A Qualitative Evaluation of a Community Based, Culturally Relevant Intervention to Promote Healthy Food Access in American Indian Communities
AbstractIn response to a need for healthy, affordable food, Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health and three rural indigenous communities launched the “Feast for the Future,” (FFF) to promote access to healthy foods and the transfer of traditional food-based knowledge from farmers/elders to youth. To assess program impact, 43 in-depth interviews were conducted with participating farmers, elders, and Community Advisory Board members. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. Common themes from qualitative analyses included: FFF programs support farming/gardening revitalization and...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Health Promotion Awareness in Barbershops and Salons: An International Cross-Sectional Survey in Japan and Thailand
In conclusion, barbers/stylists are highly interested in health due to the direct connection between beauty and health. Collaboration between barbershops/salons and health care professionals is possible, especially in Japan due to its super -aging society. Further development of the barbershop/salon project is needed. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Misinformation, Gendered Perceptions, and Low Healthcare Provider Communication Around HPV and the HPV Vaccine Among Young Sexual Minority Men in New York City: The P18 Cohort Study
AbstractHuman papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection among adults in the United States, and can cause several types of cancer. This is of particular concern for sexual minority men, as their increased risk of HIV acquisition increases risk for HPV and HPV-associated cancers, particularly when coupled with low rates of HPV vaccination. As part of a larger study of the syndemic of HIV, substance use, and mental health among young sexual minority men in New York City, we sought to explore what sexual minority men know about HPV and the HPV vaccine, along with their experiences have been communi...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Understanding the Socio-demographic Factors Surrounding Young Peoples ’ Risky Sexual Behaviour in Ghana and Kenya
AbstractGlobally, young people in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be the population at the greatest risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV and AIDS, Syphilis, and Gonorrhoea. Research has shown significant relationship between young peoples risky sexual behaviours and their vulnerability to these STIs. The study examined risky sexual behaviours among the youth in Ghana and Kenya in relation to socio-demographic characteristics. The paper uses data from the 2014 Demographic and Health Surveys of Ghana and Kenya. Young people between the ages of 15 to 24  years who were not married or living with a m...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Returning to Work Following an Injury: Practical Usage of a Predictive Model Based on a Nationwide Study
AbstractWork absenteeism following an injury creates an economic burden on society and the individual. Programs encouraging return to work (RTW) should be implemented for high risk populations. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors for duration until RTW following an injury. The Israeli National Trauma Registry and the National Insurance Institute database (2008 –2013) were linked. Logistic-regression models tested the probability not RTW within 1 month, 1 year and 2 years among 67% of the population and the quality of the model was examined among 33% of the population. The study population comprised 4...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Health Status Among Community-Dwelling Ecuadorian Natives Living in Neighboring Rural Communities: The Three Villages Study
AbstractKnowledge of cardiovascular health (CVH) status in rural communities is essential to implement cost-effective strategies aimed to address the growing burden of cardiovascular diseases in these settings. Here, we report on the CVH status and health metrics of 1508 community-dwellers aged  ≥ 40 years in three neighboring rural villages of Coastal Ecuador (Atahualpa, El Tambo, and Prosperidad). According to the American Heart Association, a poor CVH status is designated when at least one cardiovascular health metric is in the poor range. About 70% of individuals in the villages studied had a poor...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prevalence of Substance Abuse (Tobacco, Alcohol, Narcotics and Psychotropic Drugs) and Its Relationship to Family Factors in Pre-university Male Students in Shiraz 2017 –2018
AbstractTeenagers are valuable resources in communities and they are faced with multiple risk factors. Factors such as family attachment, devotion to family, parent ’s educational level, and parental support are the protective factors against high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug use among pre-university students and its relationship with familial factors. 1000 Fourth grade high-school male students were random ly selected during 6 months in four districts of Shiraz City during 2017–2018. 14% of the participants were current smokers, 13.5% had a history of a...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Opportunities to Improve a Mobile Obesity Wellness Intervention for Rural Older Adults with Obesity
