Bike Lane Obstructions in Manhattan, New York City: Implications for Bicyclist Safety
AbstractOver the past 5  years, the number of regular cyclists in New York City (NYC) increased by ~ 140,000 to over 800,000 regular riders. Aiming to promote safe cycling, NYC has developed over 1000 miles of planned commuting and recreational bike paths across its five boroughs. Bike lane obstructions pose a safety ri sk to cyclists but the extent of such obstructions is unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to document the frequency and rate of obstructions in protected bike lanes throughout Manhattan, NYC. During the fall of 2018, bicycle obstructions were observed in ten zones of Manhattan...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Mixed-Methods Assessment of a Peer-Enforced Tobacco- and Smoke-Free Policy at a Large Urban University
AbstractThe study aims to evaluate the enforcement, opinions, and effectiveness of the University of South Florida ’s tobacco free policy one year following implementation. By assessing readiness to change and using geographic information system (GIS) mapping this study sought to introduce a unique and effective way of evaluating college tobacco free policies. A cross-sectional survey was administered to stude nts, faculty, and staff to assess knowledge of policy and resources, tobacco use observations, stage change regarding policy enforcement, self-efficacy to enforce, and policy impact on perceived campus tobacco ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Georgia: Evaluating the Georgia HPV Work Group
AbstractHPV-related cancers can be prevented through HPV vaccination, however uptake and completion of the vaccination in the state of Georgia remains suboptimal. The research team conducted two online focus groups with members of the Georgia Cancer Control Consortium HPV Work Group in efforts to better understand the role that the working group could have on increasing vaccination uptake and completion in the state of Georgia. Analysis of the focus groups was completed using a Grounded Theory approach. Various aspects of the Working Group were discussed throughout the focus groups with a number of key points for growth id...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Barriers to Disease Monitoring and Liver Cancer Surveillance Among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in the United States
This study aimed to compile and examine studies related to the barriers of disease monitoring, treatment, and liver cancer surveillance for CHB patients in the United States (US). A total of 4439 studies on monitoring and surveillance of CHB published between 2007 and 2018 were identified through a search of electronic databases. After critical assessment, the authors included 42 studies, divided into categories: ‘patient-related barriers’; ‘provider-related barriers’; and ‘system-related barriers’. Among the patient-related barriers, one of the most frequent factors invoked in failing t...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Free-Floating Bikeshare and Helmet Use in Seattle, WA
AbstractWearing a helmet when bicycling prevents traumatic brain injury in the event of a crash. Most cyclists nationwide use helmets when riding. However, the growth of free-floating bike sharing systems, which offer short-term access to bicycles but not helmets, may erode helmet-wearing norms among cyclists. We counted cyclists over several hours at four locations in Seattle, WA. We categorized each rider according to whether he or she was wearing a helmet and to whether or not he or she was riding a bike share bike. Whereas 91% of riders of private bikes wore helmets, only 20% of bike share riders wore helmets. Moreover...
Source: Journal of Community Health - December 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Examining the Associations Between Immigration Status and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women
AbstractStress is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. In the United States (U.S.), little is known about perceived stress and associated factors among HIV-infected and immigrant women. Here, we examine these associations within a sample of 305 HIV-infected and uninfected, U.S.-born and non-U.S.-born women who were part of the Women ’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) at three sites (New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles). Perceived stress was measured using the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10); HIV infection was serologically confirmed, and nativity status was self-reported. Bivariate and multiv...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Assessing and Improving Zoster Vaccine Uptake in a Homeless Population
AbstractThe herpes zoster (shingles) vaccine is recommended for all adults aged ≥ 60 years without contraindications to prevent shingles and post-herpetic neuralgia. There are no published studies on zoster vaccination rates, barriers, or workflows in adults who have experienced homelessness. Due to barriers specific to this vaccine, including difficulty determining insura nce coverage, high upfront costs, need for storage in a freezer, and under-prescription by physicians, uptake is lower compared to other recommended vaccines for older adults. To address these barriers, we developed a new approach of partn...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Community Health Worker Employer Survey: Perspectives on CHW Workforce Development in the Midwest
AbstractA statewide Community Health Worker Employer Survey was administered to various clinical, community, and faith-based organizations (n  = 240) across a range of rural and urban settings in the Midwest. At least 80% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that items characterized as supervisory support were present in their work environment. Thirty-six percent of respondents currently employed CHWs, over half (51%) of survey r espondents reported seeing the need to hire/work with more CHWs, and 44% saw the need for CHWs increasing in the future. Regarding CHW support, a majority of respondents indicat...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Patient Engagement in Community Health Center Leadership: How Does it Happen?
