Visualization of HIV-1 reservoir: an imaging perspective
Purpose of review The persistence of HIV-1-infected cells, despite the introduction of the combinatorial antiretroviral therapy, is a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Understanding the nature of HIV reservoir will lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the functional cure or eradication of the virus. In this review, we will update the recent development in imaging applications toward HIV-1/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viral reservoirs research and highlight some of their limitations. Recent findings CD4 T cells are the primary target of HIV-1/SIV and the predominant site for productive and latent re...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - June 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV RESERVOIR: Edited by Matthieu Perreau and Konstantinos Petrovas Source Type: research

Assessing proviral competence: current approaches to evaluate HIV-1 persistence
Purpose of review Despite decades of suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 reservoirs persist and fuel viral rebound if therapy is interrupted. The persistence of viral reservoirs in infected individuals is the main obstacle to achieving HIV-1 eradication or a long-term remission. Accurate assessment of the viral reservoir size is necessary for monitoring the effectiveness of the curative interventions. Here, we review the recent progress in the development of assays to measure HIV-1 persistence, highlighting their key advantages and limitations. Recent findings To estimate the viral reservoir size, a ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - June 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV RESERVOIR: Edited by Matthieu Perreau and Konstantinos Petrovas Source Type: research

“Go”, “No Go,” or “Where to Go”; does microbiota dictate T cell exhaustion, programming, and HIV persistence?
Purpose of review People living with HIV who fail to fully reconstitute CD4+T cells after combination antiretroviral therapy therapy (i.e. immune nonresponders or INRs) have higher frequencies of exhausted T cells are enriched in a small pool of memory T cells where HIV persists and have an abundance of plasma metabolites of bacterial and host origins. Here, we review the current understanding of critical features of T cell exhaustion associated with HIV persistence; we propose to develop novel strategies to reinvigorate the effector function of exhausted T cells with the aim of purging the HIV reservoir. Recent fin...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - June 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV RESERVOIR: Edited by Matthieu Perreau and Konstantinos Petrovas Source Type: research

HIV persistence in lymph nodes
Purpose of review HIV persists in distinct cellular and anatomical compartments in the body including blood, Central nervous system, and lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph nodes [LNs], gut-associated lymphoid tissue) by diverse mechanisms despite antiretroviral therapy. Within LNs, human and animal studies have highlighted that a specific CD4 T cell subset - called T follicular helper cells locating in B cell follicles is enriched in cells containing replication-competent HIV as compared to extra-follicular CD4 T cells. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to focus on the potential mechanisms allowing HIV to ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - June 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV RESERVOIR: Edited by Matthieu Perreau and Konstantinos Petrovas Source Type: research

Eliminating HIV reservoirs for a cure: the issue is in the tissue
Purpose of review Advances in antiretroviral therapy have saved numerous lives, converting a diagnosis with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) from a death sentence into the possibility for a (nearly) normal life in many instances. However, the obligation for lifelong adherence, increased risk of accumulated co-morbidities, and continued lack of uniform availability around the globe underscores the need for an HIV cure. Safe and scalable HIV cure strategies remain elusive, in large part due to the presence of viral reservoirs in which caches of infected cells remain hidden from immune elimination, primarily within ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - June 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV RESERVOIR: Edited by Matthieu Perreau and Konstantinos Petrovas Source Type: research

The active human immunodeficiency virus reservoir during antiretroviral therapy: emerging players in viral persistence
Purpose of review To discuss the role of CD4+ T cells with active Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), meaning infected cells with transcriptional and/or translational viral activity during antiretroviral therapy (ART), focusing on new technologies for its detection, potential cell markers for its characterization, and evidences on the contribution of the active HIV reservoir to long-term viral persistence. Recent findings HIV-infected cells expressing viral ribonucleic acid are systematically detected in subjects on long-term ART. In recent years, powerful new tools have provided significant insights into the na...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - June 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV RESERVOIR: Edited by Matthieu Perreau and Konstantinos Petrovas Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - June 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

