 22, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bradykinin and noradrenaline preconditioning influences level of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase in the white matter of spinal cord in rabbits after ischemia/reperfusion
The aim of present work is to assess the effects of bradykinin (Br) or noradrenaline (Nor) preconditioning to the levels of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model in the rabbit spinal cord white matter as well as effect on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin immunoreaction in glial cells. Rabbits were preconditioned by intraperitoneal single dose of Br or Nor 48 h prior to 20 min of ischemia followed by 24 or 48 h of reperfusion. White matter of L3-L6 spinal cord ...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Immunofluorescence characterization of innervation and nerve-immune cell interactions in mouse lymph nodes
The peripheral nervous system communicates specifically with the immune system via local interactions. These interactions include the “hardwiring” of sympathetic/parasympathetic (efferent) and sensory nerves (afferent) to primary (e.g., thymus and bone marrow) and secondary (e.g., lymph node, spleen, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoid tissue/organs. To gain a better understanding of this bidirectional interaction/crosstalk between the two systems, we have investigated the distribution of nerve fibres and PNS-immune cell associationsin situ in the mouse lymph node by using immunofluorescent staining an...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Digital PCR - Methods and Protocols
Sensitivity, reproducibility, precision and accuracy are recurring words in this book. Indeed, digital PCR (dPCR) represents a major step forward in the quantification of nucleic acids. In this field, for many years it has been used the quantitative PCR (qPCR), a technology that allows a real-time monitoring of DNA amplification which has proved useful for obtaining a relative measurement, but that only indirectly, through the use of reference standards, provides an absolute quantification.... (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bradykinin and noradrenaline preconditioning influences level of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase in the white matter of spinal cord in rabbits after ischemia/reperfusion
The aim of present work is to assess the effects of bradykinin (Br) or noradrenaline (Nor) preconditioning to the levels of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model in the rabbit spinal cord white matter as well as effect on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin immunoreaction in glial cells. Rabbits were preconditioned by intraperitoneal single dose of Br or Nor 48 h prior to 20 min of ischemia followed by 24 or 48 h of reperfusion. White matter of L3-L6 spinal cord ...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Immunofluorescence characterization of innervation and nerve-immune cell interactions in mouse lymph nodes
The peripheral nervous system communicates specifically with the immune system via local interactions. These interactions include the “hardwiring” of sympathetic/parasympathetic (efferent) and sensory nerves (afferent) to primary (e.g., thymus and bone marrow) and secondary (e.g., lymph node, spleen, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoid tissue/organs. To gain a better understanding of this bidirectional interaction/crosstalk between the two systems, we have investigated the distribution of nerve fibres and PNS-immune cell associationsin situ in the mouse lymph node by using immunofluorescent staining an...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Digital PCR - Methods and Protocols
Sensitivity, reproducibility, precision and accuracy are recurring words in this book. Indeed, digital PCR (dPCR) represents a major step forward in the quantification of nucleic acids. In this field, for many years it has been used the quantitative PCR (qPCR), a technology that allows a real-time monitoring of DNA amplification which has proved useful for obtaining a relative measurement, but that only indirectly, through the use of reference standards, provides an absolute quantification.... (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - October 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Hematopoietic stem cells debut in embryonic lymphomyeloid tissues of elasmobranchs
The evolutionary initiation of the appearance in lymphomyeloid tissue of the hemopoietic stem cell in the earliest (most primitive) vertebrate model,i.e. the elasmobranch (chondroichthyan)Torpedo marmorata Risso, has been studied. The three consecutive developmental stages of torpedo embryos were obtained by cesarean section from a total of six pregnant torpedoes. Lymphomyeloid tissue was identified in the Leydig organ and epigonal tissue. The sections were treated with monoclonal anti-CD34 and anti-CD38 antibodies to detect hematopoietic stem cells. At stage I (2-cm-long embryos with external gills) and at stage II (3-4 c...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - September 30, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bovine pericardium membrane, gingival stem cells, and ascorbic acid: a novel team in regenerative medicine
Recently, the development and the application of 3D scaffold able to promote stem cell differentiation represented an essential field of interest in regenerative medicine. In particular, functionalized scaffolds improve bone tissue formation and promote bone defects repair. This research aims to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid (AS) supplementation in anin vitro model, in which a novel 3D-scaffold, bovine pericardium collagen membrane called BioRipar (BioR) was functionalized with human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs). As extensively reported in the literature, AS is an essential antioxidant molecule involved in...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - September 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expressions of TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4 and NF- κΒ in the oviduct of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii)
In this study, we continued to investigate the localizations and expression levels of cytokines including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its related factors, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κΒ) in the oviduct ofRana dybowskiiduring the breeding period and pre-hibernation. Morphological results showed that there were significant differences in oviductal weight and pipe diameter with significantly higher values in pre-hibernation than those of the breeding period. Strong immunostaining of TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4 and NF- κ&...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - September 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of nephron progenitors and their early epithelial derivative structures in the nephrogenic zone of the canine fetal kidney
