Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 923: Novel Mutations Evading Avian Immunity around the Receptor Binding Site of the Clade 2.3.2.1c Hemagglutinin Gene Reduce Viral Thermostability and Mammalian Pathogenicity

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 923: Novel Mutations Evading Avian Immunity around the Receptor Binding Site of the Clade 2.3.2.1c Hemagglutinin Gene Reduce Viral Thermostability and Mammalian Pathogenicity Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11100923 Authors: An Lee Hong Song Kim Kwon Abstract: Since 2007, highly pathogenic clade 2.3.2 H5N1 avian influenza A (A(H5N1)) viruses have evolved to clade 2.3.2.1a, b, and c; currently only 2.3.2.1c A(H5N1) viruses circulate in wild birds and poultry. During antigenic evolution, clade 2.3.2.1a and c A(H5N1) viruses acquired both S144N and V223I mutations around the receptor binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), with S144N generating an N-glycosylation sequon. We introduced single or combined reverse mutations, N144S and/or I223V, into the HA gene of the clade 2.3.2.1c A(H5N1) virus and generated PR8-derived, 2 + 6 recombinant A(H5N1) viruses. When we compared replication efficiency in embryonated chicken eggs, mammalian cells, and mice, the recombinant virus containing both N144S and I223V mutations showed increased replication efficiency in avian and mammalian hosts and pathogenicity in mice. The N144S mutation significantly decreased avian receptor affinity and egg white inhibition, but not all mutations increased mammalian receptor affinity. Interestingly, the combined reverse mutations dramatically increased the thermostability of HA. Therefore, the adaptive mutations possibly acquired to evade avian immunity may decrease viral t...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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The protective roles of endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors are well elucidated, but the pathogenic host factors during viral infections remain unclear. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-coupled C-type lectins (CLECs) CLEC2 and CLEC5A are highly expressed on platelets and myeloid cells, respectively. CLEC2 has been shown to recognize snake venom aggretin and the endogenous ligand podoplanin and acts as a critical regulator in the development and immunothrombosis. Although CLEC2 has been reported to interact with type I immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), its role in viral infections is still uncl...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In 2014 and 2015, the number of human cases of H5N1 avian influenza virus infections had increased dramatically in Egypt. This increase might be related to increase in the transmission potential of the virus among humans. To clarify the cause of the increase in H5N1 human cases, we investigate the transmissibility of H5N1 viruses among humans via estimating the basic reproduction number R0 using nucleotide sequences and sampling dates of viruses. To this end, full-length hemagglutinin gene sequences of human and avian H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from 2006 to 2016 in Egypt were obtained from the NCBI influenza virus res...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Different subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause different pathogenic phenotypes after infecting human bodies. Analysis of the interactions between viral proteins and the host proteins may provide insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of the virus. In this paper, we found that the same proteins (nucleoprotein and neuraminidase) of H1N1 and H5N1 have different impacts on the NF-κB activation. By further examining the virus-host protein-protein interactions, we found that both NP and NA proteins of the H1N1 and H5N1 viruses target different host proteins. These results indicate that different ...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Contributors : Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen ; Laura Martin-Sancho ; Anshu P Gounder ; Sumit K ChandaSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensInfluenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes yearly global epidemics, and sporadic pandemics due to human adaptation of pathogenic strains. Efficient replication of IAV in different species is, in part, dictated by its ability to exploit the genetic environment of the host cell. To investigate IAV tropism in human cells, we evaluated the replication of IAV strains in a diverse subset of epithelial cell lines. HeLa cells ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
This study demonstrates the usefulness of the HPAI H5N1 HA2 E29 epitope as a DIVA antigen in HPAI H5N1 vaccinated and infected chickens.Research Highlight E29 (HA2 position 488-516) epitope is antigenic in chickenAntibodies to E29 are elicited following live H5N1 virus infection in chickenE29 epitope is a potential DIVA antigen for use in ELISA. PMID: 31738584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We report on an assay to measure stem-specific ADCC activity using SS np probes. Our results indicate high prevalence of HA-stem antibodies with cross-reactive ADCC activity. Such assay could be utilized in the assessment of next generation influenza vaccines. PMID: 31735504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
ss TM Abstract Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses continue to spread around the globe and reassort with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses often resulting in morbidity and mortality to not only waterfowl, but also poultry. Our group previously developed two hemagglutinin (HA) based vaccines using a methodology termed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA). Each of these HA antigens, Human COBRA 2 (Hu-CO) and Human-Avian COBRA 2 (Hu-Av CO) elicit antibodies with hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) activity against viruses from various clades, but not always the same viruses. Here, we hav...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
ing Liao Peirong Jiao H5Nx viruses have continuously emerged in the world, causing poultry industry losses and posing a potential public health risk. Here, we studied the phylogeny, pathogenicity, transmission, and immune response of four H5N6 avian influenza viruses in chickens and mice, which were isolated from waterfowl between 2013 and 2014. Their HA genes belong to Clade 2.3.4.4, circulated in China since 2008. Their NA genes fall into N6-like/Eurasian sublineage. Their internal genes originated from different H5N1 viruses. The results suggested that the four H5N6 viruses were reassortants of the H5N1 and H6N6 v...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses have raised global concerns of a possible human pandemic, spurring efforts towards H5N1 influenza vaccine development and improvements in vaccine administration methods. We previously showed that a prime-boost vaccination strategy induces robust and broadly cross-reactive antibody responses against the hemagglutinin globular head domain. Here, we specifically measure antibodies against the conserved hemagglutinin stem region in serum samples obtained from the prior study to determine whether stalk-reactive antibodies ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
yn Kobasa Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are important animal and human emerging and re-emerging pathogens that are responsible for yearly seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics. IAVs cause a wide range of clinical illnesses, from relatively mild infections by seasonal strains, to acute respiratory distress during infections with highly pathogenic avian IAVs (HPAI). For this study, we infected A549 human lung cells with lab prototype A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8), a seasonal H1N1 (RV733), the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdm09), or with two avian strains, an H5N1 HPAI strain or an H7N9 strain that has low pathogenicity in birds but hig...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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