What's new in bone disease and fractures in HIV?
Purpose of review People living with HIV (PWH) are at greater risk of low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures compared to the general population. This narrative review summarises recent literature in the field, including the relative contribution of antiretroviral therapy and frailty to low BMD and fractures in PWH. Recent findings The body of evidence indicating less impact on BMD from the use of tenofovir alafenamide compared to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate continues to grow, although this has not yet translated into data supporting a reduction in fracture incidence. Frailty, common in PWH, is associated...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Mechanisms and primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV
Purpose of review To highlight mechanisms of elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) among people living with HIV (PLWH), discuss therapeutic strategies, and opportunities for primary prevention. Recent findings HIV-associated ASCVD risk is likely multifactorial and due to HIV-specific factors and traditional risk factors even in the setting of treated and suppressed HIV disease. Although a growing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and immune activation are key drivers of atherogenesis, therapies designed to lower inflammation including colchicine and low-dose methotrexate have ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Clinical consequences of asymptomatic cytomegalovirus in treated human immunodeficency virus infection
Purpose of review Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART)-mediated viral suppression, people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PWH) have increased morbidity and mortality. Immune activation and inflammation persist on ART and predict these complications. Over 90% of PWH have cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection, and CMV is considered a plausible contributor to this persistent immune activation. Recent findings A detailed understanding of the link between CMV and multimorbidity is needed, particularly as research moves toward identifying potential targeted therapeutics to attenuate inflammation-mediated morbidi...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Current co-morbidities burden in patients living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries
Purpose of review The present review aims to decipher common co-morbidities faced by people living with HIV in low- to middle-income countries, and in particular the sub-Saharan region, which hosts the majority of the HIV burden worldwide. Recent findings Well-controlled chronic HIV disease is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This is partly due to the natural aging process, however recent studies show that using antiretroviral therapy as well as the HIV disease itself may be predisposing factors to the development of cardiovascular diseases, creating a new burden f...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Recent advances in HIV-associated chronic lung disease clinical research
Purpose of review To highlight recently published, clinically focused research on chronic lung disease in adult persons with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) (PWH). Recent findings Chronic lung disease was the most common comorbidity in hospitalized PWH in New York and second-most common condition in ambulatory PWH in Canada. The elevated risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in PWH has been widely recognized, but PWH are also at higher risk for asthma and worse asthma outcomes. Expanded assessments of lung structure and function, such as single-breath diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO), ex...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Communicable and noncommunicable liver disease in HIV
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to highlight the profound changes in the cause in chronic liver disease in HIV-infected individuals. Recent findings Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been transformed into a curable viral infection by highly effective treatments. This has resulted in elimination of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected individuals at least in resource-rich settings. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has become a chronic infection, which is easily controlled by long-term therapy with HBV polymerase inhibitors. As a result, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has gained clinical importance. The obesity...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Impact of Integrase inhibitors and tenofovir alafenamide on weight gain in people with HIV
Purpose of review Obesity is increasing in people with HIV (PWH). This review aims to summarise the recent evidence investigating the associations between the use of integrase inhibitors and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) with weight gain and the mechanisms by which this may occur. Understanding the role that antiretroviral therapies play in promoting weight gain is critical in making informed treatment decisions. Recent findings Weight gain is common with antiretroviral therapies and can lead to significant medical complications for PWH. Antiretroviral regimens containing an integrase inhibitor in conjunction with...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Recent data on adipose tissue, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidaemia in antiretroviral therapy controlled HIV-infected persons
Purpose of review Increased total body fat with truncal redistribution is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled persons living with HIV(PLWH), leading to insulin resistance, prediabetes/diabetes and dyslipidaemia. We address these topics here. Recent findings Most antiretrovirals are associated with gain in trunk fat, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Protease-inhibitors could inhibit white fat ability to dissipate energy (i.e. beiging) favouring fat gain. Expansion of VAT is associated with a pro-inflammatory profile linked to the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and CD4+ subtypes. ART-associate...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Frailty: the current challenge for aging people with HIV
Purpose of review Older adults account for the majority of people with HIV (PWH) in high-income countries and have increasingly complex clinical profiles related to premature aging. Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome affecting a minority of PHW. Frailty negatively affects PHW's clinical status and quality of life. This review will update care providers on the current state of frailty that limits the healthspan of PWH. Recent findings Ongoing low-level HIV replication in treated PWH leads to immune activation and chronic inflammation contributing to the destabilization of normally autoregulated physiologi...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV-ASSOCIATED CO-MORBIDITIES: Edited by Morris Schambelan and Todd T. Brown Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - May 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Ten-year survival with analysis of gender difference, risk factors, and causes of death during 13 years of public antiretroviral therapy in rural Kenya: Republication
Evidence for why antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes differ by gender in developing countries has been inconclusive. In this first study to assess 10-year survival on ART in Kenya, our objective was to compare gender differences in survival for those who began ART as adults and as children. Kakamega County Referral Hospital (KCRH) is a tertiary rural hospital that has provided public ART to Kenyans since 2004. All patients enrolled in ART at KCRH who died between July 2004 and March 2017 and a sample of living patients were included in a survival analysis that bootstrapped sampled data. Case–cohort regressions iden...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES: Edited by Steven G. Deeks Source Type: research