AbstractOlder adults with obesity are at a high risk of decline, particularly in rural areas. Our study objective was to gain insights into how a potential Mobile Health Obesity Wellness Intervention (MOWI) in rural older adults with obesity, consisting of nutrition and exercise sessions, could be helpful to improve physical function. A qualitative methods study was conducted in a rural community, community-based aging center. Four community leaders, 7 clinicians and 29 patient participants underwent focus groups and semi-structured interviews. All participants had a favorable view of MOWI and saw its potential to improve ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Interventions for Hepatitis B and C: A Systematic Review of Vaccination, Screening, Health Promotion and Linkage to Care Within Higher Income Countries
AbstractViral hepatitis is a significant global health concern, particularly within low-middle income countries. Diseases historically affecting low-middle income countries, such as viral hepatitis, have become increasingly prevalent within high-income countries due to globalisation and mass international migration. High prevalence of viral hepatitis in migrant populations is of particular concern due to the associated morbidity and mortality, as well as the increased risk of vertical and horizontal transmission in the community. This is compounded by the asymptomatic nature of hepatitis, meaning many of those affected are...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Impact of Michigan ’s Nonmedical Vaccine Exemption Rule Change on Philosophical Exemption Rates
AbstractTo examine school factors associated with philosophical exemption rates among kindergarteners in Michigan from 2014, before Michigan ’s implementation of administrative rule 325.176 (12), to 2015, after the rule change revising the process for receiving nonmedical exemptions from school entry vaccines. The study explored the extent to which the factors–school type, geographical location, and socioeconomics–were associated w ith philosophical exemptions among kindergarteners before and after the rule change, using negative binomial regression and Spearman’s Rho correlation. Philosophical exem...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Student Attitudes Toward Tobacco Use and Tobacco Policies on College Campuses
AbstractWe utilized a mixed methods approach to assess student attitudes towards tobacco use and campus tobacco policies. Interviews (N  = 21), focus groups (N = 2 groups, 4–5 participants each), and an online survey (N = 636) were conducted among a sample of students attending a 4-year, urban, public university in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. In interviews and focus groups, students expressed skeptici sm about a tobacco-free campus policy due to perceived violations of personal rights and challenges with enforcement. Of the sample surveyed, 9.2% and 20.6% ha...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Associations Between Personal Protective Measures and Self-Reported Tick-Borne Disease Diagnosis in Indiana Residents
AbstractSeveral personal protective measures (PPMs) are recommended to prevent tick-borne diseases (TBD). We aimed to quantify the strength of seven PPMs and self-reported TBD diagnosis associations and to understand what variables modify these associations. In June –July 2018, with a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed a sample of adult Indiana state residents. Overall, 2927 participants were eligible for this analysis. All data were self-reported. We used the double robust approach of stabilized inverse probability weighting and propensity score adjus tment to obtain ORs. Approximately 5% of participants (n&t...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Health Assessment of the Arab American Community in Southwest Chicago
AbstractChicago is among the top five metropolitan areas in the United States where Arab Americans reside; however, we have little available data on their perceptions of personal or community health. We collected 200 community health surveys in collaboration with a community-based organization that serves mainly Arabs in Chicago ’s southwest suburbs. The survey evaluated perceived community and personal health. In a mostly female, married, and low-income sample, participants identified cancers, diabetes, and high blood pressure/cholesterol as the top three health problems, while alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and overwei...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Pediatric Muslim Fasting Practices in Southeast Michigan: A Community Survey
AbstractDuring the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims fast from all water, food, and medications from dawn till dusk. To date, the existing medical literature focuses on adult fasting with little attention paid to pediatric fasting practices. An anonymous, digital, bilingual survey was conducted using Qualtrics software. Participants were recruited in-person at various community clinics, businesses, and mosques as well as online via social media. To be eligible for the study, participants must identify as Muslim and be parents or guardians of child/ren between the age/s of 7 and 18. Between July 2017 and May 2018, 918 people t...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Improving HCV Risk Assessment and Testing in a Federally Qualified Health Center Setting in Baltimore, Maryland
