Differential gene expression patterns related to lipid metabolism in response to ocean acidification in larvae and juveniles of Atlantic cod.
Abstract Elevated environmental carbon dioxide (pCO2) levels have been found to cause organ damage in the early life stages of different commercial fish species, including Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). To illuminate the underlying mechanisms causing pathologies in the intestines, the kidney, the pancreas and the liver in response to elevated pCO2, we examined related gene expression patterns in Atlantic cod reared for two months under three different pCO2 regimes: 380 μatm (control), 1800 μatm (medium) and 4200 μatm (high). We extracted RNA from whole fish sampled during the larval (32 dph) and ear...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 24, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Frommel AY, Hermann BT, Michael K, Lucassen M, Clemmesen C, Hanel R, Reusch TBH Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Inferring cost of transport from whole-body kinematics in three sympatric turtle species with different locomotor habits.
This study examines the mechanical evidence for CoT in three turtle species that have differing degrees of terrestrial activity. Our results show that Apolone travels faster than the other two species, and that Chelydra has higher levels of yaw. All the species show poor mean levels of energy recovery, and, whilst there is considerable variation, never show the high levels of energy recovery seen in cursorial quadrupeds. The mean mechanical CoT is 2 to 4 times higher than is generally seen in terrestrial animals. We therefore find no mechanical support for a low CoT in these species. This study illustrates the need for res...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Sellers WI, Rose K, Crossley DA, Codd JR Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

The Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcgb is expendable for ammonia excretion and Na+ uptake in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Abstract In zebrafish (Danio rerio), the ammonia-transporting Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcgb is implicated in mechanisms of ammonia excretion and Na+ uptake. In particular, Rhcgb is thought to play an important role in maintaining ammonia excretion in response to alkaline conditions and high external ammonia (HEA) exposure, in addition to facilitating Na+ uptake via a functional metabolon with the Na+/H+-exchanger Nhe3b, specifically under low Na+ conditions. In the present study, we hypothesized that CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of rhcgb would reduce ammonia excretion and Na+ uptake capacity, particularly under the conditions...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Zimmer AM, Perry SF Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Short communication: Levels of land use and land cover in Phoenix, Arizona are associated with elevated plasma triglycerides in the Gambel's Quail, Callipepla gambelii.
Abstract Gambel's Quail, Callipepla gambelii, are gregarious birds commonly found in the southwestern deserts of the United States and Northwestern Mexico. With expanding urbanization, these birds are often found in exurban and suburban areas where they have access to food sources that may differ from those used by birds living in rural habitats and, as a result, also differ morphologically and physiologically. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the morphology and nutritional physiology of quail sampled at sites varying with respect to land use and cover. We hypothesized that quail living in more develope...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Funk A, Hutton P, Earl S, Deviche P, Sweazea K Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Digesta passage in common eland (Taurotragus oryx) on a monocot or a dicot diet.
L, Clauss M Abstract The way that fluids and particles move through the forestomach of a ruminant is species-specific, and can be used to classify ruminants according to their digestive physiology into 'moose-types' (with little difference in fluid and small particle passage) and 'cattle-types' (where fluids move through the forestomach much faster than small particles). So far, 'moose-types' appear limited to a dietary niche of browsing, whereas 'cattle-types' are particularly prominent in the intermediate and grazing diet niches. However, some species, including members of the spiral-horned antelopes (the Tragel...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Hejcmanová P, Ortmann S, Stoklasová L, Clauss M Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Oxyntomodulin induces satiety and activates the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in Japanese quail.
The objective was thus to determine the effects of OXM on food and water intake and hypothalamic physiology in Japanese quail. At 7 days post-hatch, 6-h-fasted quail were injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) or intraperitoneally (IP) with 0.32, 0.65, or 1.3 nmol of OXM. All doses decreased food intake for 180 min post-ICV injection. On a cumulative basis, water intake was not affected until 120 min, with the lowest and highest doses decreasing water intake after ICV injection. The two highest doses were anorexigenic when administered via the IP route, whereas all doses were anti-dipsogenic starting at 30 min ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 4, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Halter B, Chowdhury VS, Gilbert ER, Cline MA Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Multiple stressor responses are regulated by sirtuins in Mytilus congeners.