AbstractPatient engagement in primary care leadership is an important means to involve community voices at community health centers. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) are mandated to have patient representation within their governing boards, while practices seeking patient-centered medical home certification receive credit for implementing patient advisory councils (PACs). Our objective was to compare and contrast how community health centers engage patients in clinic management, decision-making and planning within governing boards versus PACs. Qualitative study conducted from August 2016 to June 2017 at community...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Examining Hepatitis, A and B Vaccination, and HBV Reactivation Monitoring During Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy for Hepatitis C
The objective of this study was to examine Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) screening, and the risk of HBV reactivation during Hepatitis C (HCV) therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). A retrospective chart review was performed of patients treated with second generation DAA therapy from January 2014 to September 2016  at the Iowa City VA Healthcare System. In total 409 patients initiated HCV treatment, 308 (75%) and 241 (59%) were HAV and HBV vaccine eligible, respectively. Among those, 24 (8%) received a HAV vaccine, while only 20 (8%) received a HBV vaccine. Of these, 7 patients initiating an immunizati...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Examining Differences in Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) Levels and Hazardous Drinking by Smoking Status Among a Sample of College Student Bar Patrons
AbstractWhile the association between current smoking and alcohol consumption is well known, the relationship between social smoking and alcohol consumption is less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between smoking status and two alcohol consumption measures in a sample of college student bar patrons. The data used in this study was collected in fall 2015. Study participants (N  = 415) were college student bar patrons who agreed to complete an interview that assessed smoking status (i.e., regular smoker, social smoker, non-smoker) and two alcohol consumption measures: (1) br...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Role of Adolescent Victimization in Energy Drink Consumption: Monitoring the Future, 2010 –2016
AbstractEnergy drinks have been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes among youth. Even so, the underlying risk factors for energy drink consumption among youth are less frequently examined. The present study examines the link between adolescent victimization experiences (i.e., property and violent victimization) and energy drink consumption among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. We employed the seven most recent cohorts (2010 –2016) from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to acquire the U.S. sample. Youths reported the extent to which...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Health Information Seeking Behavior Among College Students
AbstractIndividuals have a wide range of resources when searching for health topics. The aim of this research was twofold: (1) to identify and assess the resources college students use when exercising health information seeking behavior (HISB); and (2) to examine perceptions and behaviors regarding adoption of online tools. A questionnaire was developed to assess HISB in a sample of college students. Items pertaining to HISB were adapted from a Health Information National Trends Survey with permission from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. During Spring 2018, 258 students in 9 sections of ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Assessing Disparities in the Rates of HCV Diagnoses Within American Indian or Alaska Native Populations Served by the U.S. Indian Health Service, 2005 –2015
AbstractHepatitis C virus (HCV) disproportionately affects American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). The Indian Health Service (IHS), via federal and tribal health facilities provides medical services to an estimated 2.2  million AI/AN people in the United States. HCV diagnoses, defined by International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, were analyzed from 2005 to 2015. Results showed 29,803 patients with an HCV diagnosis; 53.4% were among persons born 1945–1965 and o verall HCV burden was higher among males than females. These data will help inform local, regional, a...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Using Google Earth to Assess Shade for Sun Protection in Urban Recreation Spaces: Methods and Results
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of free computer software —Google Earth—for assessing shade in urban open spaces. A shade projection method was developed that uses Google Earth street view and aerial images to estimate shade at solar noon on the summer solstice, irrespective of the date of image capture. Three researchers used the method to separately estimate shade cover over pre-defined activity areas in a sample of 45 New Zealand urban open spaces, including 24 playgrounds, 12 beaches and 9 outdoor pools. Outcome measures included method accuracy (assessed by comparison with a subsample of field...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Gardening for Health: Patterns of Gardening and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among the Navajo