This study examined the risk assessment tool use and testing rates for 1 month before and after project implementation. All patients who were seen for a primary care visit during the month preceding (n = 8911) and following (n = 8228) the interve ntion were evaluated. A total of 2973 risk assessments and 1831 HCV tests were completed pre-intervention compared to 3708 risk assessments and 3790 tests post-intervention, demonstrating a 35% and 125% improvement respectively. Seropositivity prevalence of 2.1% pre-intervention increased to 2.9% po st-intervention. Efficiencies in workflow process...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acceptance of Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing in an Urban Emergency Department
This study sought to determine whether men are more likely to refuse rapid HIV testing in the ED as compared to women and to analyze the influence of tester gender on the response. This retroactive study utilized demographic and testing information from a rapid HIV testing program housed within two urban EDs for a 5-month period. Gender and age were collected for both testers and patients, along with patient consent outcome. A total of 5358 patients (males  = 2230; females = 3128) were approached and offered an HIV test by one of 19 testers during the study period. From the sample population, ma...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Teen Access and Quality Initiative: Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health Best Practices in Publicly Funded Health Centers
This study describes the types of training and technical assistance being implemented at each health center and discusses implications for future programming. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Avoidable Mortality Rates Decrease but Inequity Gaps Widen for Marginalized Neighborhoods: A Population-Based Analysis in Ontario, Canada from 1993 to 2014
AbstractAvoidable mortality (AM) is a health indicator used to examine trends in avoidable deaths amenable to public health and medical interventions. AM is more likely amongst marginalized populations. Our objective was to examine trends in AM rates by level of neighborhood marginalization. Decedents under age 75  years in Ontario from 1993 to 2014 (n = 691,453) were assigned to a quintile-level of each Ontario Marginalization (ON-Marg) Index dimension: material deprivation, residential instability, dependency, and ethnic concentration. We calculated ON-Marg Index dimension and quintile specific age- an...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Self-reported Secondhand Marijuana Smoke (SHMS) Exposure in Two New York City (NYC) Subsidized Housing Settings, 2018: NYC Housing Authority and Lower-Income Private Sector Buildings
AbstractThe percentage of adults in the United States reporting current marijuana use has more than doubled, from 4 to 9% between 2002 and 2018, suggesting that exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke (SHMS) has probably increased. Few studies have characterized the extent to which residents experience SHMS, particularly those living in multi-unit housing. It remains unknown how recently-implemented smoke-free housing policies (SFH) targeting cigarette smoke in public housing authorities (PHAs) will affect SHMS exposure. We sought to characterize prevalence of self-reported SHMS exposure among residents living in two differ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Patients who Receive Medical and Dental Care at an Urban Community Health Center
AbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates remain subpar, particularly among underserved populations. As the role of health care providers evolves, it has been suggested that dentists could play a larger role in preventive health. Building on this concept, dental visits could serve as an additional touchpoint for CRC screening outreach. The primary goal of this study was to compare CRC screening rates among patients who receive both dental and medical care to those who only receive medical care at an urban community health center in order to inform future CRC screening intervention development. We conducted a retrospe...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Contraception, HIV Services, and PrEP in South African Hair Salons: A Qualitative Study of Owner, Stylist, and Client Perspectives
AbstractWomen experience challenges engaging with the healthcare system, but frequently utilize hair salons; these are promising venues for family planning and HIV prevention services. Our objective was to assess the acceptability of nurse-offered contraceptive and PrEP services at hair salons in Durban, South Africa. We interviewed salon owners (N  = 10) and clients (N = 42) and conducted focus groups with hair stylists (N = 43 stylists; 6 focus groups across five hair salons) to explore barriers and facilitators to providing contraception and PrEP in salons. After developing a co...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Community Health Center Based Interventions for People with Diabetes
AbstractCommunity health centers (CHCs) focus on serving socioeconomically disadvantaged populations with heightened chronic disease burden, making CHCs an ideal setting for implementing diabetes care programs that target vulnerable populations. We aimed to synthesize evidence concerning the effects of CHC interventions in people with diabetes. To do this, four electronic databases were searched, including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Scopus, and hand searches of reference collections were undertaken to identify intervention trials published in English. We screened 892 unique titles and abstracts. Two reviewers then indepen...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Bed Bugs Among Urban Emergency Department Patients