Abstract Understanding physiological tolerances of marine organisms to environmental stress is key to predicting species susceptability under climate change. Along the Pacific Coast of the U.S.A. intertidal mussel congeners (genus Mytilis) vary in their physiological stress tolerances, with the invasive M. galloprovincialis being heat tolerant but vulnerable to hyposalinity while the native M. trossulus is vulnerable to heat stress and tolerant of hyposalinity. Sirtuins, a family of NAD+-dependent deacylases, may influence the environmental stressor tolerances in these mussel congeners. The purpose of our study wa...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 4, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Vasquez MC, Martinez DA, Tomanek L Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Out-off season spawning affects the nutritional status and gene expression in both Atlantic salmon female broodstock and their offspring.
pe M Abstract The Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry relies on adjustments of female broodstock spawning season to meet the demand for delivery of embryos outside the natural spawning season. Earlier results from zebrafish have shown that parental micronutrient status program offspring metabolism. Therefore, the main hypothesis of this study was to investigate if out-off season (off-season) broodstock (spawning in June, in land-based recirculation systems) and their offspring deviate in micronutrient status when compared to broodstock and offspring from normal season. Both seasons of female Atlantic salmon brood...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Skjærven KH, Oveland E, Mommens M, Samori E, Saito T, Adam AC, Espe M Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

A four-week white bread diet does not alter plasma glucose concentrations, metabolic or vascular physiology in mourning doves, Zenaida macroura.
In conclusion, a four-week long white bread diet increased liver glycogen but did not alter plasma glucose concentrations, metabolic or vascular physiology in mourning doves. PMID: 32376459 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology.)
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - May 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Basile AJ, Jasbi P, Clark W, Shi X, Gu H, Deviche P, Sweazea KL Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Light-cardiogram, a simple technique for heart rate determination in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio.
Abstract Current techniques for heart rate determination in adult zebrafish require specialist expertise and are often invasive, technically challenging and not readily transferable to other laboratories for routine assessment. Here, we present a simple, noninvasive and inexpensive light-cardiogram technique to assess heart rate and frequency in adult zebrafish. Brightfield microscope paired with a high-resolution camera and ImageJ (an open source software) were employed as core recording and processing platforms respectively. The heart was visualised ventrally and located by juxtaposing an isosceles triangle betw...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 24, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Mousavi SE, Patil JG Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Mating status affects Drosophila lifespan, metabolism and antioxidant system.
Abstract In Drosophila melanogaster, lifespan and fitness traits were investigated as a function of mating status. Four mating protocols were used: virgin males and females, males and females allowed to copulate only once; males and females that had multiple copulations with one partner over the 5-day mating period; and polygamous males and females that had multiple copulations with different partners over the 5-day mating period. Virgin females had the longest lifespan, and polygamous females had the shortest lifespan, potentially due to injuries, infections or exposure to toxic accessory gland products obtained ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 24, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Koliada A, Gavrilyuk K, Burdylyuk N, Strilbytska O, Storey KB, Kuharskii V, Lushchak O, Vaiserman A Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Physiological benefits and latent effects of an algal-salamander symbiosis.
Abstract Embryos of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw) and the uni-cellular green alga Oophila amblystomatis (Lambert ex Wille) have evolved a resource exchange mutualism. Whereas some of the benefits of the symbiosis to embryos are known, the physiological limitations of the relationship to embryos and carry over or latent effects on larvae are not. To determine the impact of the relationship across life history stages, we measured the growth, survival, and metabolic rate in response to hypoxia of salamander embryos reared under 0-h light (algae absent), 14-h light (control - algae present, fluctuating lig...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Small DP, Bishop CD Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) acclimated to different tropical waters from the Amazon basin shows specific acute-stress responses.
