Perception of Choking Injury Risk Among Healthcare Students
AbstractChoking injuries in children represent a severe public health burden. Although most choking injuries are due to food, parents have often been found to be unaware of the choking hazards presented by food. In this context, healthcare professionals may play an important role in choking prevention by educating families. We investigate the perception of choking injury risk among healthcare profession students by comparing their awareness and knowledge of choking hazards with those of people without a specific health education. A survey was conducted among a sample of final year healthcare profession students from two un...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Use of community forums to increase knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in African American communities
This study is a one-group pretest –posttest study design using a 17-item questionnaire to collect data from 412 participants in diverse communities. Our analyses revealed perceived knowledge increased significantly after the forums for African American participants. For African Americans, perceived knowledge prior to the forums wa s explained by gender, access to care, and trust in clinical trials. After the forum, perceived knowledge was associated with access to care and trust in vaccines. Participants who had health insurance reported higher perceived HPV and cervical cancer knowledge and greater trust in vaccines...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prevalence, Severity, and Risk of Future Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults Living in a Rural Community: The Atahualpa Project
AbstractAccidental falls are a leading cause of disability and death in older adults living in urban centers. However, little is known about the consequences of falls in rural communities. We aimed to assess characteristics and risk of falls in community-dwellers aged ≥ 60 years living in rural Ecuador. Of 463 older adults enrolled in the Atahualpa Project, 327 (71%) were included. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess factors associated with history of falls and risk of future falls. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine wh ich component of the Downton fall risk index (DFRI...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Role of a Community-Based Intervention in Promoting Helmet Use in a Non-probability Sample of Rural Motorcyclists in Iran
AbstractAlthough the use of helmets is known to prevent the majority of mortalities by head injuries, it is ignored by a large number of motorcyclists. The present study was conducted to promote helmet use in an attempt to reduce injuries among motorcyclists in a rural area by adopting a community-based participation approach. The one-group pretest –posttest pre-experimental design was conducted in northwest Iran. The study was conducted in three phases: (1) baseline measurement, (2) implementation of the intervention, and (3) assessment of the outcomes. The intervention included the distribution of learning tools, e...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Smoking Social Norms Among Young Adults in New York City
AbstractMore than half of young adult (YA) (ages 18 –26) smokers are non-daily smokers. While standard cessation methods are generally successful with adults and daily smokers, there is evidence that they are not as successful among non-daily smokers or young adults. Additionally, YA smokers are also in a transition period to regular smoking, makin g research on understanding how interpersonal and environmental factors affect this group of smokers critical. Randomized time location sampling was used to create a sample of New York City YA bar patrons between June and November 2013, who completed a self-administered su...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Process Evaluation of the Skin Cancer Prevention Act (Tanning Beds): A Survey of Ontario Public Health Units
AbstractEvidence of the dangers of indoor tanning and its popularity, including among youth, led the Government of Ontario to pass the Skin Cancer Prevention Act (Tanning Beds) (SCPA) in 2014. This legislation includes prohibiting the sale of indoor tanning services to individuals under 18, requiring warning signs be posted, and other safety regulations. We collected information from Ontario Public Health Units to conduct a process evaluation of the SCPA to: understand legislation implementation; assess available evidence about compliance, inspection, and enforcement; and, note barriers and facilitators related to inspecti...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Self-Justifications for Unsafe Sex Among Incarcerated Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Are Living with HIV: Results from a New York City Jail-Based Pilot Intervention
AbstractYoung men who have sex with men (YMSM), especially African American and Latinx YMSM, accounted for the highest proportion of new HIV diagnoses in 2016. Minorities and persons living with HIV are over-represented in correctional settings. To influence risk behaviors of incarcerated YMSM who are living with HIV, New York City Health  + Hospitals adapted, implemented, and evaluated an evidence-based intervention (EBI)—Personalized Cognitive Counseling—as a pilot program for YMSM, aged 20–29 in New York City jails from May 2015 to July 2016. Thirty-four participants recalled a memorable ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Ann Goerdt, Donna Page, Herbert M. Cole, Peter E. Udo Umoh, Leonard Kahan, and Faustino Quintanilla: Deformity Masks and Their Role in African Cultures: The Ann Goerdt Collection
(Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Association Between School Experiences and Marijuana Use Among African American Adolescents
This study examined whether past month marijuana use among African American adolescents differed based on school experiences and individual feelings toward school. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted to answer research questions. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that female students at highest risk for recent use included those who held negative feelings toward school (OR 2.723, CI 1.683, 4.406, p  