AbstractBed bugs are a significant and under-studied public health nuisance. We surveyed 706 emergency department patients and found bed bug infestations were more likely (p    0.05) for infestation. Individuals with less education and income were more likely (p 
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Community Screening, Identification, and Referral to Primary Care, for Hepatitis C, B, and HIV Among Homeless Persons in Los Angeles
In this study, 137 adults from the “UCLA/ARG/RAND Homeless Hepatitis Study” who were sampled from shelters and meal programs in the Skid Row of Los Angeles and screened for HIV or HCV or HBV infection. Those who tested positive for these infections were counseled about their infections and referred to primary care. They were foll owed-up at 1 month with interviews to identify rates, and predictors, of seeking primary care. Participants were 87.5% male, mean age of 48.6 years (SD: 8.2); most were Black (77.4%) and were chronically homeless (>  12 months). A majority (70%) had a regular s...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Identifying Medication Management Confidence and Gaps in Training Among Community Health Workers in the United States
AbstractCommunity Health Workers (CHWs) are a group of trained health professionals who advocate for members within their communities on social and health care issues. CHWs are increasingly utilized due to their affordability, accessibility, and ability to relate to patients. Evaluating CHW medication management practices, confidence, and training gaps may provide a better understanding of medication management training needs. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to assess CHW confidence in medication management, describe medication management services, and identify areas of focus to improve CHW medication manage...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Characterizing Occupational Health Risks and Chemical Exposures Among Asian Nail Salon Workers on the East Coast of the United States
This study aimed to characterize occupational health risk factors and chemical exposures among Asian nail  salon workers on the East Coast of the U.S. for informing the development of more effective, culturally appropriate interventions. We conducted a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study to characterize occupational health risks. A face-to-face, self-reported survey was performed, and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was evaluated. Three VOCs, acetone, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and toluene, were measured using 3M 3500 organic vapor monitors. We collected data on 112 workers ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Recent Survey Findings on Smoking and Cessation Behaviors Among Asians in New York City
AbstractCigarette smoking has declined among New York City (NYC) adults since 2002, but research has shown that NYC tobacco control policies may be less impactful among Asian communities, particularly Chinese. In order to better target this subgroup, we explored smoking and cessation behaviors among Chinese-speaking Asian smokers compared with English-speaking Asian smokers and all other smokers. We used combined 2015 –2016 data from the NYC Community Health Survey (CHS), an annual dual landline/cellphone survey of about 9000 adults to analyze smoker demographics, and 2010–2012 and 2016 CHS samples to compare q...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Factors Associated with HPV Vaccination Uptake and HPV-Associated Cancers: A County-Level Analysis in the State of Alabama
AbstractDespite availability of a safe, effective vaccination, uptake and completion rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination remain low in the United States. This is particularly true in the southeast, which also sees some of the highest rates of HPV-associated (HPVa) cancers. We aimed to identify areas in Alabama in need of intervention with respect to HPVa cancers and HPV vaccination, and factors potentially associated with these rates by performing county-level secondary data analysis using state and national data sources. Alabama ranks 15th nationally in HPVa cancer rates, with 66.7% and 80.8% of counties havin...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Barriers to Pap Smear Among Homeless Women at Albuquerque Healthcare for the Homeless
AbstractThe purpose of this cross-sectional survey study was to explore common barriers to adequate Pap smear utilization among homeless women, and the factors that may relate to cervical cancer testing in this population. Participants consisted of adult women recruited at a healthcare facility for the homeless. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and intentions about Pap smears and cervical cancer. Analyses included descriptive and inferential statistics. Sixty participants who had experienced homelessness within the past year completed the study. The most frequently mentione...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Indigenizing Academics Through Leadership, Awareness, and Healing: The Impact of a Native American Health Seminar Series for Health Professionals, Students, and Community
