Anatomical variations of the ciliary ganglion with an emphasis on the location in the orbit

AbstractThe ciliary ganglion is of outmost physiological importance, due to its involvement in pupillary light reflex circuits. The ciliary ganglion may be damaged during surgical procedures. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the anatomical variations of the ganglion with an emphasis in location in the orbit. Anatomical variations of the parasympathetic root of the ganglion were also examined and classified. 40 orbits were dissected. The orbital content was removed en bloc. The lateral rectus muscle was detached from its insertion and reflected. After the removal of the orbital fat, the ciliary ganglion was visualized. Then, the morphology, roots and location of the ganglion were assessed. The location of the ciliary ganglion varied from 17 to 83.7% (mean  = 51.4%, median = 53%, SD 14.8%) of the distance between the point of the optic nerve emerging from the eyeball and the common tendinous ring (counting from the front). In most cases (55%) it was found between 50.1 and 75% of the distance between the back of the eye and the common tendinous ring, while in 37.5% of cases it was found between 25 and 50% of this distance. The parasympathetic root of the ciliary ganglion was variable. Its origin was from the nerve to the inferior oblique muscle in most of cases. In four cases (10%), the parasympathetic root of the ciliary ganglion was dup licated. The ciliary ganglion occupies a variable position with regards to the optic nerve. The para...
Source: Anatomical Science International - Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

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ConclusionsNIR fluorescence imaging with ICG for identifying sympathetic ganglions is relatively safe and feasible.
Source: Thoracic Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Subcutaneous nerve stimulation (ScNS) remodels the stellate ganglion and reduces stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) in dogs. Acute myocardial infarction (MI) increases SGNA through nerve sprouting.
Source: Heart Rhythm - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, prior heat exposure plays an inhibitory role in modifying the exaggeration of the exercise pressor reflex in PAD and a reduction of the activity of the P2X receptor pathway is likely a part of mechanisms leading to the beneficial effects of HT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 32052864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Authors: Chen JY, Kubo A, Shinoda M, Okada-Ogawa A, Imamura Y, Iwata K Abstract Although xerostomia can cause persistent oral pain, the mechanisms underlying such pain are not well understood. To evaluate whether a phosphorylated p38 (pp38)-TRPV4 mechanism in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons has a role in mechanical hyperalgesia of dry tongue, a rat model of dry tongue was used to study the nocifensive reflex and pp38 and TRPV4 expression in TG neurons. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold for mechanical stimulation of the tongue was significantly lower in dry-tongue rats than in sham rats. The numbers of TRPV4- an...
Source: Journal of oral science - Category: Dentistry Tags: J Oral Sci Source Type: research
Abstract Carotid body (CB) Type I cells sense the blood pO2 and generate a nervous signal for stimulating ventilation and circulation when blood oxygen levels decline. Three oxygen sensing enzyme complexes may be used for this purpose: 1) mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolism, 2) heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2) generating CO and/or 3) an NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX). We hypothesize that intracellular redox changes are the link between the sensor and nervous signals. To test this hypothesis Type I cell autofluorescence of flavoproteins (Fp) and NAD(P)H within the mouse CB ex vivo was recorded as Fp/(Fp+NAD(P)H) redox ...
Source: Am J Physiol Cell Ph... - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Source Type: research
Refractory ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) carry high mortality rates despite electrical and pharmacologic therapy utilization. These patients often require aggressive hemodynamic support, including mechanical circulatory devices such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation because of progressive hemodynamic and metabolic deterioration. Sympathetic nervous system stimulation and neuronal remodeling after myocardial insults have been implicated as drivers of refractory VAs. This understanding has led to interest in and a growing body of experience with percutaneous blockade of the stellate ganglion as a means of interrupting t...
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Conclusions: Sympathetic nerves contribute to the homing and survival of hypertension-specific TEM cells in the bone marrow after they are formed in hypertension. Inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity and β2AR blockade reduces these cells and prevents the blood pressure elevation and renal inflammation upon re-exposure to hypertension stimuli. PMID: 31928179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation Research - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circ Res Source Type: research
Abstract Membrane lipids are key determinants in the regulation of voltage-gated ion channels. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a native membrane phospholipid, has been involved in the maintenance of the current amplitude and in the voltage-independent regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). However, the nature of the PIP2 regulation on VGCC has not been fully elucidated. This work aimed to investigate whether the interacting PIP2 electrostatic charges may account for maintaining the current amplitude of CaV2.2 channels. Furthermore, we tested whether charge shielding of PIP2 mimics the v...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research
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Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Pain Medicine Source Type: forums
AbstractThe motor outflow for the pupillary light reflex originates in the preganglionic motoneuron subdivision of the Edinger –Westphal nucleus (EWpg), which also mediates lens accommodation. Despite their importance for vision, the morphology, ultrastructure and luminance-related inputs of these motoneurons have not been fully described in primates. In macaque monkeys, we labeled EWpg motoneurons from ciliary ganglion a nd orbital injections. Both approaches indicated preganglionic motoneurons occupy an EWpg organized as a unitary, ipsilateral cell column. When tracers were placed in the pretectal complex, labeled ...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - Category: Anatomy Source Type: research
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