Role of neuromedin B and its receptor in the innate immune responses against influenza A virus infection in vitro and in vivo

AbstractThe peptide neuromedin B (NMB) and its receptor (NMBR) represent a system (NMB/NMBR) of neuromodulation. Here, it was demonstrated that the expression of NMBR in cells or murine lung tissues was clearly upregulated in response to H1N1/PR8 influenza A virus infection. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo activities of NMB/NMBR during PR8 infection were investigated. It was observed that A549 cells lacking endogenous NMBR were more susceptible to virus infection than control cells, as evidenced by the increased virus production in the cells. Interestingly, a significant decrease in IFN- α and increased IL-6 expression were observed in these cells. The role of this system in innate immunity against PR8 infection was probed by treating mice with NMB. The NMB-treated mice were less susceptible to virus challenge, as evidenced by increased survival, increased body weight, and decrease d viral NP expression compared with the control animals. Additionally, the results showed that exogenous NMB not only enhanced IFN-α expression but also appeared to inhibit the expression of NP and IL-6 in PR8-infected cells and animals. As expected, opposing effects were observed in the NMBR antag onist-treated cells and mice, which further confirmed the effects of NMB. Together, these data suggest that NMB/NMBR may be an important component of the host defence against influenza A virus infection. Thus, these proteins may serve as promising candidates for the development of novel...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Julien Guihaire, Francois Haddad, Mita Hoppenfeld, Myriam Amsallem, Jeffrey W. Christle, Clark Owyang, Khizer Shaikh, Joe L. HsuAbstractMechanical circulatory support (MCS) has made rapid progress over the last three decades. This was driven by the need to develop acute and chronic circulatory support as well as by the limited organ availability for heart transplantation. The growth of MCS was also driven by the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after the worldwide H1N1 influenza outbreak of 2009. The majority...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Influenza A virus infection is a global health threat to livestock and humans, causing substantial mortality and morbidity. As both pigs and humans are readily infected with influenza viruses of similar subtype, the pig is a robust and appropriate model for investigating swine and human disease. We evaluated the efficacy of the human cold-adapted 2017–2018 quadrivalent seasonal LAIV in pigs against H1N1pdm09 challenge. LAIV immunized animals showed significantly reduced viral load in nasal swabs. There was limited replication of the H1N1 component of the vaccine in the nose, a limited response to H1N1 in the lung lym...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
yn Kobasa Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are important animal and human emerging and re-emerging pathogens that are responsible for yearly seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics. IAVs cause a wide range of clinical illnesses, from relatively mild infections by seasonal strains, to acute respiratory distress during infections with highly pathogenic avian IAVs (HPAI). For this study, we infected A549 human lung cells with lab prototype A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8), a seasonal H1N1 (RV733), the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdm09), or with two avian strains, an H5N1 HPAI strain or an H7N9 strain that has low pathogenicity in birds but hig...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
PMID: 31685927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Immunology - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Immunol Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to develop a first-generation vaccine which combines the safety and efficacy advantages of inactivated and attenuated vaccines respectively. The approach targeted fragmentation of viral nucleic acids while preserving structure. Hence, cultures of influenza A/CA/04/09 H1N1 were exposed to 44 °C for 10 min. to reversibly denature the capsid, followed by RNase treatment to digest the genomic RNA and then refolded at lower temperatures. As targeted, treated virions retained an intact structure and were not detected in the first passage in infected cells. To improve intra-nasal ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract 2018/19 was the first season of introduction of a newly licensed adjuvanted influenza vaccine (aTIV) for adults aged 65 years and over and the sixth season in the roll-out of a childhood influenza vaccination programme with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The season saw mainly A(H1N1)pdm09 and latterly A(H3N2) circulation. End-of-season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) estimates against laboratory confirmed influenza infection in primary care were calculated using the test negative case control method adjusting for key confounders. End-of-season aVE was 44.3% (95% CI: 26.8, ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Influenza is a major public health concern, and the high mortality rate is largely attributed to secondary bacterial infections. There are several mechanisms through which the virus increases host susceptibility to bacterial colonization, but the micro-environment in lower respiratory tract (LRT) of host, infected with influenza virus, is unclear. To this end, we analyzed the LRT microbiome, transcriptome of lung and metabolome of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in mice inoculated intra-nasally with H1N1 to simulate human influenza, and we observed significant changes in the composition of microbial community and speci...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
n Liu Jing Li Influenza A virus (IAV) has developed strategies to utilize host metabolites which, after identification and isolation, can be used to discover the value of immunometabolism. During this study, to mimic the metabolic processes of influenza virus infection in human cells, we infect A549 cells with H1N1 (WSN) influenza virus and explore the metabolites with altered levels during the first cycle of influenza virus infection using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC–Q-TOF MS) technology. We annotate the metabolites using MetaboAnal...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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