Experimental study of micro-habitat selection by ixodid ticks feeding on avian hosts.

This study provides evidence that the commonly observed pattern of ticks feeding on songbirds' heads is the result of an adaptive behavioural strategy. Experimental data on a novel host species, the domestic canary, and a consistent number of published field observations, strongly support this hypothesis. We address some proximate and ultimate causes that may explain parasite preference for this body part in songbirds. The link found between parasite micro-habitat preference and host anti-parasite behaviour provides further insight into the mechanisms driving ectoparasite aggregation, which is important for the population dynamics of hosts, ectoparasites and the micro-pathogens for which they are vectors. PMID: 31734336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

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Avian coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria, which is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite that invades through the intestinal tract to cause devastating disease. Upon invasion through the intestinal epithelial cells, a strong inflammatory response is induced that results in complete villous destruction, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and in severe cases, death. Since the life cycle of Eimeria parasites is complex and comprises several intra- and extracellular developmental stages, the host immune responses are diverse and complex. Interferon-γ-mediated T helper (Th)1 response was originally considered to be the predominant immu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Avian malaria parasites are a highly diverse group that commonly infect birds and have deleterious effects on their hosts. Some parasite lineages are geographically widespread and infect many host species in m...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
This study highlights the remarkable genetic diversity in Blastocystis sp. isolates from zoo animals and provides the first molecular evidence from spotted deer, gayal and grey langur. Due to circulation of large percentage of potentially zoonotic subtypes in the wild animals, there is a higher risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. in the zoo keepers and visitors.Graphical abstract
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
We examined avian Haemosporidia cytochrome b gene among terrestrial birds on Gorgona Island National Park, Colombia. Three Haemoproteus haplotype groups found on Gorgona Island have a higher genetic similarity to Haemoproteus found in the eastern tropical Pacific than those documented in Africa, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Two of the haplotype groups on the island are generalists in terms of infecting multiple hosts and their wide geographical distribution within the eastern tropical Pacific region, a third Haemoproteus haplogroup appears endemic to Gorgona Island. The overall prevalence of haemosporidian parasites is 57,9% ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and EvolutionAuthor(s): Andrew Peters, Shubhagata Das, Shane R. RaidalAbstractTrichomonas is a significant protist genus, and includes T. vaginalis, the most prevalent sexually transmitted non-viral infection of humans, and T. gallinae of rock doves (Columba livia), one of the earliest known avian pathogens. New Trichomonas genotypes, including T. vaginalis-like isolates, have been discovered in American columbid hosts, suggesting geographically widespread cryptic diversity of Trichomonas in pigeons and doves. We sampled 319 birds from 22 col...
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease of birds caused by protists of the genera Plasmodium, most notably Plasmodium relictum. This disease has been identified as a primary cause of the drastic decline and extinctions of birds, in particular Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae), where rates of mortality may exceed 90%. We formulate an epizootiological model of the transmission dynamics of avian malaria between populations of bird hosts and mosquito vectors using a system of compartmental ordinary differential equations. We derive the basic reproduction number as well as criteria for the exis...
Source: Mathematical Biosciences - Category: Statistics Authors: Tags: Math Biosci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Kailey Perez, Nathan Mullen, Jessica A. Canter, David H. Ley, Meghan MayAbstractThe avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a known pathogen of poultry, and newly emerged pathogen of house finches wherein it is associated with lethal conjunctivitis. Factors present in MG that are known to mediate virulence include cytadherence, sialidase activity, peroxide production, and biofilm formation. We have quantitatively assessed these factors for MG isolates from house finches from a temporal and geographic distribution across the c...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study aimed to develop an experimental methodology to access the complete life cycle of Haemoproteus columbae (cytb lineage HAECOL1), which parasitizes the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and louse fly (Pseudolynchia canariensis). A colony of louse flies, which are the natural vectors of this parasite, was established. Thirty newly emerged insects were exposed to H. columbae infection and used to infect naïve Rock Pigeons. The peak of parasitaemia (acute stage) was seen between 27 to 32 days p.i. when up to 70.8% of red blood cells were infected. The crisis occurred approximately 1 week after the peak, and the long-l...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
In this study, a molecular approach based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was used to detect trypanosomes in black flies from Thailand. A total of 470 wild-caught adult black flies representing nine morphological species were examined. Ten (2%) specimens of two ornithophilic black fly species, Simulium asakoae complex (n = 4) and S. chumpornense (n = 6), were positive for trypanosomes. The SSU rRNA sequences revealed that all trypanosome DNA found in black flies from Thailand is closely related to Trypanosoma avium with>99% sequence similarity. This is also supported by a phylogenetic analyses...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Abstract At the core of recognition systems research are questions regarding how and when fitness-relevant decisions made. Studying egg-rejection behavior by hosts to reduce the costs of avian brood parasitism has become a productive model to assess cognitive algorithms underlying fitness-relevant decisions. Most of these studies focus on how cues and contexts affect hosts' behavioral responses to foreign eggs; however, the timing of when the cues are perceived for egg-rejection decisions is less understood. Here, we focused the responses of American robins Turdus migratorius to model eggs painted with a thermochr...
Source: Animal Cognition - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
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