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Rural Adult Perspectives on Impact of Hearing Loss and Barriers to Care
AbstractAdult hearing loss has a significant impact on communication and quality of life. In spite of effective methods of diagnosis and treatment, many rural adults face significant barriers and delays in accessing care. The purpose of this study is to characterize the impact of hearing loss and the barriers for hearing healthcare in rural adults. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with adults in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2016 and 2017 to describe perceived susceptibility to hearing loss; knowledge of hearing loss; cues leading to help-seeking;...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Factors Associated with State Variation in Mortality Among Persons Living with Diagnosed HIV Infection
AbstractIn the United States, the all-cause mortality rate among persons living with diagnosed HIV infection (PLWH) is almost twice as high as among the general population. We aimed to identify amendable factors that state public health programs can influence to reduce mortality among PLWH. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), we estimated age –group-specific models (24–34, 35–54, ≥ 55 years) to assess the association between state-level mortality rates among PLWH during 2010–2014 (National HIV Surveillance System) and amendable factors (percentage of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Prog...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effects of Urban Violence on Primary Healthcare: The Challenges of Community Health Workers in Performing House Calls in Dangerous Areas
AbstractCommunity health workers in developing countries usually perform house calls in degraded and violent territories. Thus, in this paper we study the effects of urban violence in the performance of CHWs in poorly developed territories, in order to understand the challenges of delivering care to dangerous communities in developing countries. We conducted telephone surveys for 5  months in 2017, within a systematic sample of 2.000 CHWs based on clinics distributed along the health regions of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We completed 766 interviews, approximately 40% of the sample, 86% man and 14% women. Most...
Source: Journal of Community Health - April 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis in Foreign-Born Populations in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area, 2009 –2015
This study used cross-sectional data from 5982 individuals screened at community events held from 2009 to 2015. Descriptive statistics were generated to describe the screening results. Positive results for HBV infection (HBsAg+) and HCV infection (HCVAb+) were analyzed according to age, gender, and country of birth. Of 5982, the majority of participants were born in Asia (77.8%). The prevalence of infection was 6.1% for HBV and 3.8% for HCV in Asia-born immigrants compared to 3.7% for HBV and 2.8% for HCV in Africa-born immigrants. Among participants who were Asia-born, prevalence of HBV infection was highest for those fro...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Knowledge of the Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus and Preventive Practices Against Zika Virus Among U.S. Travelers
AbstractIndividuals are often at increased risk of acquiring infectious disease while traveling. We sought to understand knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding Zika virus among travelers from the United States. A total of 1043 study participants were recruited from a probability-based internet panel. Participants self-reported their knowledge of Zika infection and modes of transmission, and identified actions they had taken to prevent Zika infection and transmission including actions to prevent unintentional pregnancy since becoming aware of the Zika virus. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of taki...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correlation of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and School Free and Reduced Lunch Eligibility as a Measure of Socioeconomic Status
This study shows that consumption of SSB highly correlates with school FRL eligibility, which can be a measure of SES. These findings reinforce the idea that there is a link between lower SES and unhealthy behaviors pertaining to dietary choices. Knowing this relationship between SSB consumption and FRL eligibility, specific schools can be targeted to reduce SSB consumption and its negative health c onsequences. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Awareness and Knowledge of Human Papilloma Virus and Cervical Cancer in Women with High Pap Uptake
AbstractThis cross-sectional study explored knowledge, awareness, and health practices surrounding cervical cancer prevention and screening. Patients (n  = 129) were recruited from three community clinics of underserved populations in Dallas, Texas. Women between ages 18–65 were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate their knowledge, awareness, and attitudes related to pap tests, human papilloma virus (HPV), HPV vaccines, and cervical cancer. Most women reported having a pap test in the past 3–5 years (86.6%). Over half knew that there was an increased risk of cervical c...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Interventions to Minimize Transportation Barriers Among People with Chronic Diseases
AbstractTransportation is an important social determinant of health. Transportation barriers disproportionately affect the most vulnerable groups of society who carry the highest burden of chronic diseases; therefore, it is critical to identify interventions that improve access to transportation. We synthesized evidence concerning the types and impact of interventions that address transportation to chronic care management. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed studies that include an intervention with a transportation component was performed using three electronic databases —PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL&mdash...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gender and Public Health Emergency Preparedness Among United States Adults