This study described primary and secondary stress responses after air exposure including plasma cortisol, energy metabolites, pH and ions, skin mucus energy metabolites, as well as gills and kidney Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) activities. Several differences were described in these stress biomarkers due to the acclimation water. The most remarkable ones include increased mucus glucose only in RN-fish, and mucus lactate only in IG-fish after air exposure. Moreover, an inverse relationship between plasma cortisol and Na+ concentrations as well as a direct relationship between plasma ammonia and branchial NHE acti...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Ruiz-Jarabo I, Amanajás RD, Baldisserotto B, Mancera JM, Val AL Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Crowding stress during the period of sex determination causes masculinization in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis, a fish with temperature-dependent sex determination.
ssmann CA Abstract The pejerrey is an atherinopsid species from South America that presents a combination of genotypic and environmental (temperature-dependent) sex determination whereby low and high temperatures induce feminization and masculinization, respectively. Masculinization involves a heat-induced stress response leading to increased circulating cortisol and androgens. We tested whether crowding would elicit a similar response as high temperature and affect the sex ratios of pejerrey. Larvae with XX and XY genotypes were reared at 15, 62 and 250 larvae/L in 0.4, 1.6, and 6.4 L containers during a period...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: García-Cruz EL, Yamamoto Y, Hattori RS, de Vasconcelos LM, Yokota M, Strüssmann CA Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Ghrelin and food acquisition in wild and cultured Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).
Abstract To clarify the relationships between growth, endocrine status and habitat characteristics in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), plasma and stomach mRNA levels of ghrelin were examined in wild eels captured in the river and the bay, and in cultured eels during and after experimental fasting. Wild juvenile eels captured in freshwater habitats within the river showed significantly higher plasma and stomach mRNA levels of ghrelin than did fish obtained from brackish-water habitats within the bay. In cultured eels experimentally fasted for 4 weeks, plasma and stomach mRNA levels of ghrelin increased. After re...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 12, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Yada T, Abe M, Kaifu K, Yokouchi K, Fukuda N, Kodama S, Hakoyama H, Ogoshi M, Kaiya H, Sakamoto T, Moriyama S, Tsukamoto K Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Temperature and food availability alters the physiology and aerobic capacity of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).
Abstract Fish of the Amazon experience both daily and seasonal variation in temperature and food availability. In the present work, we investigated the influence of nutrient status changes resulting from feeding Colossoma macropomum five flooded forest fruits on aerobic and swimming performance. To assess the effects of diet, three groups of fish were provided different types of food. One group of was provided with commercial feed, another was given fruit feed, and the last group was not fed. The effects of temperature were tested by keeping half of each group of animals at either 26 °C or 33 °C for 30...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: da Costa Barroso D, Almeida-Val VMF, Val AL Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Seasonal and elevational variation in glucose and glycogen in two songbird species.
Abstract Birds naturally maintain high glucose concentrations in the blood and tissues, even when relying on fat to meet the metabolic demands of flight or thermogenesis. One possibility is that high glucose levels might be needed to deal with these metabolic demands. Thus, we hypothesized that birds chronically exposed to colder temperatures and higher elevations have higher circulating glucose and tissue free glucose and glycogen compared to conspecifics living at warmer temperatures and lower elevations. Adult House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and House Finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) were captured from Phoenix...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Sweazea KL, Tsosie K, Beckman EJ, Benham PM, Witt CC Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Thermal acclimation of rainbow trout myotomal muscle, can trout acclimate to a warming environment?
We examined how rainbow trout swimming performance and muscle function were shaped by the thermal environment. We hypothesized that trout would show slower muscle contractile properties and slower swimming performance with long-term exposure to warmer water. For fish held at either 10 °C or 20 °C, maximum steady swimming speed (Ucrit) was determined, and contractile properties of both fast-twitch (white) and slow-twitch (red) myotomal muscle were examined. In addition, immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR were used to assess changes in myosin content of the myotomal muscle in response to holding temperatur...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Coughlin DJ, Wilson LT, Kwon ES, Travitz LS Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Improved aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance after exercise training and detraining in Schizothorax wangchiachii: Implications for fisheries releases.
Abstract Swimming performance (aerobic and anaerobic) is often used to predict the ability of fish to adapt and survive. Fish raised in captivity are typically poor swimmers and have lower survival rates than wild conspecifics when released into the natural environment. We investigated the potential for exercise training to enhance the swimming performance of Schizothorax wangchiachii held in captivity. Juvenile fish (mean body mass 1.40 ± 0.13 g, mean body length 4.36 ± 0.24 cm) were trained under five different regimes [3 cm·s-1 control group (C), 10 cm·s-1 for 6 (L6) ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Lu Y, Wu H, Deng L, Li T, Yang K, Fu S, Song Z Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Sex and dose-dependent responses of urinary and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations following an ACTH challenge in eastern rock sengis (Elephantulus myurus).