Potential and demonstrated impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexually transmissible infections: Republication
Purpose of review This review considers the potential and demonstrated impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the sexually transmissible infection (STI)/HIV transmission. Recent findings COVID-19 increases the vulnerability of those at highest risk of acquiring STI/HIV. Altered health-seeking behaviour, reductions in STI/HIV clinic capacity, service disruptions and redeployment of human resources to assist COVID-19 control efforts have impacted on STI/HIV control programmes. Reports of reduced STI incidence are emerging, but it is hard to determine whether this is real or due to decreased testing during COVID-19 lockdown peri...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES: Edited by Steven G. Deeks Source Type: research

Risks of metabolic syndrome and diabetes with integrase inhibitor-based therapy: Republication
This article comprehensively reviews recent available evidence weight gain and the risks of metabolic syndrome and diabetes associated with INSTIs. Recent findings Recent evidence continues to contribute to the evidence for weight gain associated with INSTIs, especially when used with newer nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). Although the literature suggests a neutral effect on lipids, there is evidence that INSTIs are associated with metabolic syndrome due to treatment-emergent obesity. The literature for short-term treatment-emergent diabetes and insulin resistance remains inco...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES: Edited by Steven G. Deeks Source Type: research

Long-acting injectable HIV therapies: the next frontier: Republication
Purpose of review There has been significant development of long-acting injectable therapy for the management of HIV in recent years that has the potential to revolutionise HIV care as we know it. This review summarises the data and outlines the potential challenges in the field of long-acting antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings In recent years, monthly and two monthly long-acting injectable ART in the form of cabotegravir and rilpivirine has shown safety and efficacy in large-scale phase 3 randomised control trials. Also, agents with novel mechanisms of action, such as Lenacapavir, have been tested in...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES: Edited by Steven G. Deeks Source Type: research

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for HIV cure
Purpose of review Cell-based immunotherapies have made enormous progress over the last decade with the approval of several anti-CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies for haemato-oncological diseases. CARs are synthetic receptors comprising an antigen-specific extracellular domain fused to a hinge, transmembrane and intracellular signalling domains. The success obtained with CD19 CAR-T cells rekindled interest in using CAR-T cells to treat HIV seropositive patients. The purpose of this review is to discuss historical and recent developments of anti-HIV CARs. Recent findings Since the first descrip...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES: Edited by Steven G. Deeks Source Type: research