This study adds to the epidemiology literature regarding gender and preparedness behaviors in the United States. Future investigations are warranted to confirm these findings and inform practices aimed at improving public health emergency preparedness. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 8, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Family and Friend Influences on Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Elementary Aged Children
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the eating behaviors and social cognitive factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption. Strategies to change, pros& cons, enjoyment, family support, and peer influence were measured in children ages 8 –10 years both pre- and post- Zest Quest® program (pre: n = 82; post: n = 80). Children for a comparison group were selected from comparable elementary schools and pre- and post- measures were evaluated (pre: n = 92; post: n = 87). Chi-squared analyses were conducted on individua l measures an...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correlates and Levels of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Saudi Men Working in Office-Based Jobs
This study identified Saudi males working in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for being overweight, obese, and physically inactive. The detected risk factors are modifiable and require interventions addressing the intrapersonal and the environmental factors most likely to mitigate or ameliorate the consequences of this destructive lifestyle. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Exploring HPV Knowledge, Awareness, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Vaccine Acceptability of Latino Fathers Living in the United States: An Integrative Review
AbstractTo conduct an integrative review to identify and synthesize studies exploring human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, awareness, beliefs, attitudes, and acceptability of the HPV vaccine among Latino fathers living in the United States. The review methodology was informed by those developed by Whittemore and Knafl, which allow for the inclusion of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies. Using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews meta-analyses guidelines, five electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Science Direct) were searched for peer-reviewed, full-text studies publish...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Addressing Tobacco Use in Underserved Communities Through a Peer-Facilitated Smoking Cessation Program
This study describes CEASE ’s community-based approach and reports results from implementing the second phase of the intervention which, among other things, varied in the type of incentives, setting, and providers used. CEASE implemented a mixed-methods study following the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) appro ach. During Phase II, a total of 398 smokers were recruited into two 12-session group counseling interventions facilitated by trained peers in community venues, which differed in the type of incentives used to increase participation and reward the achievement of milestones. At 12-week follow-up, 2...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Impact of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion on Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment: A National Survey of Physicians
AbstractIn 2014, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provided funding for states to expand Medicaid coverage to include citizens who earned up to 138% of the federal poverty line. We sought to ascertain whether physicians practicing in Medicaid expansion states reported an increase in Medicaid or newly insured patients with type 2 diabetes in their panels, compared to physicians practicing in non-expansion states. We conducted a 55-question cross-sectional survey of 356 physicians providing outpatient care for adults with type 2 diabetes. We used adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses to compare responses from physic...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Health Disparities Among Sexual Gender Minority Women in the United States: A Population-Based Study
AbstractThere is a paucity of population-based research to identify health disparities experienced by sexual gender minority (SGM) women. The purpose of this study was to use a population-based data set to understand disparities in access to healthcare, preventive care, and health risk behaviors of lesbian and bisexual women compared to their straight counterparts and to each other. This was a cross-sectional study using the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. SPSS with complex samples was used to calculate weighted descriptive statistics. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds and adjusted odds r...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Community-Partnered, Evidence-Based Approach to Improving Cancer Care Delivery for Low-Income and Minority Patients with Cancer
The objective of this study was to adapt an intervention to improve end-of-life cancer care delivery using a community –partnered approach. We used a two-step formative research process to adapt the evidence-basedlay health workers educate engage and  encourage patients to share (LEAPS) cancer care intervention. The first step involved obtaining a series of adaptations through focus groups with 15 patients, 12 caregivers, and 6 leaders and staff of the Unite Here Health (UHH) payer organization, and 12 primary care and oncology care providers. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed usin...
