Using procalcitonin to predict acute kidney injury in septic patients: Caveat emptor?
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Chih-Chung Shiao, Yu-Fang Chueh, Li Yang, NSARF (National Taiwan University Hospital Study Group on Acute Renal Failure) (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 17, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Cerebral blood flow in a migraine patient with fluctuated sensorineural hearing loss
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Jen-Tsung Lai, Sheng-Kai Huang, Tien-Chen Liu, Keh-Bin Wang (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 13, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Melatonin and their analogs as a potential use in the management of Neuropathic pain
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Yaswanth Kuthati, Sheng-Hsiung Lin, Ing-Jung Chen, Chih-Shung WongMelatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), secreted by the pineal gland is known to perform multiple functions including, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-cancerous, immunomodulatory, sedative and tranquilizing functions. Melatonin is also known to be involved in the regulation of body mass index, control the gastrointestinal system and play an important role in cardioprotection, thermoregulation, and reproduction. Recently, several studies have...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 11, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Real-world effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin for genotype 2 chronic hepatitis C in Taiwan
ConclusionsSOF/DCV with or without ribavirin is highly effective and safe for patients with genotype 2 HCV infection in real-world experience in Taiwan. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 11, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The choice of antiviral therapy for hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation in the real world
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Teng-Yu Lee, Sheng-Shun Yang (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 7, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Quality gaps and priorities for improvement of healthcare service for patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation in the view of family
ConclusionGaps exist between expectation and perception in multiple dimensions of the quality of healthcare service in the care setting of prolonged MV, indicating unmet needs and priorities for improvement. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 7, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Early percutaneous cholecystostomy versus antibiotic treatment for mild and moderate acute cholecystitis: A retrospective cohort study
This study aims to investigate whether PC could be a first-line treatment for these patients.MethodsAdult patients admitted through the emergency department between October 2004 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with mild or moderate AC who did not undergo emergent cholecystectomy were included. Early PC was defined as a PC tube inserted within 24 h of diagnosis. The outcomes were compared between patients who received antibiotics plus early PC (early PC group) and those who received antibiotic treatment alone (antibiotic group).ResultsA total of 698 patients were included. The mean age was 63....
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Outcome and prognostic factors of patients treated in the intensive care unit for carbon monoxide poisoning
ConclusionIn conclusion, we observed that APACHE II score>25, GCS 3, and dysfunction of more than 3 organ systems on admission to emergency department was associated with a significant mortality risk in patients treated in the ICU for CO poisoning. Moreover, HBO therapy could reduce the risk of mortality in patients with CO poisoning in ICU. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Short-term heart rate variability as a predictor of long-term survival in patients with chronic hemodialysis: A prospective cohort study
ConclusionA short ECG recording and an analysis of the frequency domain of the HRV is clinically predictive of the long-term survival of patients with chronic hemodialysis. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic correlation of ocular surface squamous neoplasia from a university hospital in North Taiwan 1994 to 2014
ConclusionSuperior location was associated with high-grade OSSN, and papilliform OSSN might have a tendency of severe and invasive lesions. Multifocal lesions might be associated with higher-grade OSSN and higher recurrence rates. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Moody microbiome: Challenges and chances
In conclusions, the roles of microbiota in depression and mania state are not fully elucidated. One of the challenges is to find reliable targets for functional analyses and experiments. Notwithstanding some inconsistencies and methodological limitations across studies, results from recent clinical trials support for the beneficial effects of probiotics on alleviating depressive symptoms and increasing well-beings. Moreover, modifying the composition of gut microbiota via antibiotics can be a viable adjuvant treatment option for individuals with depressive symptoms. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Double-balloon enteroscopy for pediatric patients: Application and feasibility evaluation in a medical center in northern Taiwan
ConclusionsDBE has a high diagnostic yield and leads to therapeutic interventions in pediatric patients and shows promise for assessment and treating small-intestinal diseases in children in Taiwan. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Metabolome analysis for investigating host-gut microbiota interactions
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Michael X. Chen, San-Yuan Wang, Ching-Hua Kuo, I-Lin TsaiDysbiosis of the gut microbiome is associated with host health conditions. Many diseases have shown to have correlations with imbalanced microbiota, including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and even neurodegeneration disorders. Metabolomics studies targeting small molecule metabolites that impact the host metabolome and their biochemical functions have shown promise for studying host-gut microbiota interactions. Metabolome analysis determine...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The dentin permeability of anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs: In vitro study
ConclusionRegarding the dentin permeability, Ginsenoside Rg1 is the best among the seven anti-inflammatory drugs tested and ampicilin sodium is the better one between the two anti-bacterial drugs tested. Therefore, these two drugs may have high potential for treating exposed dentinal tubule diseases. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Is sarcopenia associated with hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis? A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionIn patients with liver cirrhosis, there is a significant association between sarcopenia and HE. A greater number of prospective studies are necessary to clarify whether the association remains even after adjusting relevant confounders and to suggest effective prevention of HE in patients with coexisting sarcopenia. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination-associated axillary lymphadenopathy in a 2-year-old girl: Case report
Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Ting-Chun Wang, Hsing-Ju Wu, Su-Boon Yong (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Reply to “The choice of antiviral therapy for hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation in the real world”
Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Ming-Lung Yu (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Significance of preoperative acute kidney injury in patients with acute type A aortic dissection
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Tsu-Ming Chien, Hao Wen, Jiann-Woei Huang, Chong-Chao Hsieh, Huai-Min Chen, Chaw-Chi Chiu, Ying-Fu ChenBackground/purposeAcute type A aortic dissection (AAD) is a medical emergency with high mortality even with emergency repair. We explored the risk factors for in-hospital mortality and the impact of preoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with AAD.MethodsOur hospital database contained records for 156 consecutive patients who underwent AAD repair between March 2000 and February 2013. They were assigned...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - October 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of tunneled central venous catheters and native arteriovenous fistulae by evaluating the mortality and morbidity of patients with prevalent hemodialysis
ConclusionCatheter use for maintenance HD was associated with increased all-cause mortality. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 22, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside reduces myocardial injury in heat stroke rats
ConclusionWe thus conclude that myocardial injury can be a pressing need for the design of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for heat stroke. In particular, our data indicate that CG protects against heat stroke in rats by mitigating myocardial injury. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 22, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of type D personality on clinical outcomes in Asian patients with stable coronary artery disease
ConclusionType D personality was an independent predictor of CV outcomes in an Asian cohort of stable CAD patients. This personality type may be identified in risk stratification for secondary prevention after PCI. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Checklist
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Highlights
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): Jia-Horng Kao (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Medical treatment of female overactive bladder syndrome and treatment-related effects
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): Sheng-Mou Hsiao, Ho-Hsiung LinThe age-adjusted prevalence of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) in Taiwan is approximately 16.9%. Currently, a variety of treatments are available for female OAB. However, different treatments have different treatment-related effects that may lead to significant adverse effects and ineffective treatment. In this article, we reviewed the tools that can be used to evaluate the efficacy of OAB treatments, such as a variety of questionnaires, serum or urine biomarkers, bladder diaries...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

CTNNB1 mutations in basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland
Conclusionβ-catenin immunohistochemistry is very useful for the differential diagnosis between BCA/BCAC and AdCC. CTNNB1 mutations are common in BCA, especially those with tubular or tubulotrabecular patterns. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The effect and associated factors of dispatcher recognition of stroke: A retrospective observational study
ConclusionThe dispatchers should spend more time identifying stroke patients by following the dispatch protocol. Recognition of stroke by dispatchers was associated with improved stroke care. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

SHOX deficiency in short Taiwanese children: A single-center experience
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): Yi-Ching Tung, Ni-Chung Lee, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shih-Yao Liu, Cheng-Ting Lee, Yin-Hsiu Chien, Wen-Yu TsaiBackgroundSHOX deficiency is a common cause of idiopathic short stature. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and molecular findings of patients with SHOX deficiency in Taiwan.MethodsA phenotype scoring system was used to evaluate several anthropometric measures in patients with idiopathic short stature. Twenty-three patients with a phenotype score>7 were enrolled for SHOX gene a...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Quantification of serum hepatitis B core antibody to predict off-entecavir relapse in patients with chronic hepatitis B
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): Cheng-Hao Tseng, Yao-Chun Hsu, Chi-Yang Chang, Tai-Chung Tseng, Ming-Shiang Wu, Jaw-Town Lin, Jia-Horng KaoBackground/purposeThe predictors of off-therapy response in patients treated with neucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) have not been elucidated. It remained unexplored whether serum level of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) at the end of NA therapy was associated with relapse risks.MethodsThis prospective study monitored 82 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients after discontinuing entecavir. All patients had been...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Multidisciplinary approach to optimize management of patients with chronic hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease” [J Formos Med Assoc (2016) 1097–1098]
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): Yi-Wen Huang (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Guide for Authors
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Authorship statement
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Copyright transfer statement
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 117, Issue 10Author(s): (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Computed tomography-guided dye localization prior to uniportal thoracoscopic surgery for lung nodules: A propensity score matching analysis
ConclusionsUniportal VATS is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of undetermined pulmonary nodules. The use of preoperative computed tomography-guided dye localization may be associated with a lower risk of conversion of uniportal VATS. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of surgical treatment for intravascular leiomyomatosis
ConclusionOne-stage operation to completely remove IVL is feasible and with good long-term outcomes, which is recommended if the patient can tolerate the operation. Concomitant intrapulmonary tumors can be followed up watchfully except when associated with pleural effusion or the pathology indicating trend of increasing malignancy. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 12, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Hepatitis B: From control to cure
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Jia-Horng Kao (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The association between clinical diagnostic factors and the prevalence of vertical root fracture in endodontic surgery