AbstractAmerican Indians, including Navajo, are disproportionately affected by obesity and diabetes, in part due to diet-related health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns of gardening and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among residents in two communities on the Navajo Nation in order to inform a community gardening intervention. We analyzed survey data collected from participants in the Y éego Gardening study conducted in two communities in the Navajo Nation (N = 169). We found that 51% of the sample gardened, and on average participants gardened 8.9 times per month. L...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Examining the Associations Between Immigration Status and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women
The original version of this article unfortunately published with the incorrect article title. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

HPV Vaccine-Related Research, Promotion and Coordination in the State of Georgia: A Systematic Review
AbstractHuman papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was first recommended for female adolescents in the United States in 2006, and for male adolescents in 2011. In 2016, national HPV vaccine coverage was 43.4%, and slightly higher in Georgia (45.6%). Little is known about sub-state-level variation in HPV vaccination or Georgia specific research conducted to improve HPV vaccine uptake. We aimed to describe current uptake of HPV vaccination and synthesize Georgia-specific research of HPV vaccine uptake. We reviewed existing published and grey literature for different development, implementation and best practices related to vaccine u...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sugary Drink Consumption Among NYC Children, Youth, and Adults: Disparities Persist Over Time, 2007 –2015
AbstractSugary drink consumption is associated with many adverse health outcomes, including weight gain, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. These beverages are widely marketed and ubiquitously available. This analysis explores sugary drink consumption across all age groups among New York City (NYC) residents using representative survey data. Three population-based representative surveys of NYC residents of different age groups were analyzed. Adult participants, youth participants, and caregivers of child participants self-reported the number of sugary drinks they consumed per day. Mean sugary drink intake per day was ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Building Community Partnerships: The Role of Schools of Public Health
(Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Understanding Geographic and Neighborhood Variations in Overdose Death Rates
AbstractThe current opioid epidemic continues to challenge us in new and potentially troubling ways. For example, research today finds more overdose deaths occurring in rural, rather than urban, geographic areas. Yet, studies have often ignored heterogeneities within these spaces and the neighborhood variations therein. Using geodemographic classification, we investigate neighborhood differences in overdose death rates by geographical areas to further understand where and among what groups the problem might be most concentrated. For deaths between 2013 and 2016, we find significant variation in rates among neighborhoods, d...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Influence of a Place-Based Foundation and a Public University in Growing a Rural Health Workforce
AbstractAn unlikely partnership between a private, place-based foundation and the University of New Mexico ’s Office for Community Health resulted in an innovative approach for addressing a critical shortage of health professionals in an isolated, rural setting in the southeastern corner of New Mexico. Many place-based private foundations are focused locally and are naturally disinclined to engage dist ally located public universities for local projects. Large public universities do not often focus resources on small communities located far from their campuses. However, this unusual partnership resulted in a compelli...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Thais in the U.S.
This study examined factors related to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among Thais in the United States. A total of 121 Thais between 50 and 75  years of age, who were married and living in southern California participated in the survey (mean age = 61 years). Out of all the participants, only 21% of the participants had fecal occult blood tests, 21% had sigmoidoscopy, and 45% had colonoscopy that were within the recommended period. Ov erall, 55% of participants met CRC screening adherence criteria. Participants who had had regular checkups in the previous 2 years without having any sym...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Knowledge and Practice of Health Workers about Healthcare Waste Management in Public Health Facilities in Eastern Ethiopia
In this study, both knowledge and practice of health workers about healthcare waste management was poor. To enhance both the knowledge and practice of health workers, on job training is recommended. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Chronic Disease Burden of the Homeless: A Descriptive Study of Student-Run Free Clinics in Tampa, Florida
This study underscores the critical need for mental health initiatives, substance abuse treatment programs, and women ’s health programs that are accessible to the homeless in Tampa. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Birth Certificate Validity and the Impact on Primary Cesarean Section Quality Measure in New York State
This study compared birth certificates to medical records, and examined the impact of underreporting on risk adjustment variables for PCS. We conducted an internal validation study using a random sample of 702 NY births in 2009. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of rare events reported on birth certificates were determined using abstracted and matched medical records as the gold standard. To assess the impact, we calculated PCS odds ratios for variables in the risk-adjustment model before and after correcting for measurement error. The sensitivity and PPV of birth certificate data elements including those in ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Primary Prevention of Prescription Drug Misuse Among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Suburban Communities