Abstract Non-invasive methods for measuring glucocorticoids and their metabolites are frequently used in ecological, behavioural and physiological studies of mammals. Using faeces, urine and other matrices for such a measurement has considerable advantages in comparison to more traditional methods, but also requires thorough validation of the methods used. Eastern rock sengis (Elephantulus myurus) are fascinating African mammals and the non-invasive monitoring of the adrenocortical activity opens up new opportunities to study their biology. We were able to validate two assays for measuring urinary (uGCM) and faeca...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Medger K, Bennett NC, Prins A, Lutermann H, Ganswindt A Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Reversing sodium differentials between the hemolymph and hindgut speeds chill coma recovery but reduces survival in the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus.
Abstract Chill-susceptible insects enter the reversible state of chill coma at their critical thermal minimum (CTmin). During chill coma, movement of Na+ and water from the hemolymph to the gut lumen disrupt ion and water balance. Recovery from cold exposure requires re-establishment of this balance, and failure to do so results in chilling injury or death. We hypothesized that the passive leak of Na+ and consequently water during cold exposure is driven by the [Na+] differential between the gut and hemolymph. To determine the extent to which this [Na+] differential affects cold tolerance, we used artificial diets...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Lebenzon JE, Des Marteaux LE, Sinclair BJ Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Changes in heat stress tolerance in a freshwater amphipod following starvation: The role of oxygen availability, metabolic rate, heat shock proteins and energy reserves.
In conclusion, starvation can have opposite effects on heat tolerance, acting via pathways that are operating on different time scales. PMID: 32247008 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology.)
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - April 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Semsar-Kazerouni M, Boerrigter JGJ, Verberk WCEP Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Going to sleep with a full belly: Thermal substitution by specific dynamic action in shorebirds.
z-Guzmán JM, Masero JA Abstract Many bird species occupy habitats where environmental temperatures fall well below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ), so they must deal with high energy costs of thermoregulation to keep in heat balance. In such circumstances, specific dynamic action (SDA) - also referred to as heat increment of feeding - could be used to substitute for these high thermoregulatory costs. If birds ingest food before going to roost in cold environments, the SDA will be beneficial as an energy-conserving mechanism by thermal substitution. We investigated the magnitude and duration of SDA in a small...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - March 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: González-Medina E, Cabello-Vergel J, Playà-Montmany N, Villegas A, Parejo M, Abad-Gómez JM, Sánchez-Guzmán JM, Masero JA Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

The functional nasal anatomy of the pike, Esox lucius L.
Abstract Olfactory flow in fishes is a little-explored area of fundamental and applied importance. We investigated olfactory flow in the pike, Esox lucius, because it has an apparently simple and rigid nasal region. We characterised olfactory flow by dye visualisation and computational fluid dynamics, using models derived from X-ray micro-computed tomography scans of two preserved specimens. An external current induced a flow of water through the nasal chamber at physiologically relevant Reynolds numbers (200-300). We attribute this externally-induced flow to: the location of the incurrent nostril in a region of h...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - March 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Garwood RJ, Behnsen J, Ramsey AT, Haysom HK, Dalby LJ, Quilter SK, Maclaine JS, Wang Z, Cox JPL Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Short communication: Short-term fasting and refeeding induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue physiology in 7-day old Japanese quail.
Abstract Adipose tissue development is influenced by a variety of factors, including nutrition and genetic background. Among avian species, the most is known in chickens and it is unclear if other less-artificially-selected birds are similar during the first week post-hatch. The aim of this study was thus to determine effects of fasting and refeeding on adipose tissue physiology in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). On day 7 post-hatch, quail were randomly assigned to fed (control), 6 h of fasting (fasted), or 6 h of fasting followed by 1 h of refeeding (refed) groups. Blood samples were collected for plasm...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - March 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Xiao Y, Wang G, Shipp S, Cline MA, Gilbert ER Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Impact of temperature shift on gill physiology during smoltification of Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.).