AbstractHealth disparities have long affected American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. Transformations are needed in academia to help understand Indigenous ‘ways of knowing.’ Lifting the voices of AI/ANs in telling their stories could improve the education of students, faculty and the lay public. We collaborated to develop, implement and evaluate a Native American Health Seminar Series taught by AI/AN leaders on addressing health disparities among AI/AN people. A quasi-experimental mixed methods design included a 15-item survey to assess the impact of the Seminar Series on knowledge of AI/AN healt...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Increasing Birth Cohort Screening for Chronic Hepatitis C in a Primary Care Clinic with Panel Management
AbstractChronic hepatitis C affects millions of people worldwide and patients born between 1945 and 1965 are at elevated risk. Hepatitis C infection can lead to health complications including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent advancements in direct-acting antiviral treatments have placed the spotlight on primary care providers to identify undiagnosed patients with chronic hepatitis C for treatment and attaining a sustained-virologic response. Primary care providers do not routinely screen patients born between 1945 and 1965 for hepatitis C despite CDC recommendations. To evaluate the effectiveness of a h...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Pilot Intervention to Reduce Mental Health and Addiction Stigma in Primary Care Settings
AbstractHealthcare environments are not exempt from the impact of stigma against mental illness and addiction, which contributes to barriers to client access and appropriate treatment. To address this concern, healthcare organizations have a growing interest in mental illness and addiction anti-stigma anti-discrimination programming as part of their staff-wide professional development. Though standard interventions demonstrate effectiveness in the short and mid-term, the evidence for long-term change is inconclusive. A flexible, innovative intervention was developed in collaboration with community health care centres to re...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Falls Experiences and Prevention Preferences of Adults in Mid-life
AbstractFalls prevention research and practice has focused primarily on older adults, yet healthy and productive aging does not begin at age 65. To help fill this gap in knowledge, the purpose of this study was to explore the falls experiences and prevention program preferences of adults in mid-life who had experienced falls or near falls. A qualitative study using content analysis was used. Multiple coders were employed to increase the reliability of the findings. Results revealed three major themes with regard to falls experiences includingprecursors to falls, physical implications, and functional implications. For preve...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Hepatitis B Virus Screening and Vaccination in First-generation African Immigrants: A Pilot Study
This study aimed to provide a better understanding of HBV burden in this vulnerable population and to identify risk factors for the implementation of more effective prevention and treatment programs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 71 first-generation African Americans in New York City. Participants ’ sociodemographic characteristics, HBV screening and vaccination history, knowledge of HBV transmission, and other related issues were asked. The study sample included 46 men and 23 women, with an average age of 32.75. Of the sample, 87.50% participants migrated from sub-Saharan Africa and 79.10% had lived in...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Parents ’ Perspectives on Safe Storage of Firearms
This study sought to understand knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and firearm storage practices among parents living in households with firearms. Focus groups (FG) were conducted with gun-owning parents/guardians in thr ee US states with high firearm ownership. Participants also completed an anonymous survey which included demographic characteristics, previous gun education, purpose of gun ownership, and storage practices. Eight FG were conducted with 57 parents. 74% of participants stored at least one firearm unlo cked, with many loaded. Overall risk perception for firearm injury was low. Many participants believed modeling ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 17, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Breast Cancer Treatment Delays at an Urban Safety Net Hospital Among Women Experiencing Homelessness
This study is a retrospective chart review of homeless female patients diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014. Data for this study were acquired from the hospital cancer registry and electronic medical record. All demographic characteristics, time to treatment and factors related to delays to treatment were analyzed descriptively, reporting frequencies and proportions. The total number of individuals analyzed was 24. All except two subjects were delayed to treatment ( ≥ 30 days from diagnosis to treatment). Most women in this cohort were categorized as chronically homeless (46%...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 17, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Identification of Military Veterans Upon Implementation of a Standardized Screening Process in a Federally Qualified Health Center
