Advances and applications of environmental stress adaptation research

Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular &Integrative PhysiologyAuthor(s): Liam J. Hawkins, Kenneth B. StoreyAbstractEvolution has produced animals that survive extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions including freezing temperatures, anoxia, desiccating conditions, and prolonged periods without food. For example, the wood frog survives whole-body freezing every winter, arresting all gross physiological functions, but recovers functions upon thawing in the spring. Likewise, many small mammals hibernate for months at a time with minimal metabolic activity, organ perfusion, and movement, yet do not suffer significant muscle atrophy upon arousal. These conditions and the biochemical adaptations employed to deal with them can be viewed as Nature’s answer to problems that humans wish to answer, particularly in a biomedical context. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of animal environmental stress adaptation, starting with an emphasis on new areas of research such as epigenetics and microRNA. We then examine new and emerging technologies such as genome editing, novel sequencing applications, and single cell analysis and how these can push us closer to a deeper understanding of biochemical adaptation. Next, evaluate the potential contributions of new high-throughput technologies (e.g. next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry proteomics) to better understanding the adap...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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When used together, non-contrast simple CT and CT perfusion have higher prediction rates
Source: Diagnostic Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: CT Ischemic stroke Source Type: news
When used together, non-contrast simple CT and CT perfusion have higher prediction rates
Source: Diagnostic Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: CT Ischemic stroke Source Type: news
Publication date: February 2020Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 109, Issue 2Author(s): Elizabeth L. Norton, Xiaoting Wu, Linda Farhat, Karen M. Kim, Himanshu J. Patel, G. Michael Deeb, Bo YangBackgroundIt is controversial if extension of aortic dissection into arch branches should be an indication for replacement of the arch and its branches in acute type A aortic dissection.MethodsFrom 2008 to April 2018, 399 patients underwent open repair for an acute type A aortic dissection, and 190 patients had known innominate and/or left common carotid artery dissection without malperfusion syndrome, including no arch ...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Abstract Stroke is one of the world's most deadly pathologies, and the rate of stroke recurrence is high. However, due to the complex nature of ischemia and reperfusion injury, there is presently no reliable treatment. The main factors driving brain damage from ischemic stroke are neuronal cell death resulting from oxidative stress, inflammation, and failure of the blood brain barrier. While under normal conditions, the blood brain barrier acts as a selectively permeable membrane allowing solutes and other substances to pass into the tissues of the central nervous system, ischemia and reperfusion alter the express...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research
ConclusionA positive DWI-SWI mismatch is an indicator of the ischemic penumbra and a predictor of infarct expansion if left untreated.
Source: Insights into Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Sheen JJ, Kim YW Abstract Three randomized control trials (RCTs), published in 2013, investigated efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in large vessel occlusions and did not show better results compared to intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) alone. However, most clinicians treating stroke consider mechanical thrombectomy as the standard treatment rather than using IV tPA alone. This paradigm shift was based on five RCTs investigating efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke conducted from 2010 to 2015. They demonstrated that mechanical thrombectomy was ef...
Source: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Korean Neurosurg Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The collateral-based imaging paradigm using multiphase CTA compares well with CTP in selecting patients for endovascular thrombectomy in the late time window.
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: INTERVENTIONAL Source Type: research
Conclusions: There is no justification for the use of reperfusion procedures in acute ischaemic stroke in the anterior circulation in patients with initially unfavourable multimodal computed tomography scores. PMID: 31908703 [PubMed]
Source: Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques - Category: Surgery Tags: Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne Source Type: research
Low-dose aspirin reduces the frequency of adverse vascular events in those at increased risk of occlusive cardiovascular disease (CVD). People who benefit include those: with a history of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, unstable or stable angina, peripheral arterial disease, or atrial fibrillation (1). The pathophysiology of CVD risk contributes to cognitive decline through multiple pathways that include cerebral hypo-perfusion, hypoxia, hippocampal atrophy, emboli, or infarcts (2,3). However, the value of aspirin use in prevention of cognitive impairment remains uncertain since results relating to the influence o...
Source: Maturitas - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionAdding CTP and/or a delayed-phase CTA to NCCT with arterial-phase CTA improves the decision-maker ’s confidence level and creates a trend towards a lower threshold for mechanical thrombectomy.
Source: Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
More News: Biochemistry | Environmental Health | Ischemic Stroke | Perfusion | Physiology | Stroke