Sleep problems and recall memory in children with Down syndrome and typically developing controls
Conclusions and ImplicationsAlthough group differences were not found when considering parent-reported sleep problems, more frequent sleep problems were positively associated with increased forgetting by children with DS relative to those who were TD. Although future experimental work is needed to determine causality, these results suggest that improved sleep in children with DS might reduce forgetting, ultimately improving long-term recall memory.
CASE: Andrew is a 17-year-old male with trisomy 21, commonly known as Down syndrome, and accompanying severe intellectual disability who presents to your primary care office with his father for the first time to establish care and assistance with transition. Andrew has a history of a complete atrioventricular canal that was repaired as an infant and poorly controlled infantile spasms. Currently, he struggles with constipation, esophageal strictures, medullary nephrocalcinosis, urinary retention, sleep dysregulation, G-tube dependency, and hip dysplasia. Andrew walked at 11 to 12 years of age. Currently, he ambulates on ...
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, EarlyView.
ConclusionsObesity and sleep problem are potentially detrimental to walking performance (i.e., fewer walking steps) in individuals with DS. Thus, individuals with DS may adopt a slow walk speed due to the increased balance deficits and physical fatigue that result from obesity and sleep fragmentation, respectively. Exercise interventions, which have the potential to reduce obesity and OSA, are recommended to improve the accomplishment of PWC in individuals with DS.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research,Volume 62, Issue 4, Page 281-291, April 2018.
ConclusionThe study findings suggest that sleep problems have complex relationships to both parent‐reported and teacher‐reported daytime behaviour concerns in children with Down syndrome. These findings have implications for understanding the factors impacting behavioural concerns and their treatment in school‐age children with Down syndrome.
Abstract Certain common medical conditions are associated with a higher risk of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A lower threshold for screening is therefore indicated for such patient cohorts. In this article, we briefly discuss the high prevalence of OSA in children born prematurely, and in those with Down syndrome, craniofacial disorders, and neuromuscular disorders. Primary care providers should have an increased index of suspicion for OSA in these children, considering the neurocognitive disability that occurs in these high-risk groups when OSA is left untreated. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(9):e336-e339.]. ...
ConclusionsThe findings in the TD group support our hypotheses. We recommend that sleep problems are screened for and treated as even mild SDB may prompt poorer cognition and behaviour. For children with DS, we expect that multiple factors in this complex syndrome mask or mediate the association between sleep and cognitive development and tighter controls are necessary to uncover effects of sleep. We propose longitudinal studies as a necessary tool to assess the precise impact of sleep on cognitive development in accounting for individual differences in DS.
ConclusionsOur study shows that there is a close relationship between unusual sleep postures and SDB‐RSs. We recommend that all people with DS with unusual sleep postures should be checked for the presence of SDB.
ConclusionThe study findings suggest that, among children with DS, the CSHQ and its subscales performed in a psychometrically sound and theoretically appropriate manner in relation to other measures of sleep, medical history of sleep problems, and daily reports of sleep and associated behaviours. The SDSC performed moderately well. When evaluating behavioural sleep disturbances among children with DS, the CSHQ is recommended based on its stronger psychometric properties.
Conclusions and implications Population-based research is needed to identify risk factors and support multi-factorial strategies for reducing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with DS.