This study gives further insights about the impact of temperature increase on the molecular processes underlying smoltification and possible responses to human-related water temperature increase. The data also suggest dual roles in the smoltification and desmoltification for GH and IGF1 and points to the implication of genes in the smoltification process, that have previously been unstudied (nbc) or with little data available (igf2). PMID: 32165323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology.)
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - March 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Bernard B, Leguen I, Mandiki SNM, Cornet V, Redivo B, Kestemont P Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Love thy neighbor: Social buffering following exposure to an acute thermal stressor in a gregarious fish, the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).
Abstract Social buffering is a phenomenon where the presence of conspecifics reduces an animal's stress response. Well known in mammals, social buffering was recently described in fishes exhibiting pronounced social hierarchies. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are a gregarious rather than hierarchical fish. Therefore, we tested their capacity for social buffering following exposure to an acute thermal stress. Isolated or grouped (three or six similarly sized conspecifics) age-0 lake sturgeon were exposed to a critical thermal maximum (CTmax) test. We measured the endocrine and cellular response to acute therm...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - March 2, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Yusishen ME, Yoon GR, Bugg W, Jeffries KM, Currie S, Anderson WG Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Effect of acute exposure to high ambient temperature on the thermal, metabolic and hygric physiology of a small desert bird.
Abstract The intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, are increasing as a consequence of global warming. Acute periods of extreme heat can be more problematic for wildlife than a chronic increase in mean temperature, to which animals can potentially acclimatise. Predicting effects of heat exposure requires a clear understanding of the capacity of individuals to respond to heat waves, so we examined the physiological response of a small desert bird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), after acute previous exposure to high ambient temperature, simulating heatwave-like conditions. The...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Cooper CE, Hurley LL, Griffith SC Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

The uneven weight distribution between predators and prey: Comparing gut fill between terrestrial herbivores and carnivores.
s M Abstract The general observation that secondary consumers ingest highly digestible food and have simple short guts and small abdominal cavities intuitively results in the assumption that mammalian carnivores carry less digesta in their gut compared to herbivores. Due to logistic constraints, this assumption has not been tested quantitatively so far. In this contribution, we estimated the dry matter gut contents (DMC) for 25 of the order Carnivora (including two strictly herbivorous ones, the giant and the red panda) using the physical 'Occupancy Principle', based on a literature data collection on dry matter i...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 22, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: De Cuyper A, Meloro C, Abraham AJ, Müller DWH, Codron D, Janssens GPJ, Clauss M Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Regulation of vitellogenin gene expression under the negative modulator, gonad-inhibiting hormone in Penaeus monodon.
In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) under specific GIH-knockdown condition was utilized to determine the expression of genes in the ovary that may act downstream of GIH to control vitellogenin synthesis in Penaeus monodon. The total of 102 and 82 positive clones of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in GIH- knockdown shrimp were identified from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. Determination of the expression profiles of these reproduction-related genes during ovarian development revealed that the expression of calreticulin (CALR) was significantly reduced in vitellogenic ovary ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Kluebsoongnoen J, Panyim S, Udomkit A Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Analysis of specific mRNA gene expression profiles as markers of egg and embryo quality for hybrid catfish aquaculture.
The objectives of this study were to examine relative transcripts linked to egg and embryo quality and determine expression between low-hatch and high-hatch egg batches through early development (0, 24, 48, and 96 h post-fertilization; HPF). RNA was extracted from eggs/embryos of nine females (n = 4 high-quality, n = 5 low-quality) and Real-Time PCR was used to quantify relative gene expression. The transcripts assessed in this study perform critical cellular functions, including tubulin β (tubb), cathepsin D (ctsd), cathepsin Z (ctsz), cathepsin B (ctsb), cyclin B (ccnb1), exportin-1 (xpo1), ring finger pro...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Myers JN, Dyce PW, Chatakondi NG, Gorman SA, Quiniou SMA, Su B, Peatman E, Dunham RA, Butts IAE Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Oxidative stress, metabolic and histopathological alterations in mussels exposed to remediated seawater by GO-PEI after contamination with mercury.
