Effectiveness of Interventions for Hepatitis B and C: A Systematic Review of Vaccination, Screening, Health Promotion and Linkage to Care Within Higher Income Countries

AbstractViral hepatitis is a significant global health concern, particularly within low-middle income countries. Diseases historically affecting low-middle income countries, such as viral hepatitis, have become increasingly prevalent within high-income countries due to globalisation and mass international migration. High prevalence of viral hepatitis in migrant populations is of particular concern due to the associated morbidity and mortality, as well as the increased risk of vertical and horizontal transmission in the community. This is compounded by the asymptomatic nature of hepatitis, meaning many of those affected are unaware of their infection status. Long-term effects of viral hepatitis can include liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Therefore, the health needs of vulnerable migrants within high-income countries due to issues associated with viral hepatitis require attention. This includes assessment of measures such as targeted health education, increased screening, linkage to appropriate treatment and follow-up care. Additionally, it is necessary to address migrant healthcare barriers, such as language, economic and social barriers. It is imperative that vulnerable migrant groups gain appropriate access to health services to prevent disease transmission and the widening of health-related disparities within high-income countries.
Source: Journal of Community Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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ConclusionA substantial further reduction in cases of HCC requires a wider application of universal HBV vaccination and effective treatment of HBV- and HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, more effective campaigns to favor correct dietary habits and reduce alcohol consumption and the intensification of studies on HCC pathogenesis for future optimized prevention strategies.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is the most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver cirrhosis worldwide. In spite of the numerous advances in the treatment of CHB, drugs and vaccines have failed because of many factors like complexity, resistance, toxicity, and heavy cost. New RNA interference (RNAi)-based technologies have developed innovative strategies to target Achilles' heel of the several hazardous diseases involving cancer, some genetic disease, autoimmune illnesses, and viral disorders particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Naked siRNA delivery has serious challenges including failure to cross ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Authors: Kırdar S, Yaşa MH, Sayan M, Aydın N Abstract Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an important public health problem affecting over 240 million people all around the world. The aim of the treatment in chronic hepatitis B is to prevent progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Interferons (standard and peginterferon) (Peg-IFN) and nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are widely used in the treatment of CHB. The use of long-term therapy can however result in drug resistant mutations, which can lead to treatment failure. In patients with chronic hepatitis B, in addition to primary drug resistance mutations in th...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B vaccine is the mainstay of hepatitis B prevention. Safe injection practices, blood safety and promoting wider access to monitoring and screening, care and treatment services for hepatitis B are the best guarantees to prevent and control this disease. PMID: 31060884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revue d Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique Source Type: research
Tingxin Wu1,2, Fenglei Li1,2, Yongyan Chen1,2, Haiming Wei1,2, Zhigang Tian1,2, Cheng Sun1,2,3* and Rui Sun1,2* 1Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, The CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, Division of Molecular Medicine, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China 2School of Life Science, Institute of Immunology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China 3Transplantation and Immunology Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China The ability of ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was supported in part by the National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund (25-A-7 and 28-A-8); Health and Labor Science Research Grants for Clinical Research, Japan; and joint research funding from Takeda Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd.; Noile-Immune Biotech Inc.; Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; BrightPath Biotherapeutics Co., Ltd.; and Sysmex Co., Ltd. This study was performed as part of a research program of the Project for Development of Innovative Research on Cancer Therapeutics (P-Direct), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. Conflict of Interest Statement TN, TS, and TY ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In China, chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is estimated to be associated with 60% of cirrhosis and 80% of liver cancer (Wang et al., 2014). Due to the heavy disease burden, the Chinese government recommended HBV vaccination in 1992. In 2002, the vaccine was added to the National Immunization Program schedule for all neonates/infants, with the cost being fully paid for by the government. The latest nationwide study found that the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) had reduced to 0.32% in the age group 1 –4 years and to 0.94% in the age group 5–14 years in 2014, from 9.67% and 10.74%,...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Worldwide, over 240 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (Ott et al., 2012), and 786,000 individuals die from HBV related deaths, including cirrhosis and liver cancer, each year (MacLachlan et al., 2015; Lozano et al., 2012). The HBV vaccine has been shown to be highly effective, and over one billion doses have been delivered worldwide (World Health Organisation, 2018). The burden of hepatitis B in China is one of the highest in the world, with almost one-third of the world ’s hepatitis B cases diagnosed in China.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
AbstractBackground and ObjectivesHepatitis B is a major health concern in Asia. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may cause hepatic cirrhosis and liver cancer. HBV is transmitted horizontally through blood and blood products and vertically from mother to infant. Perinatal infection is the main route of transmission in regions with high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) carriage, and perinatal transmission leads to high rates of chronic infection. Therefore, it is important to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV1. The present study aims at comparing the use of antivirals (lamivudine vs...
Source: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause chronic HBV infection, which may lead to advanced cirrhosis and liver cancer. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk HBV infection as an occupational hazard. Hepatitis B vaccination of HCWs is recommended by WHO, but the status of hepatitis B vaccination among HCWs in China is seldom reported. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 22 hospitals of 3 developed cities in China. We interviewed managers in infectious diseases and occupational health departments, and at least 40 HCWs per hospital. RESULTS: We interviewed 929 HCWs; 80.8% were ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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