Long-acting injectable therapy: an emerging paradigm for the treatment of HIV infection
Purpose of review Long-acting formulations of antiretrovirals have the potential to reshape the treatment paradigm for HIV infection. Emerging evidence demonstrates efficacy and safety of two drug regimens for the treatment of HIV infection. This review focuses on recent advances with long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine administered intramuscularly every 4 weeks for the treatment of HIV infection in virologically suppressed patients. Recent findings Despite the development of complete, orally administered single tablet regimens with improved efficacy, side effects, tolerability, with an improved drug interaction potential, patients still have challenges adhering to daily oral therapy. Psychological factors including HIV stigma contribute to patient's ability to adhere to treatment. Newer nonoral treatment regimens may improve adherence, patient satisfaction and limit HIV stigma. Summary A two-drug intramuscular regimen of cabotegravir and rilpivirine has advanced through phase 3 clinical development. Results from studies assessing safety, virologic, pharmacologic, and drug interactions have been completed. Larger efficacy studies have demonstrated noninferiority of switching virologically suppressed patients from a three drug daily oral regimen to a two-drug intramuscular regimen administered Q4W with long-term data to 160 weeks demonstrating durability of treatment response.
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical EngineeringAuthor(s): Julian Andres Ramirez-Bautista, Jorge Adalberto Huerta-Ruelas, László T. Kóczy, Miklós F. Hatwágner, Silvia L. Chaparro-Cárdenas, Antonio Hernández-ZavalaAbstractLoad distribution analysis on foot surface allows knowing human mechanical behavior and aids the doctor in the detection of gait disorders like, the risk of foot ulcerations, leg discrepancy, and footprint alterations. Plantar pressure data combined with techniques that use integral reasoning produce easy un...
On this episode of ASHA Voices, we dive into the research behind hearing loss reversal. While investigating a genetic form of hearing loss affecting transduction, researcher Jeff Holt found he could successfully reverse hearing loss in mice. How did the researcher test the rodents’ hearing? By unexpectedly playing loud music and looking for a response in the subjects, nicknamed Beethoven mice. “A deaf mouse doesn’t jump at all, no matter how loud a sound you play. But after introducing our gene therapy into the ears of Beethoven mice, we find they jump again,” says Holt. Also on the show, sens...
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We described ART initiation characteristics and the probability of mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and transfer out after 6 months on ART and assessed factors associated with mortality and LTFU. Results: A total of 1847 infants started ART at a median age of 60 days [interquartile range: 29–77] and CD4 percentage (%) of 27% (18%–38%). Across ART initiation calendar periods 2006–2009 to 2013–2017, ART initiation age decreased from 68 (53–81) to 45 days (7–71) (P