Advances in cell and gene therapy for HIV disease: it is good to be specific
Purpose of review Tremendous advances in cell and gene therapy may soon realize the goal of treating and possibly curing HIV disease. These advances rely on new technologies for cell engineering and new strategies for product manufacturing that are targeting the most important immune deficits in HIV and promising to reconstitute protective, antiviral immunity and achieve natural suppression of HIV disease. Recent findings We summarize important advances in vectored passive immunity, e.g., directing in vivo expression of protective antibodies or antiviral proteins, B cell engineering to overcome the inadequate hu...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES: Edited by Steven G. Deeks Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - March 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Structural basis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection
Purpose of review The spike glycoprotein plays a critical role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by recognizing the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and mediating fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. It is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccines. This review summarizes recent studies on the structure and function of spike glycoprotein, which revealed the structural basis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recent findings SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, similar to those of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

The interplay between HIV and COVID-19: summary of the data and responses to date
Conclusion COVID-19 is threatening gains against the HIV epidemic, including the U.S. Ending the HIV Epidemic goals. The ongoing collision of these two global pandemics will continue to need both study and interventions to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on HIV efforts worldwide. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

The first 6 months of HIV-SARS-CoV-2 coinfection: outcomes for 6947 individuals
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to summarize the clinical outcomes of people living with HIV (PWH) coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent findings Several reports from single centers have described increased, decreased, or no difference in outcomes of COVID-19 in PWH. These studies have come from a range of locations, each with different underlying HIV prevalence and access to various antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Differences in healthcare quality, access and policies may also affect reported outcomes in PWH across different locations, making ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

Hidden in plain sight: sex and gender in global pandemics
Purpose of review The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory virus coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a male bias in mortality likely driven by both gender and sex-based differences between male and female individuals. This is consistent with sex and gender-based features of HIV infection and overlap between the two diseases will highlight potential mechanistic pathways of disease and guide research questions and policy interventions. In this review, the emerging findings from SARS-CoV-2 infection will be placed in the context of sex and gender research in the more mature HIV epidemic. Recent findings ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

The single-cell landscape of immunological responses of CD4+ T cells in HIV versus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Purpose of review CD4+ T cell loss is the hallmark of uncontrolled HIV-1 infection. Strikingly, CD4+ T cell depletion is a strong indicator for disease severity in the recently emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We reviewed recent single-cell immune profiling studies in HIV-1 infection and COVID-19 to provide critical insight in virus-induced immunopathogenesis. Recent findings Cytokine dysregulation in HIV-1 leads to chronic inflammation, while severe SARS-CoV-2 infection induces cytokine release syndrome and increased m...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

COVID-19 antibody development fueled by HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody research
Purpose of review The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caught the world unprepared, with no prevention or treatment strategies in place. In addition to the efforts to develop an effective vaccine, alternative approaches are essential to control this pandemic, which will most likely require multiple readily available solutions. Among them, monoclonal anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies have been isolated by multiple laboratories in record time facilitated by techniques that were first pioneered for HIV-1 antibody discovery. Here, we summarize how lessons learned f...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology in the HIV and SARS-CoV-2 pandemics
Purpose of review The aim of this review was to compare and contrast the application of molecular epidemiology approaches for the improved management and understanding of the HIV versus SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. Recent findings Molecular biology approaches, including PCR and whole genome sequencing (WGS), have become powerful tools for epidemiological investigation. PCR approaches form the basis for many high-sensitivity diagnostic tests and can supplement traditional contact tracing and surveillance strategies to define risk networks and transmission patterns. WGS approaches can further define the causative agents ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

Adaptation of advanced clinical virology assays from HIV-1 to SARS-CoV-2
Purpose of review In response to the HIV–AIDS pandemic, great strides have been made in developing molecular methods that accurately quantify nucleic acid products of HIV-1 at different stages of viral replication and to assess HIV-1 sequence diversity and its effect on susceptibility to small molecule inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. Here, we review how knowledge gained from these approaches, including viral RNA quantification and sequence analyses, have been rapidly applied to study SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent findings Recent studies have shown detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

