The association of vitamin D with hepatitis B virus replication: Bystander rather than offender

Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Chia-Chi Wang, I-Shiang Tzeng, Wei-Chih Su, Chung-Hsien Li, Hans Hsienhong Lin, Chun-Chun Yang, Jia-Horng KaoBackground/PurposeLow vitamin D is frequent in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients and several studies show an inverse association of serum vitamin D level with HBV viral load. However, the causal relationship remains unclear.MethodsHBV carriers receiving regular 6-month surveillance without current antiviral treatment or cirrhosis were invited to participate into this trial. The markers of HBV replication included serum HBV DNA and quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg) levels. Those with undetectable HBV DNA or sufficient vitamin D levels, cancer or electrolyte imbalance were excluded. The eligible subjects were randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement 2000 IU per day for 2 months (vitamin D group) or none (control group).ResultsA total of 196 HBV carriers (93 males and 103 females; mean age 51.9 ± 10.0 years) were screened. Of them, 28 patients had undetectable serum HBV DNA levels, which is defined as spontaneous viral clearance. The vitamin D levels were not different between patients with detectable HBV DNA and those without (p = 0.18). After exclusion, 149 patients were randomized to two groups: 75 in vitamin D group and 74 in control group. After 2 months vitamin D supplement, the serum vitamin D levels were significantl...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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(STOCKHOLM) — Americans Harvey J. Alter and Charles M. Rice and British-born scientist Michael Houghton won the Nobel Prize for medicine on Monday for their discovery of the hepatitis C virus, a major source of liver disease that affects millions worldwide. Announcing the prize in Stockholm, the Nobel Committee noted that the trio’s work identified a major source of blood-borne hepatitis that couldn’t be explained by the previously discovered hepatitis A and B viruses. Their work, dating back to the 1970s and 1980s, has helped saved millions of lives, the committee said. “Thanks to their discovery, ...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized News News Desk wire Source Type: news
In conclusion, our results suggest that KIF11, TPX2, KIF20A, and CCNB2 might be involved in the carcinogenesis and development of HBV-related HCC. They can thus be used as independent prognostic genes and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-related HCC and development of pertinent therapeutic strategies.
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
More than 292 million people are living with hepatitis B worldwide and are at risk of death from liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set global targets for the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. However, current levels of global investment in viral hepatitis elimination programmes are insufficient to achieve these goals.
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Basel, 18 September 2020 - Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced that the European Medicines Agency ’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has recommended the approval of Tecentriq® (atezolizumab) in combination with Avastin® (bevacizumab) for the treatment of adult patients with advanced or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have not received prior systemi c therapy. Based on this recommendation, a final decision regarding approval of Tecentriq in combination with Avastin in this disease setting, along with the full details of the approved indication, is expe...
Source: Roche Investor Update - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic viral hepatitis, severe liver diseases, and liver cancer. Approximately 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV and it is estimated that one million people die annually, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (WHO, 2019a). About 5% of chronic HBV carriers are co-infected with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) (WHO, 2019b) which is a defective RNA virus that requires hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for its replication (Taylor, 2003).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Of the 414  074 CHB patients, 22.9% had regular follow‐up. Regular follow‐up was independently associated with decreased risk of liver cancer mortality compared to no follow‐up (hazard ratio [HR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50‐0.63,P 
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
In this study, we transfected mice with HBV using hydrodynamic injection and studied the effects of EVs secreted by HBV-infected liver cells. EVs secreted from cells with HBV replication strongly suppressed the immune response, inhibiting the eradication of HBV-replicating cells in the mice transfected with HBV. EVs were systemically incorporated in multiple organs, including liver, bone marrow (BM), and intestine. Intriguingly, the BM cells that incorporated EVs acquired intestinal tropism and the dendritic cell populations in the intestine increased. These findings suggest that the EVs secreted by HBV-infected liver cell...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Hepatitis is a condition that can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis, or liver cancer. These days, gut microbiota becomes an important part of our immune system, which is important for disease progression or recovery. Translocation of gut microbial and metabolic products causes intestinal inflammation by modulating immune cells leading to impairment of the primary barrier. But there are limited studies discussing pathogenesis and management of hepatitis with gut microbiota. In this review, we have discussed the role of gut microbiota in pathogenesis and management of various hepatitis, espec...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The panel of serum Linc00152, UCA1, and AFP demonstrates a novel and noninvasive biomarker with relatively high sensitivity and specificity for HCC diagnosis. PMID: 32733618 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
Abstract ObjectiveThe aims of this study were to: (1) identify the characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who do not attend their hospital liver clinic appointments; and (2) raise awareness among general practitioners (GP) of alternative pathways to care for CHB in order to prevent long-term complications of CHB (liver cancer and cirrhosis).MethodsThis prospective study was conducted between May 2018 and January 2019 at one site of a tertiary referral hospital in western Melbourne. Patients with minimal liver complications who did not attend their first two initial appointments were included in...
Source: Australian Health Review - Category: Hospital Management Authors: Tags: Aust Health Rev Source Type: research
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