Molecular Identification of a Moricin Family Antimicrobial Peptide (Px-Mor) From Plutella xylostella With Activities Against the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Aureobasidium pullulans

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent the largest group of endogenous compounds and serves as a novel alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of pathogenic microorganisms. Moricin is an important α-helical AMP plays a crucial role in insect humoral defense reactions. The present study was designed to identify and characterize novel AMP moricin (Px-Mor) from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and tested its activity against bacterial and fungal infection including the opportunistic human pathogen Aureobasidium pullulans. Molecular cloning of Px-Mor using rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed a 482 bp full length cDNA with 198 bp coding region. The deduced protein sequence contained 65 amino acids, and the mature peptides contained 42 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 4.393 kDa. Expression analysis revealed that Px-Mor was expressed throughout the life cycle of P. xylostella with the highest level detectable in the fourth instar and prepupa stage. Tissue specific distribution showed that Px-Mor was highly expressed in fat body and hemocyte. In vitro, antimicrobial assays indicated that Px-Mor exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum against Gram positive bacteria (GPB), Gram negative bacteria (GNB) and fungi. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Px-Mor can cause obvious morphological alterations in A. pullulans, which demonstrated its powerful effect on the mycelia growth inhi...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Paediatric invasive fungal infections have significantly increased over the past few decades, in particular among the immunocompromised population. Candida and Aspergillus spp. are still the most commonly isolated organisms. Image-based assessment of fungal infections can indeed be challenging especially in oncological patients where the differential diagnosis relative to other infections and neoplastic lesions cannot be often obvious. Therefore, the knowledge of the main radiological features associated with fungal infections is crucial to achieve an early correct diagnosis and address the most appropriate therapeutic app...
Source: In Vivo - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
Abstract Thoracic injury is common on the battlefield and in terrorist attacks, occurring in 10-70% of patients depending on the type of weapons used. Typical injuries seen include bullet, blast and fragment injuries to the thorax which are often associated with injuries to other parts of the body. Initial management pre-hospital and in the emergency department is carried out according to the principles of Tactical Combat Casualty Care or other standard trauma management systems. Immediately life threatening problems including catastrophic hemorrhage are dealt with rapidly and early consideration given to computed...
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Chest Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe role of immunosuppression and immune tolerance mechanisms in the response to invasive fungal infection treatment is an important factor in the SOT population and should not be underestimated. The choice of the antifungal should consider not only their toxicity but also their effects on the immune system, two features that are intertwined.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Humoral defenses are the major components of insect innate immune system that include the production of several soluble effector molecules from fat body and hemocytes, and released in to the hemolymph upon microbial infection. Hemolymph was collected from the fungal immunized fifth instar larvae of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, extracted with a mixture of solvent (methanol/glacial acetic acid/water) and fractionated through RP-HPLC. Several fractions were collected, lyophilized and their antifungal activity was tested against Candida albicans. Only the fraction showing strong antifungal activity was ...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
la Renukuntla Global incidence of superficial fungal infections caused by dermatophytes is high and affects around 40 million people. It is the fourth most common cause of infection. Clotrimazole, a broad spectrum imidazole antifungal agent is widely used to treat fungal infections. Conventional topical formulations of clotrimazole are intended to treat infections by effective penetration of drugs into the stratum corneum. However, drawbacks such as poor dermal bioavailability, poor penetration, and variable drug levels limit the efficiency. The present study aims to load clotrimazole into ufosomes and evaluate its top...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis case highlights the need for careful consideration of patient medication history while evaluating the possible differential diagnoses that may contribute to a patient ’s presentation.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Human skin fungal infections (SFIs) affect 25% of the world’s population. Most of these 21 infections are superficial. The main limitation of current animal models of human superficial 22 SFIs is that clinical presentation is different between the different species and animal models 23 do not accurately reflect the human skin environment. An ex-vivo human skin model was 24 therefore developed and standardised to accurately model SFIs. In this manuscript, we report 25 our protocol for setting up ex-vivo human skin infections and report results from a primary 26 superficial skin infection with Trichophyton rubrum, an a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We report a middle aged patient who was admitted to hospital with suspected metastatic colonic carcinoma. He presented with constipation, anorexia and weight loss. Computed tomography scan disclosed a mass involving the mid and distal sigmoid colon and hypodense lesion in hepatic segment IV. Excised tissue during a Hartmann’s surgery showed an extensive eosinophil-rich transmural inflammation with mural necrotizing granulomas and several broad septated fungal hyphae. He was commenced on voriconazole following surgery. The diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis was established by histopathological examination. Since the diag...
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Aims: Oral candidiasis is a major oral manifestation of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and a number of cofactors are associated with the pathogenesis of this infection. Here, we describe the prevalence of oral Candida in a Sri Lankan cohort of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors that predispose them to this common fungal infection. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 250 diabetics with type 2 diabetes and 81 nondiabetic controls. Clinical and demographic data were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire, and patient records. Oral rinse samples were collected to determin...
Source: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Acta Odontol Scand Source Type: research
In conclusion, potential biological applications of PF-SeNPs were explored by antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and biocompatibility assays. Materials and Methods Chemicals and Reagents Sodium selenite (98%), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), Tween 80, methanol, acetate buffer, tetracycline, nystatin, rhodamine 123, caspase-3 kit, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle media (DMEM), Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4 (DPBS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) w...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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