Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 126: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Subviral Particles as Protective Vaccines and Vaccine Platforms

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 126: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Subviral Particles as Protective Vaccines and Vaccine Platforms Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12020126 Authors: Ho Jeevan-Raj Netter : Hepatitis B remains one of the major global health problems more than 40 years after the identification of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) as the causative agent. A critical turning point in combating this virus was the development of a preventative vaccine composed of the HBV surface (envelope) protein (HBsAg) to reduce the risk of new infections. The isolation of HBsAg sub-viral particles (SVPs) from the blood of asymptomatic HBV carriers as antigens for the first-generation vaccines, followed by the development of recombinant HBsAg SVPs produced in yeast as the antigenic components of the second-generation vaccines, represent landmark advancements in biotechnology and medicine. The ability of the HBsAg SVPs to accept and present foreign antigenic sequences provides the basis of a chimeric particulate delivery platform, and resulted in the development of a vaccine against malaria (RTS,S/AS01, MosquirixTM), and various preclinical vaccine candidates to overcome infectious diseases for which there are no effective vaccines. Biomedical modifications of the HBsAg subunits allowed the identification of strategies to enhance the HBsAg SVP immunogenicity to build potent vaccines for preventative and possibly therapeutic applications. The review provides an overview of the formation and assem...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Development of effective malaria vaccines requires delivery platforms to enhance the immunogenicity and efficacy of the target antigens. This is particularly challenging for transmission-blocking malaria vaccines (TBVs), and specifically for those based on the Pfs25 antigen, that need to elicit very high antibody titers to stop the parasite development in the mosquito host and its transmission. Presenting antigens to the immune system on virus-like particles (VLPs) is an efficient way to improve the quantity and quality of the immune response generated. Here we introduce for the first time a new VLP vaccine platform, based...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study we review clinical incidents concerning vaccines or malaria prophylaxis reported between 2016 and 2018. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one clinical incident calls were recorded, and commonly concerned scheduling or dosing errors. Vaccine scheduling errors accounted for 103 calls (41%), predominantly due to hepatitis A or hepatitis B vaccination either alone or in combination (65/103, 63%). Administration of yellow fever vaccine within 28 days of measles, mumps and rubella accounted for a further 15 (15%) calls. Twenty-six (10%) calls reported administration of a vaccine that was not recommended either for the destin...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract Early trials of killed, whole-cell typhoid vaccine indicated a paradoxical, positive effect on malaria infections. British soldiers in India in 1898 reported> 90% decrease in malaria recurrences after receiving an investigational typhoid vaccine despite no intention or expectation to observe such an outcome. In the 1940s, multiple doses of intravenous typhoid vaccine appeared to control parasitemia and limit reinfection in three syphilis patients purposefully infected with Plasmodium vivax. Several modern vaccines (against human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, and malaria) use a detoxified lipid A d...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceThese findings are in contrast with results from our prior cohort study performed when preventive anti-parasite treatment was less frequently given. The results suggest that the treatment of maternal infections in pregnancy may be able to moderate the previously observed effect of antenatal maternal infections on infant vaccine responses.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The RTS,S/AS01E vaccine provides partial protection against malaria in African children, but immune responses have only been partially characterized and do not reliably predict protective efficacy. We aimed to...
Source: BMC Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Conclusions: Initiation of RTS,S/AS01E vaccination above 6 weeks of age tended to improve anti-CS antibody responses. Neonatal vaccination was well tolerated but produced a comparatively lower immune response.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
Volume 14, Issue 6, June 2018, Page 1489-1500 .
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
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