AbstractThe identification of veterans receiving care in community-based settings is important and has implications for healthcare delivery and workforce training and development. As part of a larger collaboration regarding the delivery of behavioral health services, this project partnered a Midwest Veterans Affairs Medical Center with a state primary care association and large federally qualified health center (FQHC) to standardize the method in which veteran status is captured in clinic. Before adapting the screening item and implementing it as a required field in the electronic medical record, the number of veterans rep...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Healthcare Disparities Identified Between Hmong and Other Asian Origin Groups Living with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Sacramento County 2014 –2017
AbstractChronic hepatitis B (CHB) disproportionately affects non-US born Asians. The Hmong have been shown to have the highest rates of CHB and mortality from liver cancer compared to other Asian groups. From September 2014 to September 2017, testing for CHB within Sacramento County was conducted through community-based testing events and an electronic health record alert that identified Asian patients by surname. Demographic and laboratory data were collected for analysis and patients were followed through the study period to assess linkage to care and treatment to compare differences between Asian origin groups. Of 4350 ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Online Sexual Health Educational Intervention Involving Young Adult Female Students: A Mixed Methods Study
AbstractAdolescent and young adult females are at increased risk for STDs/STIs and their complications. It is imperative that the sexual health education provided to this vulnerable population is effective. This mixed methods study assessed the impact of an online educational intervention on knowledge of sexual health and STDs/STIs, and impact on behavioral intent among sexually active, young adult females 18 –22 years of age. Results showed that the online educational intervention was effective. Scores increased from pretest to posttest and responses included what participants learned and found most helpful, an...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

PrEP Knowledge and Attitudes Among Adults Attending Public Health Clinics in Southern Arizona
AbstractHIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is underutilized among Hispanics, women, and low-income individuals. To better understand PrEP barriers in this population, questionnaires were administered to 500 patients attending public health clinics in southern Arizona which provide family planning and sexually transmitted infections care. Sixty-three percent believed that they had no risk of HIV infection. When asked “Before today, did you know that there was a pill that can prevent HIV infection?” 80% of persons answered no. Among women, 88% answered no to this question. As expected, individuals with a higher ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Dietary Quality Varies Among Adults on the Flathead Nation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana
AbstractDiet-related chronic disease is among the most pressing public health issues and represents a health disparity among Native American communities. A community-based participatory approach was taken to evaluate dietary quality of adult residents of the Flathead Reservation  of the Confederated Salish& Kootenai Tribes in Montana (the Flathead Nation). A survey was administered to collect basic demographic information and food security status (N  = 80). Dietary quality was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method with subsequent calculation of Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores, mod...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Collaboration with Rural and Remote Communities to Improve Sexual Assault Services
AbstractAfter a recent sexual assault, clients in rural and remote communities do not typically receive comprehensive services. They experience delays with staff shortages and unfamiliarity with procedures, negative responses to disclosure such as disbelief, and may be turned away or required to travel elsewhere away from their support systems. These experiences increase their risks for mental health disorders and chronic diseases, placing a significant burden on the client ’s health and on the community. A participatory action approach was used in five Canadian communities to find collaborative solutions to their ch...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Combating Child Summer Food Insecurity: Examination of a Community-Based Mobile Meal Program
AbstractLow-income children ’s access to meals decreases during the summer months due to losing the benefit of the free and reduced-price lunches they normally receive during the school year. Few studies critically examine community-based approaches to providing summer meals. This mixed methods study examined a mobile meal p rogram implemented in a community with large economic disparities. Parents and caregivers who attended the mobile meal program with a child at one of three sites completed surveys that screened for risk of food insecurity and examined access and utilization of community food resources. Interviews...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Taxi Drivers at Risk: Tailoring Nutrition and Exercise Materials
