Serological investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

Serological investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Avian Pathol. 2013 Mar 1; Authors: Abolnik C, Fehrsen J, Olivier A, van Wyngaardt W, Fosgate G, Ellis C Abstract An ostrich farm of 929 birds that tested polymerase chain reaction-positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 in a single sample was designated for culling, despite no evidence of sero-conversion as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. A month later and immediately prior to culling, all birds were bled and tested with an IDEXX avian influenza virus (AIV) nucleoprotein (NP)-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a high sero-prevalence was detected. To address the question of whether the NP-specific antibodies detected indicated exposure to H5 or non-H5 subtypes (H6N2 and H1N2 strains were also circulating regionally at the time), we developed two H5-specific ELISAs, both based on a recombinant H5 HA1 antigen. The H5 indirect ELISA used a horseradish peroxidase ostrich IgY conjugate that we produced in chicken eggs. The single-chain variable fragment (scFv) competitive ELISA (H5 scFv cELISA) used a scFv derived from an H5-immune chicken scFv library. By comparing IDEXX AIV ELISA results with those of the two H5-specific ELISAs and HI tests, we determined that up to 89% of the flock had been exposed to H5N2 AIV. We also detected evidence of suspected vaccination, since 17% of sera contained antibodies against th...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract The H8 subtype viruses are rarely isolated from wild ducks. Shanghai is one of the important wintering or stopover sites on the East Asia-Australia Migration Flyway. An influenza virus, subtype H8N4, was firstly isolated from a common teal (Anas crecca) in Shanghai during 2017-2018 in this study. To clarify the genetic characteristics of the H8N4 virus, the whole genome sequences were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed that they shared highest nucleotide identity (99.19%-99.64%) with the Japan duck-origin H8N4 virus collected in 2016 (A/duck/Aichi/231003/20...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 2019. This five-page report is based on data on zoonotic influenza for 2017 retrieved from Epidemic Intelligence on May 18, 2018. No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the European Union/European Economic Area. Sporadic cases were reported from Africa and Asia. Influenza viruses A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Switzerland and the United States. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 2019. This five-page report is based on data on zoonotic influenza for 2017 retrieved from Epidemic Intelligence on May 18, 2018. No human cases of avian influenza were reported in the European Union/European Economic Area. Sporadic cases were reported from Africa and Asia. Influenza viruses A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused human cases in Switzerland and the United States. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Takeshi Noshi, Mitsutaka Kitano, Keiichi Taniguchi, Atsuko Yamamoto, Shinya Omoto, Keiko Baba, Takashi Hashimoto, Kayo Ishida, Yukihiro Kushima, Kazunari Hattori, Makoto Kawai, Ryu Yoshida, Masanori Kobayashi, Tomokazu Yoshinaga, Akihiko Sato, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Takao Shishido, Akira NaitoAbstractCap-dependent endonuclease (CEN) resides in the PA subunit of the influenza virus and mediates the critical “cap-snatching” step of viral RNA transcription, which is considered to be a promising anti-...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Cap-dependent endonuclease (CEN) resides in the PA subunit of the influenza virus and mediates the critical "cap-snatching" step of viral RNA transcription, which is considered to be a promising anti-influenza target. Here, we describe in vitro characterization of a novel CEN inhibitor, baloxavir acid (BXA), the active form of baloxavir marboxil (BXM). BXA inhibits viral RNA transcription via selective inhibition of CEN activity in enzymatic assays, and inhibits viral replication in infected cells without cytotoxicity in cytopathic effect assays. The antiviral activity of BXA is also confirmed i...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Isolation of a Reassortant H1N2 Swine Flu Strain of Type "Swine-Human-Avian" and Its Genetic Variability Analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:1096079 Authors: Wang LB, Chen QY, Wu XM, Che YL, Wang CY, Chen RJ, Zhou LJ Abstract We isolated an influenza strain named A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2) from a pig suspected to be infected with swine flu. The results of electron microscopy, hemagglutination (HA) assay, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, and whole genome sequencing analysis suggest that it was a reassortant virus of swine (H1N1 subtype), human (H3N2 subtype), and avian influenza vir...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 157Author(s): Sébastien Grech-Angelini, Séverine Hervé, Nicolas Rose, Nicolas Barbier, François Casabianca, Oscar Maestrini, Alessandra Falchi, Gaëlle SimonAbstractCorsica is a mountainous French island in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. It is a rural area, where pig farming is a major economic activity. Although no acute respiratory outbreaks due to swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) have ever been reported in this free-ranging pig breeding system, influenza A viruses (IAVs) could be circulating within th...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Summary Three subtypes—H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2—of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs‐S) are currently endemic in swine worldwide, but there is considerable genotypic diversity among each subtype and limited geographical distribution. Through IAVs‐S monitoring in Vietnam, two H1N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from healthy pigs in Ba Ria‐Vung Tau Province, Southern Vietnam, on 2 December 2016. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses revealed that their HA and NA genes were derived from those of European avian‐like H1N2 IAVs‐S that contained avian‐origin H1 and human‐like N2 genes, and were particularly clo...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
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