Developmental stage-dependent deficits induced by embryonic ethanol exposure in zebrafish: A neurochemical analysis

Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological PsychiatryAuthor(s): Amanda Facciol, Celine Bailleul, Samuel Nguyen, Robert GerlaiAbstractFASD results from the developing fetus being exposed to alcohol, and is characterized by morphological, behavioural and cognitive deficits. However, the expression, severity and age of onset of these symptoms has been found to show variation. This variation may partly be due to the developmental stage at which alcohol reached the developing fetus. Previously, alcohol was shown to lead to significant concentration dependent behavioural as well as neurochemical changes detected in adult zebrafish when this substance was administered at 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) for 2 h. This alcohol exposure method arguably mimicked the milder, and more prevalent, forms of human FASD. However, whether the observed changes depended upon the developmental stage, i.e., the timing, of alcohol exposure has not been systematically analyzed. Here, we employ the same alcohol dosing regimen, where zebrafish eggs are immersed into 0% or 1% (vol/vol) alcohol for 2 h, but we perform the immersion at 5, 10, 16, 24, 36, or 48 hpf. We previously developed a sensitive HPLC method to quantify neurochemicals, and found levels of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites DOPAC and 5-HIAA to be affected by embryonic alcohol treatment. Here, using the same method, we compare whole-brain levels of these neuroch...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Abstract In 2012, a collaborative research program was initiated to assess the prevalence of the full range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in representative populations from four distinct regions of the United States. This issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (April 2020; Vol 44:4) presents the findings from three of the four regions: Southeast, Midwest, and Rocky Mountains. The results from the Southwest, the fourth region, were published in an earlier issue of this journal (Chambers et al., 2019). PMID: 32090350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: Identifying these predictive factors will allow the design of more effective fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention strategies.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Mela M, Flannigan K, Anderson T, Nelson M, Krishnan S, Chizea C, Takahashi S, Sanjanwala R Abstract Individuals with a history of offending behavior show high rates of mental disorder as well as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Neurocognitive impairments are common in both mental disorders and FASD and may interface with offending behavior. Understanding these impairments could effectively inform clinical considerations among this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the life experiences and examine the neurocognitive profile of a group of adult forensic psychiatric outpatients....
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law - Category: Medical Law Tags: J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Source Type: research
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) affects many aspects of physiology and behavior, including brain development. Specifically, ethanol can influence expression of genes important for brain growth, including chromatin modifiers. Ethanol can also increase apoptotic cell death in the brain and alter epigenetic profiles such as modifications to histones and DNA methylation. Although differential sex outcomes and disruptions to the function of multiple brain regions have been reported in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the majority of our knowledge on molecular epigenetic and apoptotic dysregulation in PAE is based on data...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can generate a multitude of deficits in the offspring. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, or FASD, describe a palette of potentially life-long phenotypes that result from exposure to ethanol during human gestation. There is no cure for FASD and cognitive-behavioral therapies typically have low success rates, especially in severe cases. The neocortex, responsible for complex cognitive and behavioral function, is altered by prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE). Supplementation with choline, an essential nutrient, during the prenatal ethanol insult has been associa...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
(University of Rochester) Children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) -- caused by prenatal alcohol exposure -- often face lifelong developmental, cognitive and behavioral problems. But the children are not the only ones who struggle; often their parents and caretakers do, too. A new study by University of Rochester researchers examines how FASD caregivers' perceived confidence in and the frequency of self-care is related to stress, parenting attitudes, and family needs.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
ConclusionsCaregivers use a variety of strategies and face significant obstacles in self-care. Confidence in self-care may be associated with lower stress and greater satisfaction in the parenting role.
Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The results of the current study indicate that FAS and FASD are prevalent disorders in Brazil, and more policies targeting alcohol intake during pregnancy must be developed. PMID: 31984499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Brian A. Coffman, Felicha T. Candelaria-Cook, Julia M. StephenAbstractWhile it is generally accepted that structural and functional brain deficits underlie the behavioral deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the degree to which these problems are expressed in sensory pathology is unknown. Electrophysiological measures indicate that neural processing is delayed in visual and auditory domains. Furthermore, multiple reports of white matter deficits due to prenatal alcohol exposure indicate altered cortical connectivit...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2020Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 72Author(s): Daniel E. Lidstone, Faria Z. Miah, Brach Poston, Julie F. Beasley, Janet S. DufekAbstractBackgroundPostural control deficits are commonly reported in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, identification of specific postural sway features that differentiate ASD from other neurodevelopmental disorders has not been examined. The current study employs a cross-syndrome approach by comparing postural sway area and direction-specific features of sway magnitude, sway velocity, and sway complexity between children with AS...
Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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