This study was aimed at evaluating the potential relationship between VRFs and commonly used clinical diagnostic factors.Methods330 root-filled teeth with endodontic failures were subjected to endodontic microsurgery over a six-year period. VRFs were identified in 61 teeth. A randomly age- and sex-matched retrospective case-control study was conducted on a subset of 59 root-filled teeth with VRFs (cases) and 177 root-filled teeth without VRFs (controls). The strength of association between preoperative signs and radiographic findings and VRFs was evaluated using logistic regression model.ResultsSinus tract, periodontal poc...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

A single-institution study of predisposing factors of patients with BAVMs to flow-related aneurysm
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Wen-Yuan Yang, Chao-Bao Luo, Yuang-Seng Tsuei, Wan-Yuo Guo, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Wen-Yue ChungBackground and purposeThe goal of this study was to assess the potential risk factors leading to flow-related aneurysm (FA) formation in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) in Taiwanese.MethodsWe recruited 890 patients with BAVMs: 72 had FA(s) and 818 did not. Several factors were assessed including patient's age, gender, BAVM volume and location, and Spetzler-Martin grade.ResultsThe 890 patients with BAVM h...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Management of dental extractions in patients on warfarin and antiplatelet therapy
ConclusionThe study indicated that there is no need to interrupt warfarin (INR
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Public knowledge, attitudes and willingness regarding bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A nationwide survey in Taiwan
ConclusionThe expressed willingness to perform bystander CPR was high if the respondents possessed the required skills. Attempts should be made to recruit potential bystanders for CPR courses or education, targeting those respondent subgroups less likely to express willingness to perform CPR. The reason for lower bystander CPR willingness among healthcare providers deserves further investigation. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Factors increasing the detection rate of intrauterine lesions on hysteroscopy in infertile women with sonographically normal uterine cavities
ConclusionAUB, hypomenorrhea, and previous D&C are the three factors that increase the detection rate of intrauterine lesions on office hysteroscopy in infertile women with sonographically normal uterine cavities. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The prevalence and association of patients with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction and complete left bundle-branch block in Taiwan
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and association of cLBBB and impaired LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients at the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH).MethodsWe enrolled 164,049 patients who underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) between January 2010 and December 2013 at NTUH. Echocardiographic examinations within one year of the index ECG were analyzed. Baseline clinical characteristics, electrocardiography and ECG parameters, in patients with cLBBB were compared among those with three different LVEFs (EF
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Multiple subependymal pseudocysts in neonates play a role in later attention deficit hyperactivity and autistic spectrum disorder
ConclusionsOur data revealed multiple SEPCs in normal-term neonates as a risk factor for neurobehavioral outcome, particularly in ADHD and ASD. Simultaneously, the utility of CUS examination as a health examination item for neonates was confirmed. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

National survey of ABC (A1C, blood pressure, cholesterol) of Diabetes Health Promotion Institutes in Taiwan: 2002–2018
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Chih-Yuan Wang, Shih-Te Tu, Wayne H.-H. Sheu, I-Chun Chen, Lee-Ming Chuang, Ming-Shiang Wu, Chong-Jen Yu (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Fecal microbiota transplantation: Review and update
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Jiunn-Wei Wang, Chao-Hung Kuo, Fu-Chen Kuo, Yao-Kuang Wang, Wen-Hung Hsu, Fang-Jung Yu, Huang-Ming Hu, Ping-I. Hsu, Jaw-Yuan Wang, Deng-Chyang WuFecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a method to directly change the recipient's gut microbiota to normalize the composition and gain a therapeutic benefit. The history of FMT has been traced back to the 4th century and has been highly regarded since 2013, when the United States Food and Drug Administration approved FMT for treating recurrent and refractory Clostri...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Concomitant use of direct-acting antiviral agents and chemotherapy in hepatitis C virus reactivation
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): I-Hsuan Huang, Tsai-Yuan Hsieh, Jung-Chun Lin, Tzu-Chuan Huang (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - September 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Far-infrared ray radiation promotes neurite outgrowth of neuron-like PC12 cells through AKT1 signaling
ConclusionThe effects of FIR irradiation on promoting neurite outgrowth and neural regeneration of NGF-treated neuron-like PC12 cells are dose dependent and through activation of AKT1 phosphorylation. This study provided important information for understanding the cellular mechanism of FIR in promoting neurite outgrowth and possible neural regeneration for further clinical applications. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - August 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells for models of cancer and cancer stem cell research
This article introduces cancer studies that used the cell reprogramming strategy. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Mirabegron escalation to 50 mg further improves daily urgency and urgency urinary incontinence in Asian patients with overactive bladder
ConclusionMirabegron 25 mg for 12 weeks and mirabegron dose escalation from 25 to 50 mg exerted similar therapeutic effects. However, the dose escalation further improved the daily urgency and UUI episodes in patients with residual urgency or UUI after the initial treatment with mirabegron 25 mg. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Metastatic lung carcinoma in the right maxilla
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Hung Ying Lin, Chun-Pin Chiang, Yi-Ping Wang, Julia Yu-Fong Chang (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - August 29, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Pure type-1 collagen application to third molar extraction socket reduces postoperative pain score and duration and promotes socket bone healing
ConclusionApplication of pure type-1 collagen to the third molar extraction socket can reduce post-operative pain score and duration, decrease the frequency of mouth-opening limitation, and increase mineralization ratio at the extraction socket site. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - August 29, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research