AbstractComprehensive strategies for prescription drug misuse must reach culturally and linguistically diverse suburban populations to effectively combat the ongoing opioid epidemic. The purpose of this study was to conduct a community needs assessment and inform the development and implementation of culturally appropriate primary prevention strategies for community-based interventions, specifically related to medication disposal practices. Three data collection techniques were utilized: key informant interviews (n  = 4), intercept surveys (n = 71), and focus group discussions (n =&thinsp...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Workplace-Based Intervention to Improve Awareness, Knowledge, and Utilization of Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screenings Among Latino Service and Manual Labor Employees in Utah
AbstractIn the United States, Latinos are more likely to be uninsured and diagnosed with later stage cancer than non-Hispanic whites. Promotoras (lay health educators) help improve cancer knowledge and facilitate access to cancer screenings. We tested a promotora led workplace-based intervention to improve knowledge of and adherence to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening among Latino employees in service or manual labor jobs. Latinos 18 and older from Salt Lake County, Utah were enrolled from January 2015 to February 2016. N  = 265 completed pre- and post-intervention surveys that measured knowl...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Factors Shaping Women ’s Pre-abortion Communication with Members of Their Social Network
AbstractTo understand women ’s pre-abortion conversations with members of their social network about their abortion decision. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women presenting for first-trimester surgical abortion at a high volume, hospital-based abortion clinic. Women were asked their reasons for discussing or not discussing abortion and responses received after disclosing their abortion decision. Interviews were transcribed and computer-assisted content analysis was performed. Salient themes are presented. Thirty women who obtained an abortion were interviewed. All but three spoke to at least one memb...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Reaching Uninsured Overweight and Obese Children Through the FitKids Mobile Lifestyle Modification Program: Lessons Learned
AbstractThe US prevalence of childhood obesity remains high with ~  1 in five children diagnosed with obesity, and rates of obesity are likely higher in uninsured and Medicaid populations than in those with private insurance. To understand the impact of an obesity intervention, an established mobile clinic program conducted a study to determine whether a FitKids Mobile Lifestyle Modification Program could reach overweight and obese uninsured children. Eighty-six children (ages 8–18 years) participated in the FitKids study over two trial periods. The first trial consisted of four total visits, but subseque...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sources of Foods That Are Ready-to-Consume ( ‘Grazing Environments’) Versus Requiring Additional Preparation (‘Grocery Environments’): Implications for Food–Environment Research and Community Health
AbstractLocal businesses that offer foods may create different ‘grazing environments’ (characterized by sources of ready-to-consume foods) and ‘grocery environments’ (characterized by source of foods for later preparation). Such environments may be relevant to different populations at different times and may vary by neighborhood. In neighborhoods within two demographically distinct areas of the Bronx, NY [Area A (higher-poverty, greater minority representation, lesser vehicle ownership) vs. Area B], researchers assessed all storefront businesses for food offerings. Food offerings could be ready-to-c...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Lessons Learned in Promoting Evidence-Based Public Health: Perspectives from Managers in State Public Health Departments
In conclusion, leadership support is a key facilitator of EBPH capacity building and practice. Section and division leaders in public health agencies with authority and skills can institute management practices to help staff learn and apply EBPH processes and spread EBPH with partners. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Ethnic Differences for Public Health Knowledge, Health Advocacy Skills, and Health Information Seeking Among High School Students: Community Agents of Change
AbstractAlthough adult health advocacy programs have been examined in communities, little is known about integrated adolescent health advocacy programs in high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the health advocacy program impact and ethnic differences among high school students. Using a cross-sectional study, high school students participating in the school-based program completed evaluation surveys. The program domains included upstream causes of health, community assets, and public health advocacy. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine ethnic differences for public health knowledge, health advocacy...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

American Sign Language Interpreters Perceptions of Barriers to Healthcare Communication in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Patients