Source: Journal of Community Health - March 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Magnitude and Composition of Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults Living in a Retirement Community
This study described the magnitude and composition of SB [non-screen sedentary time (NSST) and screen sedentary time (SST)] in older adults living in a RC and documented variation in this behavior as a function of demographic, health, health behavior and clinical variables. This cross sectional descriptive study enrolled and assessed 100 older males and females living a RC located in the Midwest region of United States. Participants completed a questionnaire for sample characterization and a SB questionnaire. Metric of SB (i.e., TST, NSST and SST) were analyzed overall and separated by the variables of interest. Participan...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Follow-up Study Methods for a Longitudinal Cohort of Alaska Native and American Indian People Living within Urban South Central Alaska: The EARTH Study
AbstractLongitudinal data are needed to investigate chronic disease causation and improve prevention efforts for Alaska Native and American Indian (ANAI) people. This paper describes the methods used to conduct follow-up data collection of a longitudinal cohort that enrolled ANAI adults between 2004 and 2006 in south central Alaska. The follow-up study re-examined ANAI participants in a large, urban centre in south  central Alaska between 2015 and 2017. Computerized surveys were used to collect self-reported health, lifestyle, physical activity, and diet data. Clinical measurements included blood pressure, fasting blo...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Applied Learning for Undergraduates: Integrating NCHEC Competencies and CEPH Public Health Domains in a Public Health Practice Course
AbstractTo meet Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) accreditation standards for a standalone undergraduate public health program, faculty at the University of North Carolina Wilmington conducted a matrix exercise to assess curricular alignment with the CEPH Domains of Public Health (PHDs) and the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC) competencies. Addressing gaps in the undergraduate public health program identified by the matrix exercise drove development of a new course,Public Health Practice. The course was designed to use real world experience to provide students with the tools and sk...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Utilization of Preventive Health Care Services Among Asian Americans in Michigan during Pre- and Post-Affordable Care Act Implementation
In this study, we recruited 427 Asian Americans who attended health fairs and examined (1) changes in health care coverage and utilization of preventive health services before and after ACA, (2) health status on chronic disease risk factors, (3) comparing health services utilization by insurance status and types of insurance, and (4) identifying relationships between health care utilization and demographic factors. Study results indicate that even though the percentage of insured Asian Americans in Michigan increased significantly over study periods, health care utilization and chronic disease burden did not change signifi...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Mapping Child Safety Seat Use in Cases of Fatal or Incapacitating Child Motor Vehicle Injury in Cook County, Illinois from 2011 to 2015
AbstractChild safety seat use reduces the risk of fatal injury by 71% for infants and 54% for toddlers, yet more than one-third of child passengers killed in traffic crashes in the US are unrestrained. Nearly half (47%) of crash injuries occur within 5 miles of the injured person ’s home. Mapping the location of motor vehicle crashes resulting in serious or fatal injury to unrestrained child passengers may pinpoint high-risk neighborhoods. Illinois Department of Transportation data were used to map crashes that resulted in a fatal or incapacitating injury to a child passen ger (age 0 to 8) in Cook County, IL from 201...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Environmental Risk Perceptions and Community Health: Arsenic, Air Pollution, and Threats to Traditional Values of the Hopi Tribe
AbstractAmerican Indian and Alaska Native populations experience chronic disparities in a wide range of health outcomes, many of which are associated with disproportionate exposures to environmental health hazards. In the American Southwest, many indigenous tribes experience challenges in securing access to sustainable and safe sources of drinking water, limiting air pollution emissions on and off tribal lands, and cleaning up hazardous contaminants left over from a legacy of natural resource extraction. To better understand how households perceive the risk of exposure to potential environmental health risks, we conducted ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: No-Notice Mystery Patient Drills to Assess Emergency Preparedness for Infectious Diseases at Community Health Centers in New York City, 2015 –2016
The article No-Notice Mystery Patient Drills to Assess Emergency Preparedness for Infectious Diseases at Community Health Centers in New York City, 2015 –2016, written by Mohsin Ali and Marsha D. Williams, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 02 January 2019 without open access. With the author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choice the copyright of the article changed on 13 Januar y 2019 to © The Author(s) 2019 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://c...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among Persons with Tobacco- and Non-tobacco-Associated Cancers
AbstractPurposeTo examine smoking and use of smoking cessation aids among tobacco-associated cancer (TAC) or non-tobacco-associated cancer (nTAC) survivors. Understanding when and if specific types of cessation resources are used can help with planning interventions to more effectively decrease smoking among all cancer survivors, but there is a lack of research on smoking cessation modalities used among cancer survivors.MethodsKentucky Cancer Registry data on incident lung, colorectal, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer cases diagnosed 2007 –2011, were linked with health administrative claims data (Medi...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Recurrent Injuries from Physical Violence Among African Men in The Gambia
AbstractWhile men are known to be at high risk of recurrent injuries from physical violence, the risk factors in African men have not been investigated. We conducted a matched case-control study to identify factors associated with recurrent injuries from physical violence in The Gambia. Eligible participants were injured male patients aged  ≥ 15 years. Over the 12-month study period, 257 cases with recurrent injuries from physical violence, and 257 control patients each from two control groups (violence controls and nonviolence controls) were recruited from eight emergency rooms located in six distric...
