Neurodevelopment in Adolescents and Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): a Magnetic Resonance Region of Interest Analysis.

We examined age-related differences in the volume of the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, and cerebellum across adolescence and young adulthood, due to the sensitivity of these regions to prenatal alcohol exposure. T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired from a cross-sectional sample of subjects 13-30 years old who had received an alcohol-related diagnosis (FASD, n=107) and typically developing controls (CON, n=56). FreeSurfer v5.3 was used to obtain volumetric data for the corpus callosum, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and cerebellum. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the effects of group (FASD, CON), sex, and age on region volume. Data were analyzed with and without correction for intracranial volume (ICV). All subregions were significantly smaller in the FASD group compared to controls, and these findings persisted even after ICV correction. Furthermore, the FASD and control groups differed in their relationship between age and total volume of the corpus callosum, caudate, and cerebellum. Specifically, older FASD individuals had smaller total volume in these regions; this relationship was not seen in the control group. Control males demonstrated larger volumes than control females in all regions prior to ICV correction; however, sex differences were attenuated in the FASD group in both the pallidum and cerebellum. Sex differences remained after ICV correction in the pallidum and cerebellum. These cross-sectional findings suggest tha...
Source: Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThe microdeletion emphasizes the importance of adequate chromosomal testing in examining the etiology of complex alcohol ‐induced developmental disorders. Furthermore, the genotype‐specific decreased DNA methylation at theIGF2/H19 locus cannot be considered as a biological mark for PAE in adult WBCs.
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by developmental and behavioral deficits caused by maternal drinking during pregnancy. Children born with FASD often face additional stresses, including maternal separation, that add yet additional deficits. The mechanism associated with this interaction is not known. We have used a mouse model for prenatal ethanol exposure and maternal separation to demonstrate that the combination of the two treatments results in more than additive deficits. Furthermore, the behavioral deficits are associated with changes in hippocampal gene expression that persist into adulthood. W...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract In 2012, a collaborative research program was initiated to assess the prevalence of the full range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in representative populations from four distinct regions of the United States. This issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (April 2020; Vol 44:4) presents the findings from three of the four regions: Southeast, Midwest, and Rocky Mountains. The results from the Southwest, the fourth region, were published in an earlier issue of this journal (Chambers et al., 2019). PMID: 32090350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: Identifying these predictive factors will allow the design of more effective fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention strategies.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Mela M, Flannigan K, Anderson T, Nelson M, Krishnan S, Chizea C, Takahashi S, Sanjanwala R Abstract Individuals with a history of offending behavior show high rates of mental disorder as well as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Neurocognitive impairments are common in both mental disorders and FASD and may interface with offending behavior. Understanding these impairments could effectively inform clinical considerations among this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the life experiences and examine the neurocognitive profile of a group of adult forensic psychiatric outpatients....
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law - Category: Medical Law Tags: J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Source Type: research
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) affects many aspects of physiology and behavior, including brain development. Specifically, ethanol can influence expression of genes important for brain growth, including chromatin modifiers. Ethanol can also increase apoptotic cell death in the brain and alter epigenetic profiles such as modifications to histones and DNA methylation. Although differential sex outcomes and disruptions to the function of multiple brain regions have been reported in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the majority of our knowledge on molecular epigenetic and apoptotic dysregulation in PAE is based on data...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can generate a multitude of deficits in the offspring. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, or FASD, describe a palette of potentially life-long phenotypes that result from exposure to ethanol during human gestation. There is no cure for FASD and cognitive-behavioral therapies typically have low success rates, especially in severe cases. The neocortex, responsible for complex cognitive and behavioral function, is altered by prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE). Supplementation with choline, an essential nutrient, during the prenatal ethanol insult has been associa...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
(University of Rochester) Children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) -- caused by prenatal alcohol exposure -- often face lifelong developmental, cognitive and behavioral problems. But the children are not the only ones who struggle; often their parents and caretakers do, too. A new study by University of Rochester researchers examines how FASD caregivers' perceived confidence in and the frequency of self-care is related to stress, parenting attitudes, and family needs.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
ConclusionsCaregivers use a variety of strategies and face significant obstacles in self-care. Confidence in self-care may be associated with lower stress and greater satisfaction in the parenting role.
Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The results of the current study indicate that FAS and FASD are prevalent disorders in Brazil, and more policies targeting alcohol intake during pregnancy must be developed. PMID: 31984499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
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