Action Observation and Effector Independency

The finding of reasonably consistent spatial and temporal productions of actions across different body parts has been used to argue in favor of the existence of a high-order representation of motor programs. In these terms, a generalized motor program consists of an abstract memory structure apt to specify a class of non-specific instructions used to guide a broad range of movements (e.g., “grasp,” “bite”). Although a number of studies, using a variety of tasks, have assessed the issue of effector independence in terms of action execution, little is known regarding the issue of effector independence within an action observation context. Here corticospinal excitability (CSE) of the right hand’s first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles was assessed by means of single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) during observation of a grasping action performed by the hand, the foot, the mouth, the elbow, or the knee. The results indicate that observing a grasping action performed with different body parts activates the effector typically adopted to execute that action, i.e., the hand. We contend that, as far as grasping is concerned, motor activations by action observation are evident in the muscles typically used to perform the observed action, even when the action is executed with another effector. Nevertheless, some exceptions call for a deeper analysis of motor coding.
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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PMID: 31959658 [PubMed - in process]
Source: cmaj - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research
In this study, the recombinant nonstructural 2B protein of EV-A71 was successfully produced in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and evaluated for its effects on induction of the cell apoptosis and the pathway involved. The EV-A71 2B-transfected SH-SY5Y cells showed significantly higher difference in the cell growth inhibition than the mock and the irrelevant protein controls. The transfected SH-SY5Y cells underwent apoptosis and showed the significant upregulation of caspase-9 (CASP9) and caspase-12 (CASP12) genes at 3- and 24-h post-transfection, respectively. Interestingly, the level of cytosolic Ca2+ was significantly ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease. EV-A71 infection is sometimes associated with severe neurological diseases such as acute encephalitis, acute flacc...
Source: Journal of Biomedical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns of host cells in response to EV71 and CVA16 infections using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Of over 480,000 loci studied, significant differential methylation was observed between EV71 infected-cells and control cells at 3957 CpG sites, out of which 2478 were hypermethylated and 1479 were hypomethylated, whereas CVA16 infection resulted in methylation level changes of 5194 CpG sites with 4288 hypermethylated and 906 hypomethylated. These differential methylated loci displayed a wide range of genomic distributions in chromosomes, inside...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The non-linear relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of HFMD on different lag days could be used in the early targeted warning system of infectious diseases, reducing the possible outbreaks and burdens of HFMD among sensitive populations.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
L. A. Nguyet et al.
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two main etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Simple and rapid detection of EV71 and CA16 is critical in resource-limited setti...
Source: Virology Journal - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
hang Zhu Yao Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the two most important pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, the neuropathogenesis of EV71 and CVA16 has not been elucidated. In our previous study, we established gerbils as a useful model for both EV71 and CVA16 infection. In this work, we used RNA-seq technology to analyze the global gene expression of the brainstem of EV71- and CVA16-infected gerbils. We found that 3434 genes were upregulated while 916 genes were downregulated in EV71-infected gerbils. In CVA16-infected gerbils, 1039 genes were upregulated, and 299 gen...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the rate of EV-A71 has fallen among severe HFMD cases in Guangxi and that the risk for EV-A71 infection in 6-36-month-old children has been reduced by use of the vaccine. Inactivated vaccines performed well in severe HFMD cases in a real-world setting. PMID: 31892446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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