AbstractCommunication barriers between healthcare providers and patients contribute to health disparities and the effectiveness of health promotion messages. This is especially true regarding communication between providers and deaf and hard of hearing (HOH) patients due to lack of understanding of cultural and linguistic differences, ineffectiveness of various means of communication and level of health literacy within that population. This research aimed to identify American Sign Language (ASL) interpreters ’ perceptions of barriers to effective communication between deaf and HOH patients and healthcare providers. W...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Value of Community Health Workers in Diabetes Management in Low-Income Populations: A Qualitative Study
AbstractTo describe community health workers (CHWs) roles in a diabetes self-management intervention. Retrospective qualitative inductive analysis of open text home visit encounter form from Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer AID), a randomized controlled trial in which low-income individuals with poorly controlled diabetes received either CHW home visits or usual care. Following visits, CHWs completed encounter forms documenting the health goal of the visit, the self-management strategies discussed and participant concerns. 634 encounter reports were completed for the 145 intervention participants. ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Repurposing Waste Streams: Lessons on Integrating Hospital Food Waste into a Community Garden
We describe a partnership model at our hospital in central Pennsylvania, share preliminary outcomes establishing feasibility, and offer guidance for future efforts. We also demonstrate that the integration of medical students in such efforts can foster systems thinking in the development of programs to manage hospital waste streams in more ecologically-friendly ways. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Risky Driving Behaviors for Older Adults: Differences by Veteran ’s Status
This study used data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trend Study (NHATS), a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of community-dwelling, Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 or older. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted in 2017 to determine if veteran ’s status was predictive of specific risky driving behaviors. Veteran’s status was found to be predictive of specific driving behaviors for adults aged 65 and older, with non-veterans significantly more likely than veterans to: not currently drive; avoid driving at night; avoid driving alone; av oid driving on busy roads or highways; and ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Food Security and Diet Among American Indians in the Midwest
This study used a cross-sectional design to determine health behaviors among AI. Participants (n  = 362) were recruited by AI staff through various cultural community events in the Midwest, such as powwows and health fairs. Inclusion criteria included the following: age 18 years or older, self-identify as an AI, and willing to participate in the survey. Of all participants, 210 (58%) had e ither low or very low food security, with 96 in the very low category (26.5%). Participants with very low food security tended to have significantly more chronic conditions. Additional significant differences for very ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Frequency of Food Insecurity and Associated Health Outcomes in Pediatric Patients at a Federally Qualified Health Center
AbstractFood insecurity (FI) has been recognized as a public challenge not only for developing countries but also for the U.S. population. The present study was designed to identify the prevalence of FI and the association of household FI with the health status of pediatric patients seen at a Federally Qualified Health Center in New Jersey  which provides health care mainly for Latino patients. Patients were included if they were screened for FI at their well visits during a 4-month period following implementation of the 2-item screening tool recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared demographic ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Crib Distribution and Safe Sleep Educational Program to Reduce Risk of Sleep-Related Infant Death
AbstractTo increase access to safe infant sleep surfaces and reduce risk of sleep-related infant deaths, the Georgia Department of Public Health implemented a portable crib distribution and safe sleep educational program. The aim of this evaluation was to compare parental knowledge and practices related to infant sleep before and after receipt of the safe sleep educational program and crib. A prospective, matched pre- and post-test cohort design with a follow-up survey was utilized to evaluate changes in knowledge and practices. Female participants were recruited through the county health department and met the following c...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Reaching and Supporting At-Risk Community Based Seniors: Results of a Multi-church Partnership
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a nurse-led, church-based educational support group for “at-risk,” older African Americans on hospitalization and emergency department use. Study nurses enrolled 81 “at-risk” older adult members of ten churches. Participants completed a trifold pamphlet identifying personal health information and support, and they attended eight monthly education al/support group sessions in their church during the 10-month intervention. Study nurses completed a risk assessment interview with each senior both pre- and post-participation. The study nurs...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Retrospective Cohort Comparison of Fall Height in Children in the Greater Los Angeles Area: Targeting Populations for Injury Prevention
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine whether falls from significant height occur more frequently in young children. We conducted a 10-year (2004 –2014), comparative study using a retrospective cohort of 4713 children (