Editorial: On two fronts: synergies and costs at the interface of responses to two global viral pandemics
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID/HIV: Edited by R. Brad Jones Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - December 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine development utilizing promising technology
Purpose of review Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic pneumonia-causing disease, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, resulting in millions of deaths globally. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may coexist with human populations for a long time. Therefore, high-effective COVID-19 vaccines are an urgent need. Recent findings Vaccines help in the development of long-lasting humoral or cellular immunity, or both, by exposing individuals to antigens that induce an immunological response and memory prior to infections with live pathogens. N...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID19: Edited by Zhiwei Chen and Linqui Zhang Source Type: research

Early diagnosis and population prevention of coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review To discuss the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by nucleic acid and antibody testing as well as its contribution to mitigating the spread of coronavirus disease 2019. Recent findings Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is the firstly developed and most widely used diagnostic technique for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA NAT assays is always unsatisfactory, mainly due to insufficient viral RNA in samples, especially when upper respiratory samples were used. Compared with NAT assays, serological tests are more convenient and les...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID19: Edited by Zhiwei Chen and Linqui Zhang Source Type: research

HIV care during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic in Shenzhen, China
This article share the experience unprecedented from Shenzhen. We have to adapt our care and service to continue to engage PLWH to avoid poor outcomes. More research is needed to know the long-term implications of pandemic for the health of PLWH. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID19: Edited by Zhiwei Chen and Linqui Zhang Source Type: research

Treatment of coronavirus disease 2019
Purpose of review Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and potentially lethal pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). No specific antiviral treatment is currently available. The purpose of this review is to highlight the main repurposed drug treatments with in-vitro or in-vivo efficacy against the SARS-CoV-2. Recent findings Recent clinical trials suggested remdesivir, IFN-β-1b and favipiravir have potential clinical and/or virological benefits on patients with COVID-19. Short course of stress dose of corticosteroids might be used as adjunctive tr...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID19: Edited by Zhiwei Chen and Linqui Zhang Source Type: research

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic: how does it spread and how do we stop it?
Purpose of review The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health threat associated with major socioeconomic disruptions. Understanding on the transmission characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for optimizing preventive strategies. Recent findings SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted efficiently between persons through respiratory droplets and direct and indirect contact. The significance of airborne droplet nuclei in SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the community setting is less clear. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and live viral particles ma...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID19: Edited by Zhiwei Chen and Linqui Zhang Source Type: research

Editorial: The battle for survival between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and human beings
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: COVID19: Edited by Zhiwei Chen and Linqui Zhang Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - October 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Roles of fragment crystallizable-mediated effector functions in broadly neutralizing antibody activity against HIV
Purpose of review ‘Broadly neutralizing antibodies’ (bNAbs), are rare HIV-specific antibodies which exhibit the atypical ability to potently neutralize diverse viral isolates. While efforts to elicit bNAbs through vaccination have yet to succeed, recent years have seen remarkable preclinical and clinical advancements of passive immunization approaches targeting both HIV prevention and cure. We focus here on the potential to build upon this success by moving beyond neutralization to additionally harness the diverse effector functionalities available to antibodies via fragment crystallizable-effector (Fc) funct...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIBODY STRATEGIES IN HIV PREVENTION AND CURE: Edited by Mattia Bonsignori and Marina Caskey Source Type: research

Broadly neutralizing antibodies combined with latency-reversing agents or immune modulators as strategy for HIV-1 remission
Purpose of review Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is extremely effective in controlling HIV-1 infection; however, ART is not curative. Here, we review broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) combined with latency-reversing agents (LRAs) or immune modulators as strategy for achieving long-term HIV-1 remission. Recent findings Clinical trials testing the effect of a single intervention such as a LRA ‘shock and kill’, immune modulator or bNAbs among HIV-1 infected individuals on long-term suppressive ART have not lead to long-term HIV-1 remission when ART is stopped. Novel combinations of intervention...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIBODY STRATEGIES IN HIV PREVENTION AND CURE: Edited by Mattia Bonsignori and Marina Caskey Source Type: research