This study demonstrated that mussels exposed to the contaminant (Hg), the decontaminant (GO-PEI) and the combination of both (Hg + GO-PEI) presented an increment of histopathological, oxidative stress and metabolic alterations if compared to organisms under remediated seawater and control conditions The present findings highlight the possibility to remediate seawater with nanoparticles for environmental safety purposes. PMID: 32058044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology.)
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Coppola F, Bessa A, Henriques B, Russo T, Soares AMVM, Figueira E, Marques P, Polese G, Di Cosmo A, Pereira E, Freitas R Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Training protocols differently affect AMPK-PGC-1 α signaling pathway and redox state in trout muscle.
Training protocols differently affect AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathway and redox state in trout muscle. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2020 Feb 07;:110673 Authors: Pengam M, Moisan C, Simon B, Guernec A, Inizan M, Amérand A Abstract Beneficial effects of physical exercise training are in part related to enhancement of muscle mitochondrial performance. The effects of two different trainings were investigated on transcripts and proteins of the AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathway, the mitochondrial functioning (citrate synthase (CS), oxidative phosphorylation complexes, uncoupling p...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Pengam M, Moisan C, Simon B, Guernec A, Inizan M, Amérand A Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Induction of foxo3a protects turtle neurons against oxidative stress.
In this study, we utilized both the transfection of a plasmid carrying foxo3a and the pharmacological manipulation of foxo3a using the green tea extract Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to investigate the protective role of FOXO3a in the turtle brain. Our studies found that transcript levels of foxo3a were upregulated significantly during reoxygenation with greater increases during chemical oxidative stress. Induction of foxo3a by direct transfection significantly decreased cell death during chemical oxidative stress. Cells treated with EGCG also showed increased foxo3a expression and decreased cell death in the presence ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Reiterer M, Milton SL Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Fossorial giant Zambian mole-rats have blunted ventilatory responses to environmental hypoxia and hypercapnia.
Abstract Fossorial giant Zambian mole-rats are believed to live in a hypoxic and hypercapnic subterranean environment but their physiological responses to these challenges are entirely unknown. To investigate this, we exposed awake and freely-behaving animals to i) 6 h of normoxia, ii) acute graded normocapnic hypoxia (21, 18, 15, 12, 8, and 5% O2, 0% CO2, balance N2; 1 h each), or iii) acute graded normoxic hypercapnia (0, 2, 5, 7, 9, and 10% CO2, 21% O2, balance N2; 1 h each), followed by a 1 h normoxic normocapnic recovery period, while non-invasively measuring ventilation, metabolic rate, and body temp...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 4, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Devereaux MEM, Pamenter ME Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Microplastics and copper effects on the neotropical teleost Prochilodus lineatus: Is there any interaction?
The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of polyethylene microplastic and its association with copper (Cu) in genotoxic, biochemical, and physiological biomarkers of the neotropical teleost Prochilodus lineatus. Fish were exposed for 24 and 96 h to MP (20 μg L-1) and Cu (10 μg L-1) and MP + Cu. The results showed that MP and Cu, both isolated and in combination, promoted DNA damage in erythrocytes (96 h) and liver cells (24 and 96 h) indicating that MP and Cu are genotoxic. Fish exposed only to Cu (96 h) showed a decrease in lipid peroxidation in the liver despite of the decre...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Roda JFB, Lauer MM, Risso WE, Dos Reis Martinez CB Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

A dose of experimental hormesis: When mild stress protects and improves animal performance.
acute;nez G Abstract The adaptive response characterized by a biphasic curve is known as hormesis. In a hormesis framework, exposure to low doses leads to protective and beneficial responses while exposures to high doses are damaging and detrimental. Comparative physiologists have studied hormesis for over a century, but our understanding of hormesis is fragmented due to rifts in consensus and taxonomic-specific terminology. Hormesis has been and is currently known by multiple names; preconditioning, conditioning, pretreatment, cross tolerance, adaptive homeostasis, and rapid stress hardening (mostly low temperatu...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Berry R, López-Martínez G Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, lactate levels, hematocrit and osmolality in relation to capture stress in Atlantic sharpnose sharks, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae.