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Pertussis and the Minnesota State Fair: Demonstrating a Novel Setting for Efficiently Conducting Seroepidemiologic Studies
AbstractSeroepidemiologic studies, which measure serum antibody levels produced in response to infection and/or vaccination, can be valuable tools for gaining insight into population level dynamics of infectious diseases. However, because seroepidemiologic studies are expensive and logistically challenging, they are not routinely conducted for surveillance purposes. We have identified a novel venue, state fairgrounds, in which annual sera samples from a population may be rapidly collected with minimal recruitment expenses. We conducted a pilot pertussis seroepidemiologic study over the course of 3  days at the 2016 Mi...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Reaching Uninsured Overweight and Obese Children Through the FitKids Mobile Lifestyle Modification Program: Lessons Learned
AbstractThe US prevalence of childhood obesity remains high with ~  1 in five children diagnosed with obesity, and rates of obesity are likely higher in uninsured and Medicaid populations than in those with private insurance. To understand the impact of an obesity intervention, an established mobile clinic program conducted a study to determine whether a FitKids Mobile Lifestyle Modification Program could reach overweight and obese uninsured children. Eighty-six children (ages 8–18 years) participated in the FitKids study over two trial periods. The first trial consisted of four total visits, but subseque...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Development and Feasibility of a Community-Based, Culturally Flexible Colorectal Cancer Prevention Program
AbstractComprehensive cancer centers are an important community resource for cancer prevention education in their catchment areas. Colorectal cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States, making prevention a priority. Colorectal cancer prevention targets include lifestyle modifications that are influenced by cultural norms, such as diet change, physical activity and screening behavior. Cancer centers must tailor prevention efforts to multiethnic catchment areas. This paper describes the development and feasibility of a comprehensive cancer center ’s approach to community-based colore...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Exploring Health Beliefs Among Hispanic Adults with Prediabetes
AbstractDiabetes and prediabetes are increasing in prevalence, corresponding to epidemic rates of obesity. Hispanic adults with prediabetes are 1.7 times more likely than non-Hispanic whites to progress to diabetes. We set out to understand health beliefs of Hispanic adults and, with that knowledge, facilitate tailored messaging to promote patient activation and lifestyle change. Using the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes along with demographic and lifestyle intervention interest questions, a 34-question survey was mailed to a registry of Hispanic adults with a diagnosis of prediabetes and an HbA1c between 5....
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Introducing Students of Color to Health Sciences Research: An Evaluation of the Health Disparities Summer Internship Program
AbstractThe goal of this analysis is to assess the effectiveness of a summer program designed to introduce high school students of color to health disparities research. A total of 73 students (69.9% Black, 68.5% female and 80.6% either junior/senior) participated in the 4-week Health Disparities Summer Internship Program (HDSIP) during the years 2012 –2015. Students attended lectures covering topics such as health disparities, community-based participatory research (CBPR), immigrant health, and policy and advocacy. While working with community-based organizations, students gained hands-on experience related to issues...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Cancer Community Education in Somali Refugees in Nebraska
AbstractNebraska has one of the highest numbers of refugees per capita in the U.S. A high number of Somalis have resettled in Nebraska due to job opportunities and the low cost of living. In this paper, we report the process and the results of a cervical and breast cancer education program for Somali women conducted through a collaboration among public health, academia, and community entities. The curriculum was built to be suitable for the literacy level and cultural values of this community. Topics include female reproductive anatomy; breast and cervical cancer knowledge and screening; hepatitis C and liver cancer; and p...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Policy Implications and Research Recommendations: A Review of Hookah Use Among US College Students
AbstractThe rate of Hookah use among college students during the last decade is about 30%. Although college students perceive hookah use as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, hookah use increases the risk of disease and nicotine dependence, and therefore remains an area of concern. Presently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has little regulation for the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah. This review attempts to assess empirical literature relating to hookah use while focusing on the consequences for regulatory policy. PubMed (including MEDLINE 2010 –2017), PsycINFO, EBSCO, Scopus (El...
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Introducing Students of Color to Health Sciences Research: An Evaluation of the Health Disparities Summer Internship Program
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Source: Journal of Community Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research