This study was focused to characterize the expression of potential markers of canine NPs and their derivatives by immuno-fluorescence and western blot analysis. Transcription factors (TFs) SIX1 and SIX2, well-characterized human NP markers, were expressed in NPs surrounding the ureteric bud in the CFK. Canine NPs also expressed ITGA8 and NCAM1, surface markers previously used to isolate NPs from the mouse and human fetal kidneys. TF, PAX2 was detected in the ureteric bud, NPs and their derivative structures such as renal vesicle and S-shaped body. This study highlights the similarities in dog, mouse and human renal develop...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - September 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Clathrin mediated endocytosis - Methods and Protocols
Clathrin is one of the interesting “moonlighting proteins” which perform multiple functions relevant to biochemical or biophysical aspects. It can be considered the master regulator of vesicular trafficking being the main player of the Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis (CME)..... (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - September 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Presence of N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose residues on bronchioloalveolar cells during rat postnatal development
In mammals, the alveolarization process develops predominantly after birth. Airway cells display a complex assemblage of glycans on their surface. These glycans, particularly terminal glycan extensions, are important effective carriers of information that change during the differentiation process. Nevertheless, few systematic data are reported about the cell surface sugar residue content during post-natal lung development. In the present work, we aimed to identify and semi-quantify N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)/galactose (Gal) residues on the bronchioloalveolar cell surface in rat lung sections from 1-, 4-, 8- day old and...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - September 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Ferritin expression in the periodontal tissues of primates
The objective of this study was to determine the expression and distribution of ferritin in the periodontal tissuesof primates.First, we assessed the expression of ferritin in primary cultured cells isolated from human periodontal tissues using the polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. Second, we investigated the expression and distribution of ferritin in the periodontal tissues ofMacaca fascicularis, human gingival tissues, and human gingival carcinoma tissues using immunohistochemistry.Both protein and mRNA of ferritin were constitutively present in human primary cultured cells, including those from t...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - September 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effects of physical training on sarcomere lengths and muscle-tendon interface of the cervical region in an experimental model of menopause
The aim of this study was to describe the structural and ultrastructural aspects of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) and the proximal and distal sarcomeres of the sternomastoid of aged Wistar rats subjected to an experimental model of menopause and swimming training. A total of 20 female elderly rats were divided into the following four groups (n=5 in each group): sedentary/no-menopausal (SNM), trained/no-menopausal (TNM), sedentary/menopausal (SM), and trained/menopausal (TM). The MTJ samples were dissected and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. We showed that the TNM Group rats exhibited changes in morpholog...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - August 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Comparison between Lipofectamine RNAiMAX and GenMute transfection agents in two cellular models of human hepatoma
RNA interference is a powerful approach to understand gene function both for therapeutic and experimental purposes. Since the lack of knowledge in the gene silencing of various hepatic cell lines, this work was aimed to compare two transfection agents, the liposome-based Lipofectamine ™ RNAiMAX and the HepG2-specific, polymer-based GenMute™, in two cellular models of human hepatoma, HepG2 and Huh7.5. In the first part, we assessed transfection efficiency of a fluorescent Cy3-labeled negative control siRNA by cell imaging analysis; we found that cells treated with GenMute pres ent a higher uptake of the fluoresc...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - August 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Peribiliary gland damage due to liver transplantation involves peribiliary vascular plexus and vascular endothelial growth factor
In conclusion, PBGs and associated PVP are damaged in transplanted extrahepatic bile ducts; however, an activation of the PBG niche takes place and is characterized by proliferation and VEGF-A expression. This response could have a relevant role in reconstituting biliary epithelium and vascular plexus and could be implicated in the genesis of non-anastomotic strictures. (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - May 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical identification of resistin in the uterus of ewes subjected to different diets: Preliminary results
Resistin is a polypeptide hormone of the adipokine-family, primarily, but not exclusively, produced by the adipose tissue. Recent studies suggested that resistin may affect the male and female reproductive activity. The study aim was to immunohistochemically evaluate the presence and distribution of resistin in the ovine uterus. Uterine samples were collected from two groups of ewes at the end of an experimental trial during which the animals of the first group (CTRL) were fed only by grazing while those of the second one (EXP) were supplemented with barley and corn. Using a monoclonal antibody against resistin, tested by ...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - May 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

miR-132 regulates the expression of synaptic proteins in APP/PS1 transgenic mice through C1q
Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) is usually accompanied by synaptic loss in both the hippocampus and neocortex. In the early stage of AD, amyloid β-induced synapse changes is the main reason, while in the later stage, the accumulation of Tau protein promotes synapse degeneration as the key factor leading to demen tia. MicroRNA (miRNA) is closely related to the expression changes of many AD-related genes. One of the most abundant brain-enriched miRNAs is miR-132, which has been shown to regulate both neuron morphogenesis and plasticity. It has been reported that miR-132 is significantly reduced i...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - May 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Embedding cell monolayers to investigate nanoparticle-plasmalemma interactions at transmission electron microscopy