Opening the HIV envelope: potential of CD4 mimics as multifunctional HIV entry inhibitors
Purpose of review Close to 2 million individuals globally become infected with HIV-1 each year and just over two-thirds will have access to life-prolonging antivirals. However, the rapid development of drug resistance creates challenges, such that generation of more effective therapies is not only warranted but a necessary endeavour. This review discusses a group of HIV-1 entry inhibitors known as CD4 mimics which exploit the highly conserved relationship between the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and the receptor, CD4. Recent findings We review the structure/function guided evolution of these inhibitors, vital mechanist...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIBODY STRATEGIES IN HIV PREVENTION AND CURE: Edited by Mattia Bonsignori and Marina Caskey Source Type: research

Engineering antibody-based molecules for HIV treatment and cure
Purpose of review Immunotherapy strategies alternative to current antiretroviral therapies will need to address viral diversity while increasing the immune system's ability to efficiently target the latent virus reservoir. Antibody-based molecules can be designed based on broadly neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies that target free virions and infected cells. These multispecific molecules, either by IgG-like or non-IgG-like in structure, aim to target several independent HIV-1 epitopes and/or engage effector cells to eliminate the replicating virus and infected cells. This detailed review is intended to stimulat...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIBODY STRATEGIES IN HIV PREVENTION AND CURE: Edited by Mattia Bonsignori and Marina Caskey Source Type: research

Recent insights into Fc-mediated effector responses to HIV-1
Purpose of review Recent work defining Fc-mediated effector functions for both viral control and protection against infection is summarized and considered along with new strategies to drive robust Fc-mediated responses. Recent findings In new human and nonhuman primate (NHP) vaccine trials as well as studies of natural infection, Fc-mediated effector responses have sometimes been observed to correlate with decreased risk of infection or with better clinical outcomes, suggesting a potential role for these responses in HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent highlights include use of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicit...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIBODY STRATEGIES IN HIV PREVENTION AND CURE: Edited by Mattia Bonsignori and Marina Caskey Source Type: research

Advances in simian--human immunodeficiency viruses for nonhuman primate studies of HIV prevention and cure
Purpose of review Simian--human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs), chimeric viruses that encode HIV-1 Env within an SIV backbone, are key reagents for nonhuman primate studies of antibody-based vaccines, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), and other Env-targeting reagents. Here, we discuss the provenance and characteristics of currently relevant SHIVs, novel technical advances, recent discoveries enabled by SHIV challenge studies, and the continued development of SHIVs for persistence and cure experiments. Recent findings SHIV SF162P3, SHIV AD8EO, and transmitter/founder SHIVs with Env375 mutations are now common ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIBODY STRATEGIES IN HIV PREVENTION AND CURE: Edited by Mattia Bonsignori and Marina Caskey Source Type: research

Hitting the sweet spot: exploiting HIV-1 glycan shield for induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies
Purpose of review The surface of the HIV-1 Env glycoprotein, the target of neutralizing antibodies, is extensively covered by N-linked glycans that create a glycan shield. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), the primary targets of HIV-1 vaccine design, have to negotiate this glycan shield. Here, we review the barriers and opportunities that the HIV-1 glycan shield presents for vaccine induction of bNAbs. Recent findings Glycan shields can impact the nature of the antibody response and influence the development of neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infections. The architecture of the glycan shield arising from glycan...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIBODY STRATEGIES IN HIV PREVENTION AND CURE: Edited by Mattia Bonsignori and Marina Caskey Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - August 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Global public health efforts to address HIV and related communicable disease syndemics
Purpose of review To review recent progress in public health efforts to address HIV, and the extent to which key approaches can be applied to three key epidemics that commonly co-occur with HIV: TB, viral hepatitis, and STIs. Recent findings The public health approach to tackling HIV in low-income and middle-income settings relied on standardized treatment regimens and monitoring approaches, task sharing and community involvement, and decentralized and integrated service delivery. These approaches can all be applied to three key epidemics that commonly co-occur with HIV: TB, viral hepatitis, and STIs. Summary HIV, ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - June 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV SYNDEMICS: Edited by Kenneth H. Mayer Source Type: research