Source: Journal of Community Health - February 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Rapid Assessment of Nutrition Services in Los Angeles Substance Use Disorder Treatment Centers
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of nutrition services and utilization of registered dietitian nutritionists at substance use disorder treatment centers in Los Angeles. This cross-sectional descriptive study utilized phone interviews with facilities within a 25-mile radius of the Los Angeles metropolitan area using the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Treatment Services Locator to identify facilities that included a listing of substance abuse as primary focus of care (n  = 128). Facilities were asked if they offered any kind of nutrition services, the type o...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Students ’ Alcohol Use, Sexual Behaviors, and Contraceptive Use While Studying Abroad
AbstractCollege study abroad students may represent a subgroup at risk for increased alcohol use and sexual activity while traveling. The present study explored student ’s alcohol use, sexual activity, and the interrelationship between the two while abroad. A sample of 372 students (Mage abroad  = 20,SD = 3.3, 68% women) who had traveled abroad in the past 3 years were recruited from a large, southern university. Students completed an online survey of demographics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive use. Students reported consuming an average of six drinks in one sitting, and...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Public Libraries: A Community-Level Resource to Advance Population Health
AbstractPolicy makers and public health practitioners rarely consider public libraries to be part of the health system, even though they possess several characteristics that suggest unrealized potential to advance population health. This scoping review uses an adapted social determinants framework to categorize current health-related work conducted by public libraries in the United States and to discuss libraries ’ potential as ‘meso-level’ community resources to improve population health. Our discussion of libraries contributes to scholarship on place-based health disparities, by emphasizing the potentia...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Community Health and Employee Work Performance in the American Manufacturing Environment
AbstractAlthough better community health has long been assumed to be good for local businesses, evidence demonstrating the relationship between community health and employee performance is quite limited. Drawing on human resources data on 6103 employees from four large US manufacturing plants, we found that employees living in counties with poor community health outcomes had considerably higher rates of absenteeism and tardiness (ABT). For example, in one company, employees living in communities with high rates of children on free or reduced lunch had higher rates of ABT compared to other employees [adjusted odds ratio (OR...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Knowledge and Beliefs About Pedestrian Safety in an Urban Community: Implications for Promoting Safe Walking
AbstractAs more people walk for transport and exercise, it is possible to avoid a concomitant increase in the number of pedestrian injuries. Understanding how the public views pedestrian safety can help inform the development of prevention strategies that support national efforts to promote walking and walkable communities. As part of the formative research for a community pedestrian safety health promotion campaign, we administered an online questionnaire to employees and students at a large urban medical campus, along with residents in the neighboring communities, to determine their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior reg...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Differentiates Underserved Smokers Who Successfully Quit From Those Who Do Not
AbstractPoor persons continue to smoke at high rates and suffer grave health effects. We have been working with our community partners since 2008 to help poor people in the surrounding neighborhoods stop smoking through a multi-phase CBPR intervention known as CEASE. Our study used qualitative methods to identify factors that characterized those who successfully quit smoking (doers) and those who did not (non-doers). Both doers and non-doers identified social pressure as the main reason for starting to smoke, and health as the main motivator for quitting. Although they were similar in many ways, the doers seemed to have mo...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Comparison of Infant Sleep Safety Guidelines in Nine Industrialized Countries
AbstractMany countries have guidelines that recommend safety practices for infant sleep. However, it is not known whether guidelines between countries are similar or different. The purpose of this paper is to compare national public health infant sleep safety guidelines among highly developed countries. Criteria for inclusion were: countries defined by United Nations as “very high human development,” guideline related to infant sleep position and safety practices, evidence of it being a national guideline, and published in English. Guidelines from nine countries met inclusion criteria, and data were extracted a...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

HIV Sero-Status Non-disclosure Among HIV-Infected Opioid-Dependent Individuals: The Roles of HIV-Related Stigma, Risk Behavior, and Social Support