Transmission electron microscopy is the technique of choice to visualize the spatial relationships between nanoconstructs and cells and especially to monitor the uptake process of nanomaterials. It is therefore crucial that the cell surface be preserved in its integrity, to obtain reliable ultrastructural evidence: the plasmalemma represents the biological barrier the nanomaterials have to cross, and the mode of membrane-nanoconstruct interaction is responsible for the intracellular fate of the nanomaterials. In this paper, we describe a simple and inexpensive method to process cell monolayers for ultrastructural morpholog...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - March 28, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Deleted in Liver Cancer 2 (DLC2) protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma
We examined two types of hepatocellular carcinoma- typical and fibrolamellar one. Our analysis revealed that DLC2 protein is not diminished in cancer tissue when compared to non-cancerous liver specimens. What is more, we observed DLC2 to be more abundantly expressed in cancer tissue, particularly in tumors with the inflammation background. In addition, we found thatDLC2 gene status was diploid in virtually all tumor samples examined. Our results indicate that DLC2 is not diminished in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It appears that members of the DLC family, although structurally highly related, may function differently i...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - February 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Morphological and ultrastructural analysis of normal, injured and osteoarthritic human knee menisci
The human meniscus plays a crucial role for transmission and distribution of load across the knee, as well as shock absorption, joint stability, lubrication, and congruity. The aim of this study was to compare the complex geometry, and unique ultrastructure and tissue composition of the meniscus in healthy (control) and pathological conditions to provide understanding of structural changes that could be helpful in the future design of targetted therapies and improvement of treatment indications. We analyzed meniscus samples collected from 3 healthy multi-organ donors (median age, 66 years), 5 patients with traumatic menisc...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - February 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Antigen retrieval pre-treatment causes a different expression pattern of Cav3.2 in rat and mouse spinal dorsal horn
Cav3 channels consist of three isoforms, Cav3.1 ( α1G), Cav3.2 ( α1H), and Cav3.3 ( α1I), which produce low-threshold spikes that trigger burst firings in nociceptive neurons of the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Although Cav3.2 plays a crucial role in pathological pain, its distribution in SDH still remains controversial. One study showed that Cav3.2 is ubiquitously expressed in neurons, but another study implied that Cav3.2 is expressed restricted to astrocytes. To unravel these discrepancies, we used methods of immunohistochemistry either with or without antigen retrieval (AR)...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Relationship between lipid droplets size and integrated optical density
Lipid accumulation is largely investigated due to its role in many human diseases. The attention is mainly focused on the lipid droplets (LDs), spherical cytoplasmic organelles, which are devoted to the storage of the lipids. The amount of lipid content is often evaluated by measuring LDs size and/or the integrated optical density (IOD) in cultured cells. Both evaluations are directly associated to the lipid content and therefore they are correlated to each other, but a lack of theoretical relationship between size and IOD was observed in literature. Here we investigated the size-IOD relationship of LDs observed in microsc...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 17, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

VEGF, VEGF165b and EG-VEGF expression is specifically related with hormone profile in pituitary adenomas
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its inhibitory splice variant, VEGF165band Endocrine Gland derived VEGF (EG-VEGF) have a controversial role in pituitary gland. We aim to study VEGF, VEGF165b and EG-VEGF expression in pituitary adenomas. A significant correlation was found between growth hormone (GH) and VEGF secretion (P=0.024). For prolactinomas, VEGF and prolactin expression, had a P-value of 0.02 for Kendall coefficient and a P-value of 0.043 for the Spearman coefficient. VEGF-mRNA amplification was detected in both tumor cells and folliculostellate cells. VEGF165b was positive in 16.66% of pituitary adenomas...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 17, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical distribution of insulin-, glucagon- and somatostatin-containing cells in the pancreas of Lake Van fish (Alburnus tarichi G üldenstädt, 1814) (Cyprinidae)
In this study, the regional distribution, volume density, and relative frequency of some pancreatic endocrine cells in Lake Van fish were investigated via immunohistochemistry using specific mammalian antibodies. The pancreatic tissue was observed to be surrounded by adipose tis sue, which was adjacent to the gall bladder or extrahepatic bile duct, or dispersed in the adipose tissue ranked among coils of post-esophageal swelling and intestine. The pancreatic endocrine cells were examined, including the islets, exocrine pancreas, and pancreatic ducts. According to the modifi ed aldehyde fuchsin staining and immunohistochemi...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 17, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Seasonal expressions of prolactin, prolactin receptor and STAT5 in the scented glands of the male muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus)
Prolactin (PRL) production in mammals has been demonstrated in extrapituitary gland, which can activate autocrine/paracrine signaling pathways to regulate physiological activity. In the current study, we characterized the gene expression profiles of PRL, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) in the scented glandular tissues of the muskrats, to further elucidate the relationship between PRL and the scented glandular functions of the muskrats. The weight and volume of the scented glands in the breeding season were significantly higher than those of the non-breeding season....