Abstract Incidental capture of sharks during commercial and recreational fishing is of major conservation concern because of the potential effects it can have on physiological stress responses and survival. Endocrine aspects of the stress response are, however, poorly understood in elasmobranchs because of difficulties in measuring the primary glucocorticoid (1α-hydroxycorticosterone). Here, we combined measures of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the highly conserved pituitary hormone responsible for stimulating the release of adrenal/interrenal glucocorticoids, with measures of plasma lactate, os...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Fuller L, Stell E, Leary C, Parsons G Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation on intermediary metabolite homeostasis of marine intertidal bivalves Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas.
This study indicates a potentially important role of intermediate metabolite homeostasis in the tolerance to prolonged hypoxia and H/R stress in marine organisms and opens avenue for further testing of this hypothesis in a broader comparative framework. PMID: 31931108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology.)
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Haider F, Falfushynska HI, Timm S, Sokolova IM Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Toxic impacts induced by Sodium lauryl sulfate in Mytilus galloprovincialis.
Abstract Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are continuously dispersed into the environment, as a result of human and veterinary use, reaching aquatic coastal systems and inhabiting organisms. However, information regarding to toxic effects of these compounds towards marine invertebrates is still scarce, especially in what regards to metabolic capacity and oxidative status alterations induced in bivalves after chronic exposure. In the present study, the toxic impacts of Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), an anionic surfactant widely used as an emulsifying cleaning agent in household and cosmetics, were e...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Freitas R, Silvestro S, Coppola F, Costa S, Meucci V, Battaglia F, Intorre L, Soares AMVM, Pretti C, Faggio C Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Opposite and synergistic physiological responses to water acidity and predator cues in spadefoot toad tadpoles.
C, Gomez-Mestre I Abstract Organisms are exposed to multiple environmental factors simultaneously to which they often respond behaviorally, morphologically and/or physiologically. Amphibian larvae are quite plastic and efficiently adjust their phenotype and physiology to the reigning local conditions. Here we tested whether the combination of predator presence and low water pH induces alterations in the morphology and physiology of spadefoot toad tadpoles. We raised Pelobates cultripes tadpoles in the laboratory in water at either pH 4 or 7, and in the presence or absence of caged dragonfly nymphs, and determine...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Florencio M, Burraco P, Rendón MÁ, Díaz-Paniagua C, Gomez-Mestre I Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Differential protein phosphorylation is responsible for hypoxia-induced regulation of the Akt/mTOR pathway in naked mole rats.
Abstract Naked mole rats (NMRs, Heterocephalus glaber) are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals known. They can reduce their metabolic rate (>85%) under severe hypoxia, remain moderately active and recover with no obvious signs of damage. Hence, NMRs are an excellent model for studying mammalian hypoxia tolerance. The current study characterized the involvement of posttranslational modifications in regulating the Akt/mTOR pathway that regulates protein synthesis, and the responses of key ribosomal proteins in order to assess tissue-specific responses to 4 h exposure to 7% O2 (compared to controls at 21% O2...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Al-Attar R, Childers CL, Pamenter ME, Nguyen VC, Storey KB Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Methane emissions of geese (Anser anser) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) fed pelleted lucerne.
Abstract In contrast to mammalian herbivores, birds are generally perceived to produce little methane (CH4) during digestion, and accounting for poultry in greenhouse gas inventories is considered unnecessary. We measured CH4 emissions in six domestic geese (Anser anser, 5.0 ± 0.9 kg) and six domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, 6.3 ± 0.6 kg) kept on a diet of lucerne pellets only, using open-circuit chamber respirometry. Measurements of oxygen consumption were similar to previously published values in these species. Absolute CH4 emissions per day were lower in geese (0.58 ± ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Clauss M, Frei S, Hatt JM, Kreuzer M Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

A comparison of low temperature biology of Pieris rapae from Ontario, Canada, and Yakutia, Far Eastern Russia.
ir BJ Abstract Low temperatures limit the distribution and abundance of ectotherms. However, many insects can survive low temperatures by employing one of two cold tolerance strategies: freeze avoidance or freeze tolerance. Very few species can employ both strategies, but those that do provide a rare opportunity to study the mechanisms that differentiate freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance. We showed that overwintering pupae of the cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae can be freeze tolerant or freeze avoidant. A population of P. rapae in northeastern Russia (Yakutsk) froze at c. -9.3 °C and were freeze-tol...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Li NG, Toxopeus J, Moos M, Sørensen JG, Sinclair BJ Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Variable impacts of L-arginine or L-NAME during early life on molecular and cellular markers of muscle growth mechanisms in rainbow trout.