AbstractCognitive interviewing was used to refine nutrition and exercise health education materials for use in the New York City taxi driver community. Cognitive interviews were conducted with taxi drivers at garages and community centers across New York City. Interviews were conducted in five rounds with approximately 10 interviews conducted in each round. Modifications were made to the education materials between rounds based on driver feedback. Interviews were transcribed, coded to identify areas needing improvement, and then used to modify materials. Areas that needed adaptation included colloquialisms, literacy level,...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Recruiting African Immigrant Women for Community-Based Cancer Prevention Studies: Lessons Learned from the AfroPap Study
AbstractRecruitment in research can be challenging, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants. There remains a dearth of research identifying the health and sociocultural needs of these populations related to recruitment. To describe our experiences and lessons learned in recruiting African immigrant (AI) women for the AfroPap study, a community-based study examining correlates of cervical cancer screening behaviors. We developed several recruitment strategies in collaboration with key informants and considered published recruitment methods proven effective in immigrant populations. We also evaluated the var...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Variables Associated with Emergency Department Utilization by Pediatric Patients with Asthma in a Federally Qualified Health Center
AbstractTo study variables associated with Emergency Department (ED) utilization among pediatric patients with asthma in a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). We analyzed Electronic Health Record (EHR) data in a retrospective cohort study of patients with asthma between ages 2 and 18 who received primary care at a FQHC. The primary outcome studied was a visit to the ED at Ann and Robert Lurie ’s Children’s Hospital (LCH) for an acute visit related to asthma. Univariate analyses and a multiple logistic regression were performed to study the effect of demographic and clinical variables on ED utilization. Of...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Coping, Discrimination, and Physical Health Conditions Among Predominantly Poor, Urban African Americans: Implications for Community-Level Health Services
AbstractAfrican Americans and ethnic minorities experience racial discrimination in a variety of settings. Racial discrimination is a potent stressor that has been linked to psychosocial stress and poor physical health. To cope with discriminatory experiences and daily life event stressors, African Americans frequently use the concept of John Henryism (a high effort coping strategy with prolonged exposure to stress). This cross-sectional analysis explored the relationship between racism/discrimination, John Henryism, and health problems in a predominately African American sample. Data were collected through health care scr...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Male Voice: A Qualitative Assessment of Young Men ’s Communication Preferences About HPV and 9vHPV
AbstractIn the U.S. there is an epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). One of the most prevalent STIs is the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Certain high risk strains of HPV are believed to cause virtually all cervical cancers, over 90% of anal cancers, 70% of oropharyngeal cancers, and the majority of anal  genital warts. HPV is preventable through vaccination and is available for both men and women. Several educational interventions have been employed, yet baseline awareness and knowledge related to HPV and 9vHPV remains relatively low among young men. What is not known is the most effective method for provid...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Burden and Social Determinants of Asthma Among Children in the State of Georgia
AbstractAsthma is one of the most common chronic health conditions in children, and social determinants are thought to be important risk factors. We used Georgia data from the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey (BRFSS), and data from the Georgia hospital and emergency department survey for children with a diagnosis of asthma. All data were from the years 2011 to 2016. SAS and SUDAAN were used to calculate weighted prevalence estimates and to perform univariate and multivariate analysis of the association between social determinants, demographic characteristics, other potential risk factors, and asthma-related outc...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Analyzing Factors Associated with Trash Pickers ’ Health Status: Census Data in a Major City in Colombia
This study aims to identify factors associated with the probability of trash pickers feeling physically or mentally ill and assesses differences by gender. To achieve these, we estimated multivariate regression models by using data from a census ’ update of 3109 trash pickers in Cali-Colombia in 2015. Outcomes are defined by two binary variables for whether the trash picker reports 14 or more days during the last month with physical and mental illness. Factors included demographic, family, psychological, socioeconomic and job characterist ics. We found gender differences in several risk factors. Also a strong link be...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research