AbstractHIV sero-status disclosure among people living with HIV (PLWH) is an important component of preventing HIV transmission to sexual partners. Due to various social, structural, and behavioral challenges, however, many HIV-infected opioid-dependent patients do not disclose their HIV status to all sexual partners. In this analysis, we therefore examined non-disclosure practices and correlates of non-disclosure among high-risk HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals. HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals who reported HIV-risk behaviors were enrolled (N  = 133) and assessed for HIV disclosure, risk be...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Unreliable and Difficult-to-Access Food for Those in Need: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study of Urban Food Pantries
This study examined the five dimensions of access in a convenience sample of 50 food pantries in the Bronx, NY. The design was cross-sectional. Qualitative data included researcher observations and field notes from unstructured interviews with pantry workers. Quantitative data included frequencies for aspects of food access, organized by the five access dimensions. Inductive analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed three main inter-related findings: (1) Pantries were not reliably open: only 50% of pantries were open during hours listed in an online directory (several had had prolonged or indefinite closures);...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Life Expectancy of Olympic Wrestling Champions in Comparison to the General Population
AbstractAlthough it was presumed that moderate exercise is a healthy practice but long term high intensity exercise is not, studies observed a life expectancy benefit for both high-intensity endurance and fast power sports athlets, but the data for contact sports are conflicting. Therefore, the author aimed to investigate the life expectancy of Olympic wrestling champions in comparison to the general population. Characteristics, vital status and life-span of the male Olympic wrestling champions was collected (1896 –2016). The life expectancy of Olympic champions was compared with matched individuals of the general po...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Variable Uptake of Medicaid-Covered Prenatal Care Coordination: The Relevance of Treatment Level and Service Context
This study examines the reach and uptake of Wisconsin ’s Prenatal Care Coordination (PNCC) program among Medicaid-covered, residence occurrence live births between 2008 and 2012. Data come from the Big Data for Little Kids project, which harmonizes birth records with multiple state administrative sources. Logistic regression analyses measured the ass ociation between county- and maternal-level factors and the odds of any PNCC use and the odds of PNCC uptake (>  2 PNCC services among those assessed). Among identified Medicaid-covered births (n = 136,057), approximately 24% (n&thinsp...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Knowledge of Hepatitis C Risk Factors is Lower in High Incidence Regions
AbstractDespite ambitious goals to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States by 2030, the majority of those infected are not aware of their diagnosis, and only a small minority have been cured. A lack of knowledge regarding risk factors and treatment may contribute to low cure rates. We aimed to evaluate HCV knowledge and the association of risk factor knowledge with HCV incidence. In fall 2017, a survey regarding HCV knowledge was disseminated through social media, web link, and in person throughout the state of Virginia. The survey was completed by 613 individuals. Residents of high-incidence counties identi...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection: Preventing Disease or Promoting Sexual Health?
(Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 8, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Ancillary Benefit of Increased HPV Immunization Rates Following a CBPR Approach to Address Immunization Disparities in Younger Siblings
AbstractIncreasing HPV vaccination rates may decrease the disproportionately high HPV-associated disease incidence and mortality in African Americans (AA) and lower socioeconomic individuals. Data from a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study addressing immunization disparities among 19 –35 month old children was analyzed to identify ancillary benefits in HPV immunization rates for adolescent siblings. Sub-study analysis inclusion criteria: AA (N = 118), 13–17 years old, younger sibling enrolled in parent study, and enrolled ≥ 9 months. Parent/caregiver...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Association Between Perceived Stress and Hypertension Among Asian Americans: Does Social Support and Social Network Make a Difference?
AbstractPrior research suggests that stress plays role in the etiology and progression of hypertension. To lend a more accurate depiction of the underlying mechanisms between stress and hypertension, this study aims to assess the associations between perceived stress and hypertension across varying levels of social support and social network among Asian Americans. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on 530 Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans recruited from a liver cancer prevention program in the Washington D.C. —Baltimore metropolitan area. Hypertension prevalence was 29.1%. Individuals with high pe...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Predictors of the Timing of Sexual Intercourse Initiation among Adolescents in South Korea
This study investigated the predictors of the timing of sexual intercourse initiation among high school students in South Korea. A total of 10,810 students in the twelfth grade were selected from the Youth Health Behavior Online Survey (2016), and their data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and survival analysis. Approximately 11.6% of boys and 5.1% of girls reported having sexual intercourse. Significant predictors of the timing of sexual intercourse initiation among male students were the presence of parents, living with their family, socioeconomic status, grade of alcohol consumption initiation, grade of smoki...
Source: Journal of Community Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research