Abstract Two experiments were conducted to test if manipulations of the Arginine-Nitric oxide pathway during the early life of rainbow trout would act on its early myogenic process. In experiment 1, trout embryos were immersed at 72° days post-fertilization (°dpf) or 104°dpf in water alone (control treatment, C) or containing 2 mM/L L-Arg (treatment A) or 1 mM/L of L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor (treatment N). We observed the beginning of expression of myf5 and fmhc genes at 72°dpf and 96°dpf, respectively. "A" treatment doubled the free Arg content of eggs but did not affect either th...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Alami-Durante H, Cluzeaud M, Bazin D, Vachot C, Kaushik S Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Underwater high frequency noise: Biological responses in sea urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758).
Abstract Marine life is extremely sensitive to the effects of environmental noise due to its reliance on underwater sounds for basic life functions, such as searching for food and mating. However, the effects on invertebrate species are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical responses of Arbacia lixula exposed to high-frequency noise. Protein concentration, enzyme activity (esterase, phosphatase and peroxidase) and cytotoxicity in coelomic fluid were compared in individuals exposed for three hours to consecutive linear sweeps of 100 to 200 kHz lasting 1 s, and control ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Vazzana M, Mauro M, Ceraulo M, Dioguardi M, Papale E, Mazzola S, Arizza V, Beltrame F, Inguglia L, Buscaino G Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Is the dendritic organ of the striped eel catfish Plotosus lineatus an ammonia excretory organ?
Abstract The dendritic organ (DO) is a salt secretory organ in the Plotosidae marine catfishes. The potential role of the DO in ammonia excretion was investigated by examining the effects of salinity [brackishwater (BW 3‰), seawater (SW 34‰) and hypersaline water (HSW 60‰)] acclimation and DO ligation on ammonia excretion and ammonia transporter expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunoblotting (IB) and qPCR. Ammonia flux rates (JAmm) were significantly lower in BW compared to SW and HSW. DO ligation resulted in a significantly lower JAmm in SW but not BW fish. IHC demonstrated apical a...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Kolbadinezhad SM, Coimbra J, Wilson JM Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Rho-family G-proteins are required for the recovery of traumatized hair bundle mechanoreceptors in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.
Abstract Immersing anemones in calcium-free seawater disorganizes hair bundle mechanoreceptors on tentacles of sea anemones while causing a loss of vibration sensitivity. Remarkably, anemone hair bundles recover after being returned to calcium-containing seawater. Reorganization of actin in stereocilia likely follows during the recovery of normal morphology of hair bundles after such immersion. Previous studies have reported that Rho G-proteins are located in the stereocilia of hair bundles in sea anemones where they participate in polymerizing actin in stereocilia upon activation of specific chemoreceptors. We he...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - December 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Menard-Harvey SS, Watson GM Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Editorial on physiology from the neotropics.
ni LH PMID: 31866538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology.)
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - December 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Bícego KC, Gargaglioni LH Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research

Focal adhesion kinase and osmotic responses in ionocytes of Fundulus heteroclitus, a euryhaline teleost fish.
Abstract Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channels are the regulated exit pathway in Cl- secretion by teleost salt secreting ionocytes of the gill and opercular epithelia of euryhaline teleosts. By confocal light immunocytochemistry using regular and phospho-antibodies directed against conserved sites, we found that killifish CFTR (kfCFTR) and the tyrosine kinase Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) phosphorylated at Y407 (FAKpY407) and FAKpY397 are colocalized at the apical membrane and in subjacent membrane vesicles of ionocytes. Hypotonic shock and the α-2 adrenergic agonist clonidi...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - December 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Fougere B, Barnes KR, Francis ME, Claus LN, Cozzi RRF, Marshall WS Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research