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 17, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Sertoli Cells - Methods and Protocols
The mammalian somatic cell providing the physiological milieu to germ cells growth and differentiation is the Sertoli cell, named after the Italian physiologist Enrico Sertoli. Sertoli described for the first time this functionally multitasking cell in 1865 (when he was 23 years-old!) in human testicular tissues while ending up his medicine studies at the University of Pavia... (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 17, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cell Migration - Methods and Protocols
As the title suggests, this book presents several techniques to study cells migration in vivo, in vitro, ex vivo and with different model systems to dissect many of the biochemical and biophysical properties (at both molecular and cellular levels) involved in the dynamics of migration and cell-to-cell communication... (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 17, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Epithelial expression of the hormone leptin by bovine skin
Leptin (Lep) stimulates keratinocytes to proliferate, intervenes in the wound healing and participates to hair follicle morphogenesis and cycle. While it is secreted by skin structures including epidermis and hair follicles, intradermal adipose tissue also seems to have a role in Lep secretion and accordingly in the control of hair follicle growth in mice and humans. Lep was investigated in the skin of humans and laboratory animals but there are not data regarding bovine species. The aim of this work was to study the expression of Lep and its receptor (LepR) in the skin of bovine and, at the same time, to investigate the p...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - January 17, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histochemistry as a versatile research toolkit in biological research, not only an applied discipline in pathology
The impressive progress of histochemistry over the last 50 years has led to setting up specific and sensitive techniques to describe dynamic events, through the detection of specific molecules in the very place where they exist in live cells. The scientific field where histochemistry has most largely been applied is histopathology, with the aim to identify disease-specific molecular markers or to elucidate the etiopathological mechanisms. Numerous authors did however apply histochemistry to a variety of other research fields; their interests range from the microanatomy of animal and plant organisms to the cellular mechanis...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - December 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Two histological methods for recognition and study of cortical microinfarcts in thick sections
Cortical microinfarcts are the most widespread form of brain infarction but frequently remain undetected by standard neuroimaging protocols. Moreover, microinfarcts are only partially detectable in hematoxylin-eosin-stained (H and E) 4-10 µm paraffin sections at routine neuropathological examination. In this short report, we provide two staining protocols for visualizing cortical microinfarcts in 100-300 µm sections. For low-power microscopy, the first protocol combines aldehyde fuchsine staining for detection of lipofuscin granule s and macrophages with Darrow red counterstaining for Nissl material. The second...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - December 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Evolutionary intraembryonic origin of vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells in the elasmobranch spleen
The electric ray (Torpedo Marmorata Risso) provides an animal model for the detection of early intraembryonic hemopoietic stem cells in sea vertebrates. The spleen of this bone-marrowless vertebrate appears to be the major site of hemopoietic stem cell differentiation during development and in adulthood. Splenic development in this species was investigated and hemopoietic stem cells were detected in this organ by immunocytochemistry utilizing CD34 and CD38 antibodies. At stage I (2-cm-long embryos with external gills), the spleen contains only mesenchymal cells. At stage II (3-4 cm-long embryos with a discoidal shape and i...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - December 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple 7 (EGFL7): Expression and possible effect on biliary epithelium growth in cholangiocarcinoma
In conclusion the expression of EGFL7 might be useful in the classification of CCA subtypes. (Source: European Journal of Histochemistry)
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - November 30, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dynamic of lipid droplets and gene expression in response to β-aminoisobutyric acid treatment on 3T3-L1 cells
This study analyzes the effect of different doses of BAIBA and at different days of development on 3T3-L1 cells by evaluating morphological changes in LDs and the expression of browning gene markers. Results suggested that the highest concentration of BAIBA after 4 days of differentiation produced the most significant effects. The number of LDs per cell increased in comparison to control cells, whereas the surface area significantly decreased. Brown adipocyte markers were up-regulated, but the effect of treatment was lost at 10 days of differentiation. The thermogenic program induced by BAIBA may reflect a rapid adaptation...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - November 28, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research